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Programmable Keyboards

News Windows Keyboard and Mouse Utilities Recommended Links Lua Basics of Preventing RSI for programmers Mouse elbow
Expect AutoHotkey ArsClip Clipboard managers Windows Macrorecoders  
Logitech G910 Orion Spark Logitech G13 Programmable Keypad with LCD Display


Logitech G510s Gaming Keyboard


Logitech G110


Microsoft Natural Ergonomic Keyboard 4000 Microsoft IntelliType
Microsoft Windows shortcuts Keyboard keys remapping Logitech Wireless Performance Mouse MX Sidewinder Pro Microsoft IntelliPoint High End Programmable Multi-button Mouse
OFM Orthodox Editors VIM -- VI-style Editor with folding capabilities Eastern Orthodox Editors (XEDIT/KEDIT/THE, etc) Less is More:rich functionality behind Spartan interface of OFM   Dell SK8135 Keyboard
Ctags code browsing framework Foot pedals Editor-related Humor Sysadmin Horror Stories Humor Etc


Computer keyboards are not unlike mattresses or cars. You can't know how good or bad yours is until you try a better one.  But on the first try any other keyboard looks deficient because it is not like the current. Power of habit here is a very strong force and it takes from a couple of days to a week to appreciate the new keyboard. That means that when you try one in the store it's not necessary an objective test.

Relationship between a user and their main keyboard is unique and forming slowly. Many factors influence it and there can be no single keyboard that is ideal for everyone. That also means that no matter how many reviews you read, ultimately, the only way to find out if a keyboard works for you is to try it out for a week or two. Make sure you keep packaging and all receipts. If it really bad, just return it. Stores like Staples are probably the best for such an experiment. Amazon is also pretty lenient with returns. You just need to pay back shipping.

One important consideration in selection of the keyboard is that many IT professional, such as webmasters and Unix administrators usually type all day long. Which make them as close to gamers as one can get ;-). That sometimes lead to developing professional  illnesses. Especially for older folks as tendons lose elasticity with age. Typically this is a carpal tunnel syndrome, but it can be shoulder bursitis or tendonitis or tennis elbow as well.  If you struggle with RSI -- you do need automation and  you need to put some efforts to learning some shortcuts that automate repetitive activities.

As RSI is pretty debilitating disease, from this point of view using high quality advanced keyboard and mice is not a whim, but a necessity, especially as the person became older.

Aging sysadmins, are naturally more prone to development of  RSI. And for them money spend on a better keyboard (and mouse) are money well spend. If your company is scroogy it makes sense to buy it yourself and bring it to work. After all you spend more then 8 hours a day using this thing.

Money spend on a better keyboard are money well spend. If your company is scroogy it makes sense to buy it yourself and bring it to work: you spend more then 8 hours a day using this thing.

Dictation software is a more radical solution, but it is far from being perfect replacement for the keyboard.  Still latest versions of  Dragon Naturally Speaking with some effort and using good microphone, desktop or laptop with 3GHz i5 or i7 CPU and 1.8GHz memory in a quite room can get close to keyboard productivity in typing plain text. If you need commands you are stuck.

The most important step in utilization of programmable keyboard

In order to automate something first you need to gain some understanding of this activity. Unfortunately here sysadmins are usually delusional and without analysis of data try to automate things that are more fancy then necessary ;-). Write logs from  Teraterm  or other Unix terminal emulator or Windows keystroke recorder for a week and analyze them each evening.  This way you can see what are you actually doing, where you can improve you current practice and what need to be automated.

Jumping to automation without at least, say, a week long day-by-day analysis of your keyboard activity is not an optimal way to detect most frequently used key combinations. Your personal judgment here is suspect. You need to proceed slowly, discarding those findings that proved to be of limited use. It is important to use actual logs of you activity (easy if you use Teraterm for connecting to Unix boxes).  Collection of those logs should be considered as important activity as any other sysadmin job automation task.

In any case proceed with the task of automating your activity slowly and base your decisions on actual usage data not your "mental guesses" about your frequent tasks and patterns of keyboard usage. Automate only those things that stand out and cry for automation. Ignore everything rest. Remember that premature optimization is the source of all evil... 

Remember that premature optimization
 is the source of all evil... 

Write logs from  Teraterm  or other Unix terminal emulator or Windows keystroke recorder for a week and analyze them each evening.   People usually don't remember more then seven keyboard macros unless they are trained, so try to limit yourself only to those few,  that provide high return on investment


The next mandatory step is to create a map of your shortcuts, print it and attach to keyboard iether on the hand wrist or at far edge (you need to use cardboard for the latter.  In no way you will ever learn your top seven or so shortcuts without "cheatsheet". You probably will get to your old habit in a week or so. 

The next mandatory step is to create a map of your shortcuts, print it and attach to keyboard iether on the hand wrist or at far edge (you need to use cardboard for the latter.  In no way you will ever learn your top seven or so shortcuts without "cheatsheet".

For most people it takes a very long time to learn to use shortcuts instead of "old way" and without the map they eventually return to the "old ways". That should not discourage you. It is normal that you fail the first time. Also, as I mentioned above, understanding what you really need comes very slowly too and requires some analysis of your activities. Be persistent and your persistence will eventually pay out.

 Logitech Gaming Software (LGS) provides the capability of printing such a cheatsheet out of the box. Format might be not ideal but this is a good first step as then provide HTML file that you can edit.  For details see, for example,  Logitech Gaming Software (LGS)

You need to create a map of your shortcuts, print it and attach to keyboard Iether on the hand wrist or at far edge of keyboard (you need to use cardboard for the latter.  Few people are able to learn consistently use designed macros and shortcuts without the  "cheatsheet".  Typically you get to your old habit in a week or so.

Again, creation of map of you shortcuts and storing it in several convenient to look places is of paramount importance. Is you way to need and don't appreciate cardboard protruding from the back of the keyboard (that's probably the most efficient way to position the "cheatsheet", then there are mouse pads that contain a sheet of clear plastic detached from the base and into which you can put such a map. See for example Custom Photo Insert Picture Mousepad You can use them for putting the map (in this case you need a separate wrist rest.)  

Magic number seven

One of the most highly cited papers in psychology  is the paper by  the Princeton cognitive psychologist George A. Miller "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information" (Psychological Review, 1956). It is often interpreted to argue that the number of objects an average human can hold in working memory is 7 ± 2. This is frequently referred to as Miller's Law.( Wikipedia)

One typical mistake novices in creating keyboard macros commit is inability to stop after then create first seven macros and dedicate time of policing them. Then continue creating new and new macros and as result stop using any of them :-)

Please understand that return on investment after seven  macros per application (most macro keyboard allow separate set for each registered application)  drops dramatically and after 12 is close to zero. That does not mean that keyboards with 24 macrokeys are useless.  Those macro keys are usually organized in the rows and allow you to "move" enter key, del key and some other important keys to the left. If you are using mouse with your right hand it is very inconvenient to have such keys also on the right. Moving them to the left instantly make your keyboard more comfortable as you do not need to lift the right hand from the mouse each time you want to press them. Some model of mice like Logitech Wireless Performance Mouse MX  has an assignable button on the bottom of the thumb rest, in a very convenient location. That allows you to replicate Enter key.

One keyboard (Microsoft Sidewinder X6) allows to move numeric pad to the right and use it as macro keys -- this is a great idea but this keyboard has been discontinued by Microsoft)

 May be not for all people, but for most of us, there is something in brain wiring that prevents usage of too many shortcuts effectively. So excessive zeal here does not pay well. Even learning seven shortcut requires tremendous, consistent efforts.

That also means that only careful selection of "targets to shoot" pays reasonably well. Having a folder of macros that you last time used two months ago is not a great achievement... But this is the most typical result of "macro-creation" activities: . Again, this is the typical result, not an exception. You are warned :-)

Please understand that return on investment after seven  macros drops dramatically and after 12 is close to zero. Please don't forget to create a map of your custom shortcuts, print it and put into special mousepad or in other convenient location so that it is always available when you are working.

Some trivial but extremely useful adjustments

Don't became infatuated with keyboard macros. Excessive zeal is very harmful and can doom your effort. You need to balance them with mouse,  ArsClip (or other clip manager) macros,  aliases, macros in Teraterm (or other emulator that you are using):

Dedicate one macro button to "on the fly" macros

If you use a lot of macros you can assign one button (for example calculator button) to be on the fly, custom macro button dedicated for a macro you create during your current work. if it proves to be useful in other tasks you can later assign it permanent shortcut, if nor simply discard. 

For example when I use Sidewinder X6 I dedicated calculator button to such macros. It really helps to automate some unique for the current session things as you do not need to think to which button you need to assign this macro :-)

Similarly on Logitech G510 G18 can be used this way.

In this case as soon as you notice that you are doing the same thing again and again you create a macro and try to use it. It is not always successful, but in many cases it really helps. For example,  closing avalanche of useless helpdesk tickets :-)

Some recommended models

If you are fighting RSI an ounce of prevention is always worth pound of cure. Structuring your session with obligatory breaks enforced by countdown timer (which is available in Logitech G510s Gaming Keyboard ) or software are also very effective and should be used in conjunction with installing and learning to use the programming keyboard.

Remember that cutting number of keystrokes and mouse clicks even by just 5-10% represents a distinct advantage for RSI sufferers, which well worth  additional approximately $150 investment. Let's say, $60-$100 for a keyboard, plus $40-$60 for a mouse with additional buttons like Microsoft Sidewinder X5 Mouse or Logitech Performance MX mouse (which I prefer) ; buttons can be assigned to cut, paste, Enter and Escape,  while wheel click can be assigned to copy  ). 

