May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)
Home Switchboard Unix Administration Red Hat TCP/IP Networks Neoliberalism Toxic Managers
(slightly skeptical) Educational society promoting "Back to basics" movement against IT overcomplexity and  bastardization of classic Unix

Filesystems tips

News Linux Disk Management Recommended Links Linux filesystems /etc/fstab/ mount command Mounting Linux filesystems Mount Options
Proc pseudo file system Linux LVM-based Snapshots Linux tmpfs Linux Swap filesystem Swap file      
Linux Disk Partitioning   Filesystems Recovery Solaris mount   Admin Horror Stories Humor Etc

Remounting filesystem with new attributes

mount -o remount,rw /

you can also loop mount cd images

mount -t iso9660 -o loop /iso/documents.iso /mnt/cdimage

List partitions

fdisk -l 

partprobe - inform the OS of partition table changes

One of the major benefits to using Red Hat Enterprise Linux is that once the operating system is up and running, it tends to stay that way. This also holds true when it comes to reconfiguring a system; mostly. One Achilles heel for Linux, until the past couple of years, has been the fact that the Linux kernel only reads partition table information at system initialization, necessitating a reboot any time you wish to add new disk partitions to a running system.

The good news, however, is that disk re-partitioning can now also be handled 'on-the-fly' thanks to the 'partprobe' command, which is part of the 'parted' package.

Using 'partprobe' couldn't be more simple. Any time you use 'fdisk', 'parted' or any other favorite partitioning utility you may have to modify the partition table for a drive, run 'partprobe' after you exit the partitioning utility and 'partprobe' will let the kernel know about the modified partition table information. If you have several disk drives and want to specify a specific drive for 'partprobe' to scan, you can run 'partprobe <device_node>'

Of course, given a particular hardware configuration, shutting down your system to add hardware may be unavoidable, it's still nice to be given the option of not having to do so and 'partprobe' fills that niche quite nicely.

partprobe [-d] [-s] [devices...]  


This manual page documents briefly the partprobe command.

partprobe is a program that informs the operating system kernel of partition table changes, by requesting that the operating system re-read the partition table.  


This program uses short UNIX style options.
Don't update the kernel.
Show a summary of devices and their partitions.
Show summary of options.
Show version of program.

Converting ext 2 to ext3 File System

To convert an ext2  filesystem to ext3, log in as root and type the following command in a terminal:

/sbin/tune2fs -j <block_device>

where <block_device> contains the ext2 filesystem you wish to convert.

A valid block device could be one of two types of entries:

Issue the df  command to display mounted file systems.

For the remainder of this section, the sample commands use the following value for the block device:


You must recreate the initrd image so that it will contain the ext3 kernel module. To create this, run the mkinitrd  program. For information on using the mkinitrd  command, type man mkinitrd. Also, make sure your GRUB configuration loads the initrd.

If you fail to make this change, the system still boots, but the file system is mounted as ext2 instead of ext3.

Top Visited
Past week
Past month


Old News ;-)

linux - How can I shrink an LVM partition on CentOS - Server Fault

Growing file system is easy. Shrinking the file system is trickier and not supported by all file systems. ext3 and ext4 do support shrinking, though, but BE VERY CAREFUL WITH IT. Make absolutely sure you have good backups. Then, verify once more you have good backups.

You should first shrink the file system itself with resize2fs /dev/yourdevice newsizegoeshere.

Next you need to shrink the logical volume: lvresize -L X /path/to/your/logical_volume, where X is the new size expressed in some way. I purposely left out the syntax, see man lvresize for available options to see your preferred way to tell the new size. You can subtract from the old size or just specify the new size.

Next you need to shrink the volume group itself with vgresize, if you see that necessary. Alternatively you can just create new logical volumes inside the volume group, now that the previous step with lvresize gave you some space to breathe.

If you took the vgresize route, you finally need to adjust the partition size with fdisk by deleting the partition, and recreating it with the exactly same starting block as before and making the size smaller than before.

EDIT: It appears that with LVM2 volume group shrinking is not that trivial thing to do. You may need to delete the volume group and recreate it... oh dear. So, how about my footnote, would it work?

If you and/or software fail in any of these steps, your data goes boof. So once more: MAKE SURE YOU HAVE GOOD BACKUPS.

Oh, and as your copy-paste mentions VMware: could you just create a new virtual disk in VMware, copy over your stuff from your over-sized disk to the new disk, nuke the over-sized disk from the orbit and call it a day?

Recommended Links

Google matched content

Softpanorama Recommended




Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers :   Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism  : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy


War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda  : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotesSomerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose BierceBernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes


Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 :  Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method  : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law


Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds  : Larry Wall  : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOSProgramming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC developmentScripting Languages : Perl history   : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history

Classic books:

The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-MonthHow to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Hater’s Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite

Most popular humor pages:

Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor

The Last but not Least Technology is dominated by two types of people: those who understand what they do not manage and those who manage what they do not understand ~Archibald Putt. Ph.D

Copyright © 1996-2021 by Softpanorama Society. was initially created as a service to the (now defunct) UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) without any remuneration. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License. Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.

FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.

This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...

You can use PayPal to to buy a cup of coffee for authors of this site


The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the Softpanorama society. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose. The site uses AdSense so you need to be aware of Google privacy policy. You you do not want to be tracked by Google please disable Javascript for this site. This site is perfectly usable without Javascript.

Last modified: February, 05, 2017