Professional PC keyboards with good tactile feel and macro programming capabilities typically they are marketed as "gaming keyboards". Among those that I personally used, can recommend the following:

Things you can do without programmable keyboard

There are also several things that you probably should not do with programmable keyboards. Some of them I already mentioned above:

But for applications that do not have built-in macro-facilities programmable keyboard can serve as poor man macrolanguage with one tremendous advantage -- it is uniform across all applications, the way VBA is uniform in all components of Microsoft Office. That's where programming keyboard while far from being panacea comes into play and make perfect sense for system administrators.

While programmable keyboard allows you to do more, there also a lot of things that you can do with your regular keyboard (and on laptop you can't change it, although it is always more productive to work on laptop with attached full size keyboard).

While you can do a lot with Autohotkey, with programmable keyboard you do the same more reliably. My problem with the Autohotkey is that it sometimes changes the behavior of keyboard when keys get new meaning as if for example Ctrl key stuck. Fixing that often require rebooting of the machine.  Also programmable keyboard driver give you access to special keys present of the keyboard, keys that often do not produce valid keycodes and are accessible only via manufacturer driver. Also ability to assign arbitrary sequences of keystrokes to a any key on the fly (using macro recording button) provide additional valuable opportunities for automation of your typical sequences of keystrokes. 

The simplest (and not very good) example would be to assign  Ctrl-C (copy), Ctrl-X (cut), Ctrl-V (paste) to S1, S2 and S3 on Sidewinder X6/X4 keyboard. Those key sequences are used many times a day and using single keystroke instead of sequence lessen the load on your hands and actually make you more productive. But there is a better way: if you have a mouse with two additional buttons you assign those three keystrokes to middle (copy) and button-1 and button-2 (typically left and right buttons on leftt upper side of the mouse) for paste and cut.  See Fighting RSI by using programmable mouse

Actually all examples above are too simplistic. The most productive macros are macros that are specific to your activity and you can find them only by analyzing logs.  Drivers like Microsoft IntelliType allow you to set the programmable keys to run a macro (that is stored as XML file that you can edit), to launch an application, to start a web page, to open a file, to execute a keystroke, or one of several preprogrammed actions (such as find text within a document, print, paste, etc.). Often used application do not have a shortcut for the actions you use often. This is a very simple and reliable way to create one yourself.  Macro interface for, say, Microsoft IntelliType -- probably the most popular and reliable (and reliability is the key here ;-) driver for programming keyboards is very simple. The macro wizard gives you an ability to click mouse keys, to set time delays between key presses, and to hold a key down for a given number of milliseconds. More complex macrorecoders like AutoHotkey are much more powerful, but less reliable.

More on the importance of analyzing your keyboard activity

The efforts for analyzing your activity are so important that I would like to repeat some points. You can use video recording along with keylogger or terminal logging capability (present in Teraterm and many other terminal emulators). Just 30 min video recording can uncover some important areas that can be automated in your typical activity. That provides a possibility to get some insights into which sequences of keystrokes are repeatable on daily basis. You will be surprised to find them as your educated guess is usually wrong. But even simple (and usually wrong) introspection is better then nothing. It allows you to detect some patterns and preprogram them to macro keys.

Another important point worth repeating again and again is that excessive zeal in creation way to many macros backfire. Again minimalist approach is the most useful. I think return on investment above seven macros per application is almost non-existent. 

Here are some considerations for sysadmins.

Application dependent maps of keyboard macros

Gradually you can develop your own stenographic notation for each major task in hand by combining aliases, shell functions and keyboard macros. Most programmable keyboard drivers (and definitely Microsoft and Logitech drivers) have the ability to switch to a different sets of macros for each registered application.

That means that Teraterm and Putty can have different set of macros from Frontpage and Excel.

This is a very helpful feature, that make programmable keyboard tremendously more useful. You need to register in keyboard driver particular application and in case of Microsoft Intellitype a folder for this application macros will be created.

I registered in keyboard driver approximately a dozen of applications I used the most heavily (each application can have up to three maps, althouth this is rarely needed)

As keys assignment are individualized between maps you can develop each independently. It take some time and adjustments but rewards are real.

It's important to keep the notation very simple  (7-12 entries for a task are OK, double of that can became problematic to remember even with a cheat sheet in a mouse pad, or attached directly over display using plastic cutting board you can find in any store).  Excessive zeal in creating too many shortcuts probably hurts the results as you just stop using them at all.  Excessive zeal in creating too many shortcuts probably hurts the results as you just stop using them at all. 

More on Capslock problem: a know defect of PC keyboards

One thing that all Unix administrators should do is on any PC  keyboard to reprogram CapsLock to act as Ctrl, like in classic Sun keyboards. That makes Screen command prefix Ctrl-A really logical for PC as it always was for  Sun keyboard users. This is actually a standard Windows registry capability exposed by various programs such as RandyRants SharpKeys. 

More on importance of duplicating Enter and Esc keys

There is another important problem with PC keyboards is that Esc key is in a wrong position for such a frequently used key (especially by heavy vi users). There are two solutions to this problem:

More on using  AutoHotKey instead of programmable keyboard

You can emulate most features of programmable keyboard using AutoHotkey with a regular keyboard, but it's just less convenient and reliable then hardware (driver) implementation. At the same time AutoHotkey is definitely more powerful and flexible then either Microsoft Intellitype or Logitech keyboard/mouse driver. One problem is using AutoHotKey is that few combination of other drivers and utilities with it is stable. In general Microsoft Intellipoint is not compatible with almost any other similar driver including, surprisingly, Microsoft Intellipoint (I think they overlap quite a bit and their existence as two separate packages is just the case when right hand in Microsoft does not know what left hand is doing). I strongly recommend replace Intellitype with XMouseButtonControl if you use Microsoft mouse. AutoHotkey is almost as bad as Intellipoint, if not worse. It is better to use it iether alone or with minimal additional programs if you need to use it at all. Here are some more or less stable combinations.

  1. Stable both on Windows XP and Windows 7 (can be used with Microsoft keyboard like Sidewinder X6 which positively needs IntelliType and Microsoft mouse (which theoretically can benefit from Intellitype, but I suspect that even Intellitype + Intellipoint combination is unstable and should be avoided).
  2. Stable on Windows XP and Windows 7 (usable with Sidewinder X6 and Logitach Performace MX mouse)
  3. Relatively stable on Windows XP and Windows 7

Here are some unstable combinations that I experienced

  1. Highly unstable both on Windows XP and Windows 7
  2. Highly unstable both on Windows XP and Windows 7
  3. Moderately unstable on Windows XP and Windows 7
  4. Moderately unstable on Windows XP and Windows 7

In memory of Microsoft Sidewinder X6

Microsoft Sidewinder  X6 used to be the cheapest of high quality programmable keyboards. This was my first programmable keyboard. It used to have a unique feature: detachable numeric pad that can be attached to the left side of keyboard to emulate "look and feel" of PC XT classic keyboard. This might also be convenient for lefties. The six programmable keys on the left side of the board (you can use all 12 settings if you press the little button under the column - or set them for another application or user) are very handy for administrators who have many repeatable key combinations like ". ~/.profile". Those with carpal tunnel syndrome would appreciate such help.

Warning about non-standard layout of keys

You can find a keyboard with a non-standard and somewhat more convenient location of keys  on the market but the problem here is that if you get used to some "special" keyboard layout, you should create for yourself an environment where you do not need to alternate between this keyboard and the more "conventional" or standard keyboards.  Sometimes that can be solved if you buy a second one for work. But often it is impossible. For example for Unix administrators there are many situation when only the standard keyboard is available.


For sysadmins programmable keyboard with special keys is not a "nice" addition, but an essential health preserving feature. Unfortunately few administrators and programmers try to learn to use them in a better way, as a conscious, dedicated effort (only gamers use them all the time and transfer of this type of skills between them is more common. They also typically transfer them to other areas which might be one of the few positive things about hardcore gamers ;-). 

But even basic things like creating a set of typical "phrases" that you use daily can save 10% or more of keystrokes. The key here is not to rely on intuition but study your activity using logs (Teraterm logs are a good start). 

The idea that any repetitive sequence of keystrokes can be replicated with a single keystroke is a very powerful productivity enhancing feature. If you feel pain in your hands as a result of your daily activity (even if it is temporary and disappears the next morning) you definitely consider implementing this solutions.

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Old News ;-)

[Jun 01, 2021] KINESIS GAMING Freestyle Edge RGB Split Mechanical Keyboard (MX Brown)

May 30, 2021 |

All 95 keys are fully programmable for complete customization Use the dedicated SmartSet key for convenient on-the-fly Remaps and macros or use the all-new SmartSet app for special actions or to customize lighting effects

Nine a vailable profiles with dual layers powerful macros quick

Remaps 9 game keys 1ms response time NKRO game mode & much more

All profiles and settings save directly to the keyboard's 4MB onboard memory

[Jun 01, 2021] Logitech G910 Orion Spectrum RGB Wired Mechanical Gaming Keyboard , Black- Computers Accessories

May 30, 2021 |

9 Customizable G-keys Orion Spectrum's 9 fully-customizable G-keys can be assigned commands per profile, and have been positioned for optimal speed and accessibility


Lori A. Rosenthal

not as loud, but feels cheaply made, comparison to Razer Blackwidow Elite Yellow linear silent.

4.0 out of 5 stars not as loud, but feels cheaply made, comparison to Razer Blackwidow Elite Yellow linear silent. Reviewed in the United States on October 19, 2020 Style: Keyboard Verified Purchase I am not a gamer. I am a super fast typist and work all day and into the late nights. I first tried the Razer Blackwidow Elite, yellow, linear silent. That was solid as a rock, really strong quality, but too loud, and the linear design does feel like after typing all day that my fingers get tired pressing down farther. This purchase was aimed to have a quieter keyboard and try the tactile design. This one is much more plasticky-meaning cheap feeling.

Each key when pressed is quieter. It however still is annoying, but my family cannot hear it in the other rooms, where the Razor yellow as noted above, was audible downstairs! This one has a springy sound with each keystroke, which is annoying and I don't think it is a durable keyboard.

The wrist rest on the Razor above was able to be removed and realigned w magnetic design. It was also padded for comfort. This one has an unattachable wrist "support" which is hard plastic. so yes, my palm can rest on it for support but it is not padded. It also cannot be removed so that we can buy our own padded one. If you remove the hard plastic, then under it is a hard plastic frame which is not removable and is in a shape that would not be able to be matched.

My wrists hurt more with this than the Razer. Significantly. The audio controls are fair and mostly digital except the roller ball volume. The skip a song ahead button doesn't work unless I press it a couple of times sometimes. The volume control is good and is not in a place you can inadvertantly swipe it. The Razer has more manual controls which I like, as they work better, though the volume disc on the Razor sticks out of the side of the keyboard so my hand brushed it a few times in effort to grab my mouse and then the music volume changed as a result; minor flaw in the Razer, but in this model the volume is flat on the keyboard top above the numeric pad, so it's out of the way. Works fine. Saw someone else didn't like it; the more manual the better in my opinion bc they dont break. Not happy the forward audio button fails often. I have not programmed anything in the programmable keys yet but will once I have a minute. Also it is very clear whether I have caps/numbers lock on. It says it in print and a light is next to it. On the Razor it doesn't say it and its just a few lights and you have to know which light is which. These keys have a natural spot for fingertips. No weird slants. Razor is the same. Lighting is cool and I like it lit. Seems bright. The keys are flush with the keyboard. In the Razor they are elevated.

This one is entirely plastic. Razor has metal base so it is more durable. This one does feel relatively cheap in design. The cord to the computer is a single USB unbraided. I do not see any USB passthrough. In the Razor there is USB passthrough and a double USB at the end and an audio cable.

So, if sound was not an issue with the clackingclicks I would go for the Razor, I think. This one is too plasticky for me but it is quieter.

Oh one other thing...the preprogramed keys on this keyboard are isolated separate keys which is nice for pre-programmable macro use. The Razor are not special keys but you can program the keys. They just are not specific for that purpose on the Razor. This is a benefit of the Logitech in my opinion and they are noted G1,G2, G3, etc for 9 keys. This unit also takes up more desk space than the Razor.

[Nov 29, 2019] Razer Synapse - Hardware Configurator Razer United States

Nov 29, 2019 |

ON-THE-FLY MACRO RECORDING (PC) Follow these steps to create an OTF Macro Recording: 1. Press the key combination to start recording. 2. The Macro Recording Indicator will light up to show that the device is ready to record. 3. Type in the keys you want to record. 4. Press the key combination to stop the recording or the ESC key to cancel recording. The Macro Recording Indicator will start blinking to show that the device has stopped recording and is ready to save the macro. 5. Press the desired key where you want to save your macro. Upon selecting a key assignment, you may then change it to one of the following functions: Default This option enables you to return the selected key to its original setting. Keyboard Function This option changes the key assignment into a keyboard function. You can also choose enable Turbo mode which allows you to emulate repeatedly pressing the keyboard function while the key is held down. Mouse Function This option allows you to change any key into a mouse function. Listed below are the functions which you can choose from: ▪ Left Click - Performs a left mouse click using the assigned button. ▪ Right Click - Performs a right mouse click using the assigned button. ▪ Scroll Click - Activates the universal scrolling function. ▪ Double Click - Performs a double left click using the assigned button. ▪ Mouse Button 4 - ▪ Mouse Button 5 - ▪ Scroll Up - ▪ Scroll Down - ▪ Scroll Left - ▪ Scroll Right - You can also choose to enable Turbo mode in some of the mouse functions which allow you to emulate repeatedly pressing and releasing said function while the key is held down. Macro A Macro is a prerecorded sequence of keystrokes and button presses that is executed with precise timing. By setting the key function to Macro, you can conveniently execute a chain of commands Switch Profile Switch Profile enables you to quickly change profiles and load a new set of key assignments. An on-screen notification will appear whenever you switch profiles. Switch Lighting Switch Lighting allows you to easily switch between basic and advanced lighting effects. to learn more about Advanced Chroma Effects Razer Hypershift Setting the key to Razer Hypershift will allow you to activate Hypershift mode as long as the key is held down. Launch Program Launch Program enables you to open an app or a website using the assigned key. When you select Launch Program, two choices will appear which requires you to search for a specific app you want to open, or write the address of the website you want to visit. Multimedia This option allows you to assign multimedia controls to your Razer device. Listed below are the multimedia controls you can choose from: ▪ Volume Down - Decreases the audio output. ▪ Volume Up - Increases the audio output. ▪ Mute Volume - Mutes the audio. ▪ Mic Volume Up - Increases the microphone volume. ▪ Mic Volume Down - Decreases the microphone volume. ▪ Mute Mic - Mutes the microphone. ▪ Mute All - Mutes both microphone and audio output. ▪ Play / Pause - Play, pause, or resume playback of the current media. ▪ Previous Track - Play the previous media track. ▪ Next Track - Play the next media track. Redragon K585 DITI One-Handed RGB Mechanical Gaming Keyboard, Blue Switches, Type-C Professional Gaming Keypad

Q: Can I program each key (the regular ones and not the dedicated macro keys) to do a different function? Like a macro or another key press

Answer: Yes, all the keys (except M1-M4, Rec keys) on the keyboard can be programmed via software setting. By Redragon Shop Seller on June 3, 2019

M.S. Garand

5.0 out of 5 stars
Best single handed keyboard I've used, and I have used a lot of them. April 17, 2019
Color: Black-Blue SwitchVerified Purchase

I usually wait a while before reviewing, but this is getting a same day review baby. The build quality is top notch, but Red Dragon products usually are, even though they make budget products. We are getting F keys, 1-6 plus the normal alphas on most single handed keyboards plus a bonus N&P, and 5 macro keys.

Outemu Blue switches (kaihl would be better but outemu is decent) outemu switches have box stabilizers around the stem to reduce key wobble. I would like to see an option for Red linear switches but at this price I might upgrade myself, if I can find outemu reds with the same pin size.. Not only is every key mechanical including the macros (gamesir z1 uses rubber dome for macros) but you can swap the switches out for outemus with the same pin layout. Switch and key puller is included plus a few extra blue switches. It has a magnetic wrist rest (thank you Red Dragon for giving me that option.

Plus a detachable USB type c connector (when you have a keyboard, mouse, plus a single handed keyboard you will appreciate the ability to quickly disconnect and store when not in use) The RGB is actually bright and vibrant and the keys aren't super glossy with just enough texture to stand up to sweaty hands (long game sessions ya know?) The keys seem just a bit further spaced than I am used to, but this could be an illusion.

It also features a USB pass through, although I haven't tested the latency so I'm not sure if it's viable for a gaming mouse.

This thing is worth the money and then some. Unless you're going to shell out 150 for a Razer orbweaver Chroma (with less keys) and learn the button layout and map your keys in most games, this is the best option.

I have purchased Gamesir Z1 single handed keyboard, 1byone single handed, Gamesir gk100 single handed, and the Logitech g13 (this was used for productivity due to it's sheer number of macros and key binding potential) I have been through all of those searching for the perfect one, and I believe I have found it. You won't regret it either.

Edit: I tested the USB pass through and it has ZERO effect on the polling rate of my Logitech G502

K. Vandyke

4.0 out of 5 stars
punches above its weight May 6, 2019
Color: Black-Blue SwitchVerified Purchase

The Redragon K585 DITI is an entry level mechanical keyboard that punches above its weight. That doesn't make it perfect for everyone, however.

Look, it's pretty clear just by looking at this keyboard that it isn't a full keyboard. That intrinsically limits its target audience. For someone with ample desk space, this might not make the most sense as a purchase. But, on the flip side of that, for those with LESS space than usual, this can accomplish a very crucial goal of getting you back some of that valuable desk real-estate for your mouse, or other peripherals.

For instance, in my case, I needed more room for gaming. One of the problems I kept running into with my existing setup was that during an intense firefight, I would sometimes slap my mouse on the side of my keyboard, resulting in, almost always, poor results. And after trying for many months to get used to playing with my full-sized keyboard tilted at a 45 degree angle, it just became worth the $35 dollars or so to get rid of the hand-pain that induced and solve the mouse conundrum in a combo meal.

On the other hand, I could also see this being fairly useful for something like Asesprite, GIMP, or other design-oriented programs and tools. While I'm sure that there are people that could easily use the full spread of a full-sized keyboard with macros and still need more room, I'm not one of them, and I think it's fair to say that someone reading a review about this keyboard for that reason probably isn't either.

So, what sets this keyboard apart from the competition? The biggest thing for me has been the remappable buttons. With 5 dedicated macro-keys and two other keys that you have the *option* to remap (tilde and T), you've got 7 total keys to customize. There are severe limitations to this that can ultimately hamper that usability, but we'll come back to that later.

If you're someone that's into RGB, the keyboard lets you choose from 5 arrangements of color patterns that can range from what you'd expect from a typical RGB rainbow-vomit experience, to more subdued patterns that only appear when a key is pressed. To Redragons credit, the depth and color coverage is absolutely outstanding. It absolutely cannot be understated, in comparison to my Corsair RGB keyboard, the colors are just better on the K585.

There's even some hidden gems as far as features go, too. While you can change the color mode using the four dedicated mode-buttons atop the keyboard, this *also* serves as a convenient and quick way to swap between different macro bindings on those 7 macro keys. But, if someone were to decide that they wanted to change the color mode but not lose their bindings, they could just as easily use the function key and space key to cycle between the modes of their own volition.

Additionally, the keyboard has a detachable Type-C cable, so in the off chance that your cable got ruined, you would no longer be in the market for a whole keyboard, but just a cable. It also features an extra USB slot on the back that you could use for presumably anything a normal USB Type 2 slot could be used for, like a full keyboard if you needed that extra range, a wireless headset adapter, or just a convenient place to charge your phone.

So now we've covered the good, but what about the bad? Are there any "gotchas" to this product? That's a question with some complicated answers that mostly come down to your use case. For me, one of the biggest issues with the device was the limitations behind the macro recording. As you can only record buttons that are available on the device itself, it makes rebinding almost mandatory for some games. In Destiny 2, as an example, I have my social tab bound to my O key normally, but as the K585 doesn't have an O key, it makes opening that menu kind of a chore. My options at that point were to either change which keyboard I was pressing keys on for only specific keys, or just rebind these actions. Luckily, Destiny 2 has two binding settings for each action, so I was able to set most of these crucial actions to be the F1 through F4 keys as their fallback binding, in the off chance that I wanted to use a full-sized keyboard for any reason.

*But*, even this has consequences. If you're playing a game that doesn't have multiple binding options, or rebinding at all, you're just going to be out of luck. On top of that, if you're someone that uses the alt-key for whatever reason, you could potentially run into issues with either accidentally or unintentionally using ALT+F4 to close your game or program of choice. Ideally, passing a keyboard through the K585 would allow it to register these macros as any press, like how a lot of keyboard or mouse macro software works already. Of course, the K585 doesn't have any software to speak of, so it may just be a limitation of the hardware they use to power these macro keys.

Another binding issue that I've run into is the problem of *un*-binding keys. While you *can* unbind them, it appears to only have a group unbind option. For my use case, I've somehow managed to lose the T binding entirely. If I change modes it's fine, or if I were to reset *the entire binding setup* I could fix it, but I can't just rebind my T key to T, as it.. Isn't T anymore. I also can't just reset *that particular* binding, but this is again, probably a limitation of whatever they use to power the macros.

Thankfully, that covers the largest of my gripes with the keyboard. I'm no mechanical keyboard expert by any means, but it uses blue switches that feel very good to me. If you're not sure what kind of switches you like, the mechanical keyboards subreddit seems to always recommend buying a switch tester. They run around 17 dollars on Amazon, however, so if you're looking for a budget option in something like this keyboard, you'll potentially just be paying for peace of mind. With that said, the switches are audible, but they don't drive me up the walls by any means.

My only other real complaint with this is probably that the F key doesn't have the nice tactile bump that I'm accustomed to on my full-sized keyboard. That lead to quite a few times where my senses and muscle memory clashed with each other and ultimately caused me to fumble around aimlessly, but that had an easy enough fix. For me, I just put a dab of super glue on the key to give it a little bump, and that's been more than enough to ease the aforementioned clashing.

I will say that when I was browsing Amazon to figure out what exactly I was going to buy, it took me a while to get over the absolutely dreadful looking font that is printed on the keys. To me, it came off as a very edgy and try-hard font, but in person it didn't really bother me all that much. And, thankfully, most of the time I spend with this keyboard, I'm looking at the screen and not the keyboard, so truthfully it doesn't bother me anymore.

So, is the K585 worth it? In my opinion, absolutely! If you're looking for a keyboard of this style, there are a ton of positive things to say here. If you like RGB, it's got it, if you don't, you can turn it off. If you're worried about price, it's inexpensive (especially in comparison to the competition), and if you're working with limited desk space, this is a natural pick.

[Nov 26, 2019] NPET T10 One-Handed Gaming Keyboard, Mechanical Feeling Mini Gaming Keypad with Palm-Rest, 33 Programmable Keys RGB

【Full 33 Programmable Keys Included 4 Macro Side Keys】Left hand single-hand membrane keyboard features merely the 33 essential keys for gaming. Especially, the space key is Innovative mechanical BOX switch, quick response, short travel switches.

Assign complex in-game macros to any of the 4 dedicated macro keys (G1, G2, G3, G4).

Faizi Crofts

2.0 out of 5 stars
Versitile, for programmers, power users, gamers, driver is very flawed March 17, 2019
Color: T10-one handed gaming keyboardVerified Purchase

So this does work along side your regular keyboard if you wanted a keyboard with extra programmable keys (my case). Also - wonderfully the driver / software is reasonably easy to use but quite broken when it comes to macros. It does allow multiple profiles (three of them) so that you can have sets of configurations for different tasks. So for me that would be daily, normal computing - mainly keyboard-centric web-browsing, with screen-printing shortcuts and cut, copy paste etc.; working with audacity to work on my podcast, and then gaming. Anyways - looks cool and build quality is nice. I am not sure what ergonomic keyboard nerds may think of it's suitableness - I'm not terribly hard to please in that category but for me it feels fine. A

nyways- the driver- you can't rename the macros most of the time - just a very weird bug - it ignores your attempt 99 percent of the time. What this will mean is that your macros will have meaningless names like "name_3" automatically assigned and you are stuck with it which ends up being an organizational mess.

It also ignores most of your attempts to edit macros once created which causes all kinds of annoyances.

For instance, your recorded macros will - once created execute far too slowly if you are not really careful creating them since it gives you an interface to edit the length of delays from the recording phase, and simply ignores the edits. So you can kludge your way through the most useful, powerful features of this keyboard but I promise a bad, bad mood in the process. Also - support is long distance China. I'm thinking of calling them. Not expecting huge satisfaction from it but worth a try. Maybe they have a workaround to let this software more fully do what it is designed to do (not likely).
Also the usb cable (usbC on one end, usb3 on the other) is really, really nice. Love this thing.

Full programmable keys and macro side keys meet different games' demands. Skills, hotkeys, and macros right at your fingertips. Free Keycap puller, clean becomes easier

[Nov 26, 2019] Redragon K586-PRO Brahma RGB Mechanical Gaming Keyboard with Fast Optical Blue Switches, 10 Dedicated Macro Keys


Great keyboard for Linux users September 6, 2019
Color: BlackVerified Purchase

Extremely satisfied with this keyboard.... blue switches with some extras included. RGB that is built into the keyboard rather than separately with software which is great for Linux users since software is often over looked.

It has the media controls that you see on many other gaming keyboards (scroll volume, play etc.).

4 Profiles that can be switched through and macro keys.

Keyboard is solid and feels like it can take a beating. The detachable wrist pad is magnetic which is a much better way to go rather than the fragile plastic tabs I see on so many other keyboards.They obviously put a lot of thought into the design.

[Aug 06, 2019] Three Companies Bringing Innovation to Open Keyboards FOSS Force

See also Ultimate Hacking Keyboard – The keyboard. For professionals.
Aug 06, 2019 |

In the open hardware community, three commerical efforts stand out: ErgoDox EZ, Keyboardio, and Input Club.

ErgoDox EZ

ErgoDox EZ is a pioneer in ergonomic keyboards and a community favorite. Its website emphasizes physical customization and a selection of keycaps. The page for ordering a keyboard will guide you through the general options, and is especially useful for those who want to know which keyswitches are loud or silent, or best for the office or for gaming. Some (including me) find the general design ugly, but for those who judge on functionality rather than aesthetics it remains a popular choice. Because the design is open source and therefore unpatented, it has been copied by others, including Input Club. Ergodox EZ keyboard. Source: Ergodox EZ


Keyboardio includes all the features that are typical of an advanced keyboard, and adds the aesthetics of maple enclosures. The fact that it is only now, after twenty months, starting to ready a graphic configurator does not seem to have reduced the popularity of its Model 01 product, possibly because its technical support is quick to respond and it's supported by an active community. The Model 01 is designed for touch-typing, with fingers drooping from the wrists. That means that it lacks wrists support, although there is room on each half to add your own. However, with 61 of 66 keys custom-sculpted for easier movement of the fingers, the Model 01 is is perhaps the most ergonomic keyboard on the market today. I can personally testify that it reduces repetitive stress injuries -- with some sources citing a roughly 90% reduction. A demonstration of the different physical configurations of using the Keyboardio keyboard. Source: Keyboardio

Input Club

Input Club began by selling do-it-your keyboard kits, including the Infinity ErgoDox. These kits are still available, but require soldering. In the last few years the company has started shipping assembled keyboards in a variety of sizes. Its prices are roughly two-thirds of ErgoDox EZ's or Keyboardio's. In January 2020 Input Club plans to release the Keyboard Magnetic Analog. This model promises new magnetic keyswitches that have two states, half and fully depressed, which will allow more use of a single layout without the addition of macros. The Keystone Analog will also have the ability to learn from your typing, so that if one finger is weaker than another, the keys it presses will respond to less pressure. When released, the Keyboard Analog will be the equal of any keyboard on the market, regardless of whether its license is free or proprietary.

Innovation in Unexpected Places

The keyboard is one of the last places to expect innovation. The keyboard that most computer users spend their day over has changed little in the last three decades. However, as these three examples of open keyboards show, small open source companies are upsetting those expectations. Not only are they are selling long-lived and repairable keyboards that are usually found only in gaming keyboards for general use, they are the forefront of innovation, offering features that industry giants like Logitech have yet to match.

Remember the days when open source was struggling to catch up? In the case of keyboards, open source is not only matching the hardware found at your local mall, but are serious contenders in their field.

ThinkPad X1 Carbon Business Ultrabook Lenovo US

Uncommonly Intuitive Adaptive Keyboard

The unique Adaptive Keyboard automatically changes the row of function keys depending on what application you're in. Less clutter, more function, and a streamlined keyboard that anticipates your needs.

Adaptive keyboard Deployment Guide

suggestion for a keyboard - Logitech Forums

suggestion for a keyboard [ New ]


I've owned every G series keyboard aside the G105s so I'll breakdown the Pros and Cons of the G510s, G19s, and G710+

  1. G19s (What I'm currently using) Pros - Full RGB Backlighting, 12 Programmable GKeys with 3 Modes, LCD Gamepanel Display, two USB ports, On the fly macro recording, and full Media controls including a volume wheel.

    Cons - Less GKeys than the G510s, some people complain about durability but I haven't had issues, and sometimes the Gamepanel buttons stick or don't respond. (This is just my opinion, I've had nothing but a positive experince with the G19s)

  2. G710+ Pros- Fully Mechanical, Single color Backlighting with brightness control, 6 programmable Gkeys with 3 Modes, On the fly macro recording, built-in sound pass through, and Strong build quality.

    Cons - Only 6 Gkeys, Only White Backlighting compared to the full RGB of the G105s, G510s, and G19s, and some people have had issues with the Key caps breaking.

  3. G510s Pros - Full RGB Backlighting, 18 Programmable GKeys with 3 Modes, Monochrome Gamepanel Display, Headset and Microphone jacks, On the fly macro recording, and full Media controls including a volume wheel.

    Cons - Overtime the Backlight seemed to fade for me, but that was my only con with the keyboard in the 2 years I used mine.

For your needs, I would recommend the G510s if you care about the Gkeys and Gamepanel. If you don't care about either of those features, I would recommend the G710+. The mechanical Keys feel AMAZING and the keyboard feels like a tank. I personally wasn't a fan of the lack of customization (RGB Backlighting) and Gkeys, so I swapped to the G19s. However the G710+ DOES have backlighting, you just can't choose the color. It also DOES have a Volume control wheel so it meets both your needs.

If you have any specific questions about any of the Keyboards, I can try to answer.

[Jun 01, 2012] X4 vs. X6: One step forward, six steps back. A non-gamer perspective , by Nikolai N Bezroukov "kievite" (Budd Lake, NJ)

April 17, 2010 | Amazon

From a non-gamer perspective Microsoft fixed one important problem that plagued X6 (wrong position of Esc key), but screwed almost everything else. Again this review is from the point of view of a power user, not a gamer. Such users are attracted to gamer keyboards like X4 and X6 mainly due to their macro functionality.

I would list those shortcomings that I found so far in comparison with Microsoft X6 keyboard, an older cousin of X4:

-- They removed Intellitype GUI invocation button. That makes creation and debugging of macros less convenient.

-- Repeat button still cannot repeat macros. There is no way to change pause between repetitions. In other words it is useless outside games.

-- Looks like numeric pad no longer can be used as the bank of macro buttons. Keys are not visible in Intellitype menu and there is no "enable macro pad" check button for each banks of keys in Intellitype if X4 is selected.

-- There is no way to create macros that use the keyboard ability to decode simultaneous pressing of multiple keys ("accords"). This is a huge shortcoming as the number of "special" keys in X4 is minimal. I bought the keyboard expecting this functionality.

-- Button on the palmrest, which extends S1-S6 to S7-S12 (Macro Toggle key) was removed in X4. They would be better off adding physical second column of keys like in original XT keyboard (and some Logitech keyboards like G110).

-- They now provide legs to tilt the keyboard up (X6 has no legs), but still do not provide an additional USB port for the mouse which is sad for this price range.

-- I would say that in addition to being non-detachable like in X6, palmrest is unusable in X4. One way to fix this is to glue gel pad to it, but this fix has obvious shortcomings.

-- using dial for volume control as in X6 is more convenient then two buttons provided in X4 instead.

I decided that I will simply swap Esc and F1 on my X6 keyboard and continue to use it. As a result I returned the X4 keyboard to Amazon.

Keyboarding & Macros in Mac and Windows (How to Increase Your Computer Operation Efficiency)

Learn The OS's Keyboard Config Settings

Learn the OS's ways to config the keyboard. On Windows, it's the keyboard icon under Window's Control Panel. On Mac, it's the Keyboard icon under System Preference. They allow you to tweak global keyboard hotkey settings, to various degrees.

If you have a Microsoft keyboard, I recommend the bundled IntelliType software. (comes in for both Windows and Mac versions) It lets you remap or disable keys or define macros to some extent.

Get A Keyboard Macro Tool

Use macros and other key-remapping or app launching software. On the Mac, I recommend Quicksilver. On Windows, I recommend AutoHotkey. Both are free. (See: AutoHotkey Basics)

Note that there are also very good commercial ones. I've used QuicKeys on the Mac from 1991 to 2002. QuicKeys is now sold by (for Mac and Win). On the Mac, there's also Keyboard Maestro from I've used.

Automation - Why We Love The Logitech g15 keyboard

g1-g6 correspond to ctrl-1 through ctrl-6. This is for switching tabs in Firefox. Now you have single buttons to switch b/t the first 6 tabs of Firefox without using the mouse.

g9 is a shortcut for save (ctr-s)

g12 is a shortcut for refresh (refresh the page in Firefox ctr-r)

g13 is a shortcut for copy (ctr-c)

g14 is a shortcut for cut (ctr-x)

g15 is a shortcut for paste (ctr-v)

g16 is a shortcut for undo (ctr-z)

g17 is a shortcut for select all (ctr-a)

g18 is a shortcut for alt-tab (to switch between applications)

Every time you can cut 2 keystrokes down to one, you're making progress

Chris Hogben on July 5th, 2009:

If it's automation you need (and if you struggle with RSI - you need automation) then look at a dead cheap zboard keyboard, but not to type on! Almost all of the keys are programmable. Place it on your left (if right handed) and use the software provided to program the keys to type your common words or phrases. It'll get your left arm moving a bit more - might help.

Going that bit further and using a macro program (I use macro express) and program it to trigger the macros.

You'll just need to raid the stationary cupboard for some small stickers to place on the keys…

Customer Reviews Microsoft Sidewinder X6 Keyboard

My best keyboard in a long, long time, December 30, 2008

A. Dent (Minas Anor, GD) - Customer review from the Amazon Vine™ Program (What's this?)

To state that I am impressed with this keyboard would be almost an understatement. I've been using a Microsoft Digital Media Pro Keyboard for the past couple of years and I was very happy with it and, I thought I was going to give this one to one of my gaming little sons but... it looks like I'm keeping it for myself and I'm ordering a second one for him.

I am going to state what impressed me or disappointed me as a light gamer but a relatvely heavy keyboard user. Everything else, it's probably available in the official product description or in other reviews.

+ Quality build:
Unlike what another review states, this is a well-built, well designed keyboard. The plastic does not feel 'cheap'. On the contrary. In addition, the keyboard is so heavy, it 'sticks' to the desk and it would hardly moved when accidentally bumped.

+ Switchable and REMOVABLE numeric keypad:
Taking off the keypad is as easy as pulling it. It's kept attached to the main body via a couple of strong magnets so it's easy to remove but, once it's attached it will stick to the body.

+ Excellent for typing:
Bing a touch typist I hereby testify that this is a GREAT keyboard. It's not as quiet as the one I am now abandoning (see above) but a little more click does not bother me.

+ A large number of easy-to-program macro keys:
There are 12 (2 * 6) dedicated macro keys on the left side plus 18 keys on the numeric keypad which COULD be assigned to single-key macros, adding up to 30. Multiply that by the 3 easy to switch 'profiles' and there's a total of 90 single-key macros.

A rough 'draft' of a macro can be done by simply performing the task while in 'record' mode. Then, the IntelliType Pro utility allows for refinements and adjustments. I was able to build a rather complex macro within minutes of trying one for the very first time.

+ Macros aren't for gaming only
The macro that I just built is not for game-playing. It's for business use and it's saving me lots of dumb keystrokes and therefore a lot of time.

+ Not as many unneeded keys
It's probably just me but I never use those dedicated keys that would start 'mail', take you to the 'pictures' folder or maybe open a browser. This does have the 'calculator' button and the speaker volume and the play/stop/skip keys but all others are missing. I feel that this is a pretty good compromise.

= Backlighting is cool but, why not blue or green?
I do appreciate the fact that the macro-assignable keys have a yellow backlight vs the the red for everything else but I wish that other color choices were available.

- The numeric keypad feels like it's about to break
As I mentioned already, it's held onto the main body with magnets. I am not used to my new keyboard yet so, every time I am moving it around, it feels like the right section is about to break.

- It can't be raised
The only serious issue is its lacking those little legs that would allow me to raise the keyboard a little. I thought I was going to miss it more but, it seems, I'm getting used to it already. However, not everyone may feel that way.

Overall, this is an easy 5-star. I am NOT a Microsoft fan but this Microsoft keyboard is a keeper.

By Leo L. Schwab

For Want of a Key, the Keyboard Was Lost, March 25, 2009

My God, this is a programmable keyboard, you can reprogram Esc key for F1 key and problem resolved.

Every relationship between a user and their keyboard is unique. Many factors shape the relationship -- the size and shape of the user's hands, the user's sense of tactile aesthetics, what the keyboard is used for, for how long, etc. The point being, there can be no single keyboard that is ideal for everyone. Issues that may be not matter to most people may be glaring flaws for others. No matter how many reviews you read, ultimately, the only way to find out if a keyboard will work for you is to try it out.

After having tried it out, my executive summary of the Microsoft Sidewinder X6 is: This clearly was not designed by a 'vi' user.

I'm a software engineer, and use my keyboard for programming and command entry. My Saitek keyboard was starting to behave strangely, and needed replacing. Although the Sidewinder X6 is billed as a "gaming" keyboard, I've found such keyboards in general to be of overall higher quality than "regular" keyboards and excellent for general use. The macro programming and "gaming" features were not of primary interest to me. I'm very particular about a keyboard's tactile qualities. If I can get those qualities out of a so-called gaming keyboard, then so be it. (And I'm also a sucker for decorative lighting.)

In many respects, the Sidewinder X6 is a very fine product. Key feel is firm and decisive, with no mushiness. They keys are stiffer than is common and require more downforce, which is exactly how I prefer it. Despite the "hard bottom" of the keypress action, the keyboard is fairly quiet and won't disturb your cube neighbors. Backlighting is as intense or subdued as you wish. And the volume control knob is a welcome and superior departure from the '+' and '-' volume keys that so plague keyboards today.

Some minor issues with manufacturing were apparent. The keycaps were not as smooth and well-finished as the keyboard's price tag would suggest, and I found myself scraping small bits of plastic flashing off the surface of some keys to smooth them down.

But, for me, the X6's greatest handicap is a consequence of the text editor I've been using since 1982 -- 'vi'.

'vi' ("vee-eye") is a text editor from the UNIX world which, by its design, requires frequent use of the Escape key, and this is where, in my use case, the X6 inexplicably and perhaps fatally fails -- the Escape key is in the wrong place.

ESC is normally placed above the tilde ('~') key. However, from the photographs, you can see that Microsoft added a column of macro keys on the left side of the keyboard, and placed the ESC key above this new column. They then stretched the row of function keys out such that F1 is above the tilde key. The result is I've been hitting F1 nearly every time I actually wanted to hit ESC.

Microsoft's choice to do this is bewildering. Perhaps, in a gaming context, access to function keys is considered more important than putting ESC in the standard location. But other "gaming" keyboards have not made this choice. The Saitek PC Gaming Keyboard, which my X6 was intended to replace, puts ESC in the standard location. Even the Razer Tarantula, which also has an extra column of programmable keys on the left, still places ESC above tilde.

This isn't the first time I've dealt with a misplaced Escape key. My ThinkPad also has F1 above tilde, and placed ESC all by itself above F1 (sort of like hydrogen on the Periodic Table). I've managed to adapt to the ThinkPad. I don't yet know if I'll adapt to the X6.

In all other respects, the Sidewinder X6 could be a winner for me. I like the key feel, the cutesey lighting is nice, and the knobs are a welcome addition. But if I can't adapt to the Escape key's non-standard location then, for me, the X6 will be a failure. And that would be a damned shame.

Keyboarding Microsoft Natural Ergonomic 4000

Coding Horror

I was plenty excited when I saw Microsoft was releasing a new non-mangled ergonomic keyboard - the Microsoft Natural Ergonomic Keyboard 4000.

Now that I own one, I'm not excited any more.

I'm ecstatic!

This keyboard is the natural heir to the obsolete but much loved Microsoft Natural Keyboard Pro:

The MS Natural Pro was discontinued in early 2001. After that, there were hardly any ergonomic split keyboards with standard PgUp/PgDn clusters. There were a handful of rare and obscure exceptions, but in general, they just weren't being made any more. This was a dark time for ergo keyboard enthusiasts who happened to be programmers.

By 2004, people had started to mock my ugly-but-comfortable 1999-era Natural Pro. I had reluctantly switched to the Digital Media Pro after some flirtations with the Logitech Elite. But neither of these were ergonomic, and both had a very cheap feeling. They just didn't feel right to my hands and fingers.

I'm happy to report that the Natural Ergonomic 4000 is a truly worthy successor to the Natural Pro. My fingers feel at home again! Here are the highlights:

All is not perfect, however. I do have a few quibbles:

The keyboard comes with a pre-installed reverse slope tilt attachment, which supposedly offers a better neutral typing position. I may experiment with this later, but I removed it for now.

My keyboard quest is over. The Natural Ergonomic 4000 retains all the great qualities of the Natural Pro and significantly improves on it. I guess this means I can finally retire my stockpile of Natural Pros.

Microsoft Natural Ergonomic Keyboard 4000 - hardware review

Microsoft Natural Ergonomic Keyboard 4000

Reviewed by: Jack Reikel, January 2006

Published by: Microsoft

Requires: Windows 2000, XP Professional, XP Home Edition, Windows Media Center Edition or Tablet PC Edition, Pentium 233 MHz or higher processor, 128MB RAM, 60MB free hard disk space, available USB
MSRP: US$59.99 (dealers sell for less)

The Microsoft Natural Ergonomic Keyboard 4000 is a small but interesting step forward for Microsoft. While you may be familiar with Microsoft's Natural Keyboard Elite Pro which has been around for almost seven years, the Natural Ergonomic 4000 adds a curved keywell to the split, tented design. In addition, the standard IBM 104 Enhanced Key layout is augmented by 22 multimedia and application keys for control of various programs including Word, Excel, Outlook, Media Player, Internet Explorer and basic audio. Most of the multimedia and application keys are programmable.

The keyboard is supplied with an installation CD which updates the keyboard Control Panel applet, providing control and customization for 30 different keys-all 22 additional keys, plus the Caps Lock, Left Windows and Application keys. The front edge of the keyboard is covered with a very nice, heavy gauge, matte, textured vinyl palm/wrist rest which works well for a good range of hand sizes. A series of indicator (LED) lights are positioned vertically between the halves of the palm/wrist rest.

Key contact bounce for the Microsoft Natural Ergonomic Keyboard 4000 is good at 10 milliseconds. The average maximum key operating force (KOF) is a moderate 55.5 grams making the touch very familiar, and similar to other good quality membrane-based keyboards. By comparison, the Kinesis Maxim keyboard with its smooth operating high quality mechanical key switches has a KOF of 51.7 grams. The Goldtouch KOF is rated at 54 grams, and the Unotron KOF is 65 grams. Efficient keying requires that keys function with minimum adequate force and with sufficient displacement to provide muscular feedback to the user. Key forces for current high production (read: good quality) keyboards are in the range of 40-125 grams with key displacements of 3 to 5 mm. The more proficient the user, the lighter the touch can be. If too little force is required, extra keys may be struck accidentally, and if too much force or displacement is required, some keys may fail to be actuated because the user did not press hard enough. Also, excessive force induces finger fatigue. Optimum force/displacement characteristics of a key require a steadily increasing force as the key is depressed until contact is made. Immediately beyond that point, the force is sharply changed so that users can easily "feel" when the key has been pressed sufficiently. Heavier touches are generally reserved for less experienced or occasional typists.

The Microsoft standard typing and key control ergonomics are typical of IBM 104-key enhanced layouts. This keyboard is busy though, with a total of 126 key, laser etched letters, numbers and symbols, with two labels on each of the 'F' keys-one on top, one on the front surface facing the typist. Laser etching is standard size except for the small markings on the front of the 'F' keys. Curiously, the secondary navigation and e-mail commands etched onto the top of the 'F' keys are more visible, not a good idea in a split, tented ergonomic keyboard because it makes the traditional 'F' key labels more difficult to identify.

Whether or not that balance of visibility suits you depends entirely on your primary uses for the computer. If you're keyboard oriented in the first place, getting used to taking advantage of all the built in application shortcuts seems very easy to do. There is a 'F' key lock that can be activated to set the keys to their standard use. Release the 'F' lock to activate the application commands. The order of the application keys on the upper row doesn't accurately follow the standard Windows application button positions-the Close and Print keys are in the wrong locations. The keyboard also sports five fully programmable keys (labeled 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5) with no provision for adding text labels.

My personal whines about the 104 Enhanced Key layout are not answered here because Microsoft adheres to the standard layout to prevent typing confusion. I have 'issues' with the 104 Enhanced Key layout. Why, for instance, is the Caps Lock key placed directly above the left Shift key? Most people don't use the Caps Lock more than once a day, but the left Ctrl key (which is generally used dozens of times per day) is positioned below and to the left, away from the main key area (just try to do Ctrl+F6 with one hand-it's impossible). -- that can be reprogrammed using Sharpkey -- NNB

The old XT/AT keyboard layout positioned the 'F' keys on the left end of the keyboard, in my opinion a much smarter and more productive location. Call me cranky, but I've always liked the old 84-key AT layout better. As well, the Esc key is off in space above the main QWERTY and numeric keys, and left of the 'F' keys. The rarely used tilde/back quote key is handier-put the Esc key there instead, or integrate it with the numeric keypad where it can be more intuitively used to clear calculator functions. The keyboard has a useful extra row of calculator function keys above the numeric keypad, so replacing its Num Lock with a duplicate Esc key would make this keyboard better for the spreadsheet, math/student, programmer and calculator crowd.

The programmable keyboards from Kinesis, Goldtouch and Pace allow you to remap keys within the hardware itself. Microsoft only provides this level of programmability in the Mac OS X configuration utility supplied with the Natural Ergonomic Keyboard 4000! Weird. On the other hand, despite the remappability in OS X, the keyboard is not supplied with replacement Option and Command key caps. Both situations are half-measures which detract from an otherwise well-made, good quality 'board.

Cons: This keyboard would be the perfect, all around productivity keyboard if it had professional quality mechanical key switches instead of the membrane key switches found in almost every consumer keyboard on the market. The effort put into designing and manufacturing a genuinely ergonomic layout and form factor is betrayed by the mundane and non-ergonomic key switches. For this kind of money there should be a small USB 1.1 or 2.0 hub. The key indicator (LED) lights are positioned between the palm/wrist rest halves, putting the LEDs below your field of view, necessitating a direct look in order to determine key status for Num Lock, Caps Lock, 'F' Lock and Scroll Lock. Key programming is limited mainly to additional keys only, and I'd like to see remapping controls for standard keys. Key shape should change next to the split-right now, they're elongated next to the split when they should be square (like the rest of the standard keys) in order to avoid mis-strikes until you adapt to the new layout. No Option or Command key caps for Mac OS X users. The keyboard is quiet-more like a laptop 'board than a productivity 'board, which I'm sure many people will love, but I prefer some key clatter to help key press identification and key strike accuracy.

Pros: Aside from my key switch and programmability complaints, this is a great keyboard. The additional parentheses keys above the numeric keypad are a huge help when doing calculations. The range and number of programmable additional keys is good, with application and program control extended to anything installed on your computer. The curved keywell works with the moderate split and upward tent angle to relieve most wrist and forearm stress caused by wrist pronation and rotational twisting. Additional angle/range adjustments can made using the rear feet elevations and the detachable front tilt plate. The keyboard (without the tilt plate) is quite thin compared to previous ergo 'boards from Microsoft. Typing response will satisfy most people, with key operating force right in the middle of the acceptable range. The moderate split angle is slightly smaller than the Natural Elite Pro, which should result in a shorter adjustment period for most people coming from a standard keyboard. Well designed, integrated palm/wrist rest. There's a Mac OS X configuration utility on the CD. Recommended.

Gray Data Cover Keytop Overlays

Gray Data Covers Gray Data Cover Overlays - Gray Data Cover Overlays include 72 gray overlays (stickers) that fit standard keyboard alphanumeric keys. The gray overlays are opaque and completely hide whatever appears on the original key. Price: $8.95
Beige Overlays Pebble Beige Data Cover Overlays - Suitable for blocking out keys on standard beige keyboards. The overlay set includes 72 beige overlays (stickers) that fit standard keyboard alphanumeric keys. Price: $8.95

Historic programmable keyboards

Steven G. from New York extols the pleasures of using the Versakey Keyboard. It's got 60 extra function keys across the top in addition to the usual 12 (which are on the left side), and all 60 keys are programmable via the keyboard, so no software's necessary.

"I'd rather go without pizza for a whole year than live without my MCK-142Pro," says Norman S. The Adesso MCK-142Pro has 24 programmable keys and a clickity-clack feel.

More than a dozen people wrote to say they're using old Gateway AnyKey 124-key programmable keyboards. These were copies of the MaxiPro-II, a programmable keyboard manufactured by MaxiPro with function keys on top and the side. I use one on a test PC and think it's terrific, with a comfortable feel. The downside, though, is that the Backspace key is way too small. I found about a dozen of these gems for sale on EBay; most sell for roughly $12.

Of course, if you try some of these older keyboards on a new PC, there may be complications. My old Northgate keyboard works fine with a fast 1.2-GHz PC, but to make it work I needed a $12 AT-to-PS/2 adapter. It's available at PawSense, a $20 utility (yeah, I agree, that's high) that is supposed to detect when a cat is walking across your keyboard. And no, I didn't test it--I don't have a cat.

Stay tuned for keyboard remappers, macro programs, and other keyboard odds and ends in next week's column.

Sign up to have Steve Bass's Home Office Newsletter e-mailed to you each week.

Programmable Keyboards

As described in the section on keystroke detection and scan code generation, keyboards don't send letters and numbers to the PC, but rather sets of scan codes. The keyboard decides what to send to the PC, and the PC decides how to interpret it. Programmable keyboards have an EEPROM (flash memory) to hold key definitions, even when power to the keyboard has been cut. They are great for users that really want control over their keyboard's layout and operation--people like me! :^) As I mentioned, I exclusively use programmable keyboards, in my case Gateway Anykey 124-key keyboards. The programming features let me overcome what I consider to be poor layout decisions in the standard 101-key "Enhanced" PC keyboard layout.

Tip: For many years Gateway included these keyboards as standard equipment on all their new PCs, but I believe they are now optional. They can in fact be used on any system, not just Gateway's PCs. Gateway officially sells them only to Gateway system buyers, but used Anykey keyboards are easy to find inexpensively at online auction sites. There are of course other manufacturers of programmable keyboards as well.

Keyboards with programming features usually include additional keys that control the programming of other keys. One important function of the programmability is the ability to "Remap" keys. You hit the "Remap" key, and then another two keys, and the original function of the first is transferred to the second. This lets you swap keys around or redefine the layout of the keyboard. For example, I use this to define the <Caps Lock> key on my keyboard to function as a <Ctrl> key. Since the change is made within the keyboard itself, the alteration is completely transparent to the system, and the keyboard can be moved to any PC and operate the same way.

Tip: One could also use this functionality to create the equivalent of a "hard-wired" Dvorak keyboard, for example, simply swapping the letter keys around to match the Dvorak pattern, with no software changes needed to the PC.

Another feature of these keyboards is the ability to define macros. These are strings of key sequences that are activated when a single key is pressed. Again, for many users they are not that important, but for others they are extremely useful. For example, you could program a single key to insert your entire email address into any program. Again, this is implemented at the keyboard level, so you can use strings of key sequences with all application, and even use special key sequences like <Alt>+<Tab> to move between applications or perform special operations.

One of my Gateway Anykey keyboards. Note the two sets of function keys--the ones on
the left-hand side are much more useful than the ones on top. :^) Although this picture shows
the <Caps Lock>, <Ctrl> and <Alt> keys in their traditional places, I have them logically
"shuffled" to suit my tastes. The group of four keys in the upper right corner are for programming.

Programmable keyboards have never been all that popular. For most typical PC users the programming features aren't needed, and so the additional cost of the programming feature isn't warranted. Worse, there are problems with programmable keyboards. Since keys can be remapped and macros defined, accidentally hitting the programming keys can cause the keyboard to change the meaning of any key on the keyboard, including fundamental ones like <Enter> or the <Space Bar>. If programming is activated and not shut off, the keyboard may "absorb" long sequences of characters into macro strings instead of sending them to the system, without the user realizing that this has happened.

This can create a great deal of confusion, and some companies have banned these keyboards from their offices entirely because the PC support people got tired of all the calls from users whose keyboards were "locked up", or questions regarding why the letter "Q" shows up when they press the "A" key. The omes cleared. It could also be used by two people sharing a keyboard (though that would be quite cumbersome if frequent switching was necessary.) Project details for XMacro

The XMacro package contains two programs (xmacrorec and xmacroplay) for recording and replaying keyboard and mouse events through the XTest extension on an X server. Project details for JeruKey

JeruKey is a small and fast utility that lets you bind actions to the miscellaneous keys on your keyboard. JeruKey also allows you to transform your keyboard's LED-indicators (Num_Lock, Caps_Lock, Scroll_Lock) into monitors which flash to indicate information. JeruKey also comes with an applet that displays information about the state of the keyboard indicators.

Searching for Keyboards Loaded with Features


In fact, the IBM keyboards with the tactile 'click' are indeed still produced (IBM sold off their keyboard division years ago, and they are sold under a different name).

You can buy one at PcKeyboard.Com []. They even offer an updated model with the additional Windows 95 keys (winkey and context menu), and a pointing stick (like the ones found on IBM thinkpads).

A detailed article on the old IBM keyboards can be found here []

The FK-8200 keyboard aka "EZ Pro" is a professional 126-keys keyboard with: Ergo wave design; Enlarge space bar; 3 windows 95 hot keys; 12 programmable function keys (each stores up to 20 ASCII codes); built-in patented calculator/clock; unique "SEND" key, that allows you to send the calculating result directly to the mouse pointer position; LED-indicator on key caps; and Easy-rest wrist support. This keyboard comes with a PS/2 connector (6 pins, round, size of 1/4").

There's only one answer, no need for a thread: (Score:5, Informative)
by FFFish (7567) on Thursday May 29, @09:03PM (#6073063)
PCKeyboard [], who own the rights to the venerable IBM high-tactile keyboards (aka "the wing of death").

They also have myriad options and some extremely programmable/configurable keyboards.

Focus Electronic (Score:5, Informative)
by Drakon (414580) * on Thursday May 29, @09:10PM (#6073104)
(Last Journal: Tuesday April 08, @05:32PM)
I use a keyboard from Focus Electronic [] called the FK-8200 []
I sincerly regret not waiting for the FK-9200 [] to become available, since it has a trackball in the center of the keyboard.
This keyboard is great.. it has a built in calculator, a clock with batteries for when the machine is off, and 12 macro keys that can be mapped to just about anything..
Re:Focus Electronic (Score:1)
by prestwich (123353) on Sunday June 01, @11:59AM (#6090355)
I've had a Focus 5001 that I picked up at a radio rally for £3 many years ago; it was my main keyboard for a long time - function keys down the left as well as accross the top, calculator in built and diagonal arrow keys!
Re:The Model M is The One True Keyboard (Score:2)
by the eric conspiracy (20178) <[email protected]> on Friday May 30, @02:21PM (#6079580)
Mapping keys is a software issue. If you can't map keys some reason, PCKeyboard sells a model M type keyboard under the name Linux 101 that comes out of the box with the control key next to the a.
Re:The Model M is The One True Keyboard (Score:2)
by GiMP (10923) on Friday May 30, @09:10PM (#6082268)
The model M is the best keyboard ever.

With that said, there are a few drawbacks which are very unfortunate:

  • They are only in PS/2 flavor.. no ADB, USB, etc.
  • They are no longer manufacturered
  • They only come in beige (or yellow, depending on age and environment).
  • Corded only, no wireless.
Re:The Model M is The One True Keyboard (Score:1)
by Bawko (132065) on Friday May 30, @09:46PM (#6082393)
Hallelujah, Brother!!!!
I have read the Model M postings with great interest, having used nothing else for over 5 years now. I used to go through keyboards like toilet paper - coffee spills, drops, and just plain cheap quality would insure it! No more - I found 3 Model M keyboards (including 2 half size models without the numeric keypad - Excellent!) in thrift stores, and I have NEVER looked back. Hail to the ruler - the undisputed champion of the keyboard gladiatorial arena! Model M! Model M! Model M!

P.S. The half size version carries IBM part number 1391472, if anyone is interested. Truly an excellent keyboard - and takes up less deskspace!

Windows is the best mouseless UI there is (Score:4, Insightful)
by farnsworth (558449) on Thursday May 29, @10:00PM (#6073364)
even under the mouse-hungry Windows GUI

Are you insane? I don't care for Windows, but it is the most advanced mouseless UI there is. You can do everything without even having a mouse plugged in at all. The same cannot be said for gnome/kde or X in general. Granted, Windows is decidedly not a CLI, like your ssh sessions, but it's still the best there is if you don't like to use a mouse.

I recall reading something about how some beta of windows 95 or NT 3.x failed a DOD acceptance test because a lot of it depended on the mouse, so Microsoft spent considerable time making it work fine in case of mouse failure.

extremetech has an article about this (Score:1)
by aditseng (644368) on Friday May 30, @02:34AM (#6074546)
ExtremeTech [] has a story Keyboard Craziness and Mouse Madness [] has a few interesting keyboards and mice beyond the ordinary.
New is also this article [] about a keyboard without a keyboard.
Speaking of keyboards (Score:2)
by DeadSea (69598) * on Friday May 30, @05:04AM (#6074919)
( | Last Journal: Thursday October 16, @08:47PM)
Does anybody know how to get all those extra keys (volume, forward, back, search, my computer, calculator, etc) to do something useful under linux?
Re:Speaking of keyboards (Score:1)
by jmertic (544942) on Friday May 30, @01:34PM (#6079109)
( | Last Journal: Tuesday January 07, @10:21AM)
Try LinEAK [] or you can use xmodmaps if you have a really wierd keyboard ( although LinEAK supports most keyboards out there and is extendible easily)
Re:Speaking of keyboards (Score:2)
by damiam (409504) <mathlete@bel[ ] ['lso' in gap]> on Monday June 02, @12:26PM (#6097087)
acme [] is native GNOME2 (although it should work with KDE) and provides an excellent gui for configuring/using those keys.
PI Engineering's X-Keys (Score:3, Informative)
by Zocalo (252965) on Friday May 30, @05:15AM (#6074943)
PI Engineering [] make a range of rather nifty "keyboard extenders" for all those keyboard macros. I've got my eyes on an X-Keys "Stick" or two, but want the USB version which has been "coming soon" for a few months now, so should be imminent. The only drawback is that the management software utility is Windows only, although you can still program the keys directly or use a Windows PC and then transfer the keyboard to a Mac/*NIX box. Since you have Windows anyway that shouldn't be a major problem in your case though. They seem open to developing custom solutions though, so *might* be prepared to provide the info necessary to develop a *NIX version of the programming tool. In my experiences with programmable keyboards however that's only really of use to people who need to either bulk program the things or flip between application specific macro sets.
Sun Type 5 USB keyboard (Score:1)
by pastie (80784) on Friday May 30, @11:12AM (#6077637)
I find these a joy to use, and although they don't have a built-in trackpad, they have a load more function keys down the left-hand side which you could program to perform whatever functions you like. These work fine under Linux, and I'm assuming they can be made to work with Windows too :)

Also, they have Super/Hyper/Meta modifier keys, so you'll have a load more keys you can use for your bindings that way too (no windows keys though, but I'm sure you could use one of the extra modifier keys as such if you so wished).

Re:music notation keyboard (Score:1)
by halfgeek (657613) on Sunday June 01, @01:00AM (#6088330)
That reminds me of this crazy garbage I ran across in my search: This Creative Labs keyboard with a nice set of "extra keys". [] Man.
I cant belive no one has linked to this yet.... (Score:2)
by Cyno01 (573917) <[email protected]> on Saturday May 31, @12:20PM (#6085170)
All hail Thinkgeek, they have some crazy keyboards [], built in gesturing [], zero force w/ gestures [], even ones with customizable sections []. They seem a bit pricey however, and theres a bit of a learning curve for zero force and gestures, but they may be what your looking for.
Gateway Anykey, if you can still find them. (Score:2)
by Gldm (600518) on Monday June 02, @02:15AM (#6093781)
These were great back when they were still being made. I'm sure they were sold under other names, but this is the only one I still remember. Everything fully programmable, including macros, 8way arrow pad with space in the center, and double set of function keys, both across the top and down the left side. Since you could assign any key to any value you wanted or a macro, you could make them do whatever you want. I used to reprogram them to dvorak before I gave up on it. Sometimes you run into these in the used parts bins for $10 at computer shows.

Gateway 2000 AnyKey PS/2 Programmable Keyboard

* You are bidding on a Gateway 2000 124 keys AnyKey PS/2 Programmable keyboard.
* Part number 2194002-00-002
* This programmable keyboard is identified by the presence of extra cursor keys pointing in diagonal directions and also extra keys such as PROGRAM MACRO, SUSPEND MACRO, REMAP, and REPEAT RATE.
* This keyboard is programmable - any of the keys can be reprogrammed as macros or can be remapped to other keys.
* This keyboard is pulled out from a working system and tested, so it is in good working condition. You are bidding on the keyboard only. There's no manual or software come with the keyboard. If you program the keyboard incorrectly, you can check out the information below.

To clear all macros and remappings: Press CTL-ALT-SUSPEND MACRO. The Program light on the keyboard will blink a few times for a few seconds and all macros and remappings are then cleared. If the Program light does not blink when pressing CTL-ALT-SUSPEND MACRO, the CTL or ALT keys may be remapped. To reset them: 1. Press REMAP once 2. Press CTL twice 3. Press ALT twice 4. Press REMAP once 5. Press CTL-ALT-SUSPEND MACRO to clear all macros.

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Programmable Computer Keyboards


Focus FK-9200 Programmable Keyboard KBTBCFPS2 $69.95

FOCUS Keyboard -- FK-9200 PS (PS/2 Model)

Focus FK-9200 keyboard $34

Focus 7200 PS/2 Keyboard

Welcom to PC Century FOCUS-9200 PS-2 $35

FK-9200 is a programmable keyboard with patented built-in trackball (US Patent No. Des. 364,400), 10-digit calculator/ clock, 12 programmable function keys, key-lock function, 3 Windows keys and palm rest for added comfort. Patented Built-In Trackball The first in keyboard technology to integrate a 25 mm trackball ideally located in the center of the ergo-wave design enlarged space bar, which allows the users to manipulate the trackball and the keyboard at the same time without lifting the hands away from the keyboard. This built-in trackball is easily accessible by either thumb. Patented Built-In Calculator/Clock FK9200 comes with a dual power 10-digit calculator which works independently or as part of the keyboard. The calculator either gets its power from the system or from the battery when the computer is off. After 3 minutes of idleness, the calculator will automatically switch itself into the "CLOCK" mode. Programmable Keys The additional 12 programmable function keys simplify the input of a command or a string of characters into one single keystroke. This feature saves the users from the annoying repetitive key-in tasks by defining the most frequently used commands or words to the 12 programmable Key-Lock Function A special function to avoid the file you are editing from being destroyed by accident when you take a short leave from your working table. The computer will ignore any signal entered onto the keyboard once the keyboard is locked.When you choose FK-9200. You also get the expertise behind Focus Electronic one of the world║╕s leading manufacturers of computer products.

Foot pedals

X-keys Foot Pedal by P.I. Engineering

X-keys Professional Programmable Keyboard (58 keys)

Replace repetitive keystrokes or mouse clicks with the action of your foot. Enter, Tab, Shift, Ctrl, Alt, Left Click, Right Click, and Center Click easily program into the X-keys Foot Pedal. Anything you can type on the keyboard can be memorized by the X-keys including Key combinations like Copy (Ctrl+C), Paste (Ctrl+V), Save (Ctrl+S), and Next Program (Alt+Tab).



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