||Home||Switchboard||Unix Administration||Red Hat||TCP/IP Networks||Neoliberalism||Toxic Managers|
|(slightly skeptical) Educational society promoting "Back to basics" movement against IT overcomplexity and bastardization of classic Unix|
|News||Access Control||Recommended Links||Rainbow Books||Root Account||The /etc/passwd File||Root Security|
|ACL||Solaris ACLs||Linux ACL||Solaris RBAC||Sudo||PAM||UID policy|
|Group administration||Wheel Group||Authentication||Unix permissions model||History||Humor||Etc|
UIDs can be arbitrarily assigned, but admins generally employ a special method (usually using a database) for the assignment. There is also a range at which to begin allocating UIDs.
User UID is derived from some company database, which provide a unique UID that is used on all systems. That avoids the problem with "disowned files" after the transfer files from one system to another.
The NFS version 3 protocol, strictly speaking, does not define the permission checking used by servers. However, it is expected that a server will do normal operating system permission checking using AUTH_UNIX style authentication as the basis of its protection mechanism, or another stronger form of authentication such as AUTH_DES or AUTH_KERB. With AUTH_UNIX authentication, the server gets the client's effective uid, effective gid, and groups on each call and uses them to check permission. These are the so-called UNIX credentials. AUTH_DES and AUTH_KERB use a network name, or netname, as the basis for identification (from which a UNIX server derives the necessary standard UNIX credentials). There are problems with this method that have been solved.
Using uid and gid implies that the client and server share the same uid list. Every server and client pair must have the same mapping from user to uid and from group to gid. Since every client can also be a server, this tends to imply that the whole network shares the same uid/gid space. If this is not the case, then it usually falls upon the server to perform some custom mapping of credentials from one authentication domain into another. A discussion of techniques for managing a shared user space or for providing mechanisms for user ID mapping is beyond the scope of this specification.
Another problem arises due to the usually stateful open operation. Most operating systems check permission at open time, and then check that the file is open on each read and write request. With stateless servers, the server cannot detect that the file is open and must do permission checking on each read and write call. UNIX client semantics of access permission checking on open can be provided with the ACCESS procedure call in this revision, which allows a client to explicitly check access permissions without resorting to trying the operation. On a local file system, a user can open a file and then change the permissions so that no one is allowed to touch it, but will still be able to write to the file because it is open. On a remote file system, by contrast, the write would fail. To get around this problem, the server's permission checking algorithm should allow the owner of a file to access it regardless of the permission setting. This is needed in a practical NFS version 3 protocol server implementation, but it does depart from correct local file system semantics. This should not affect the return result of access permissions as returned by the ACCESS procedure, however.
A similar problem has to do with paging in an executable program over the network. The operating system usually checks for execute permission before opening a file for demand paging, and then reads blocks from the open file. In a local UNIX file system, an executable file does not need read permission to execute (pagein). An NFS version 3 protocol server can not tell the difference between a normal file read (where the read permission bit is meaningful) and a demand pagein read (where the server should allow access to the executable file if the execute bit is set for that user or group or public). To make this work, the server allows reading of files if the uid given in the call has either execute or read permission on the file, through ownership, group membership or public access. Again, this departs from correct local file system semantics.
In most operating systems, a particular user (on UNIX, the uid 0) has access to all files, no matter what permission and ownership they have. This superuser permission may not be allowed on the server, since anyone who can become superuser on their client could gain access to all remote files. A UNIX server by default maps uid 0 to a distinguished value (UID_NOBODY), as well as mapping the groups list, before doing its access checking. A server implementation may provide a mechanism to change this mapping. This works except for NFS version 3 protocol root file systems (required for diskless NFS version 3 protocol client support), where superuser access cannot be avoided. Export options are used, on the server, to restrict the set of clients allowed superuser access.
Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers : Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy
War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotes : Somerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose Bierce : Bernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes
Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law
Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds : Larry Wall : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOS : Programming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC development : Scripting Languages : Perl history : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history
The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-Month : How to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Haterís Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite
Most popular humor pages:
Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor
The Last but not Least Technology is dominated by two types of people: those who understand what they do not manage and those who manage what they do not understand ~Archibald Putt. Ph.D
Copyright © 1996-2021 by Softpanorama Society. www.softpanorama.org was initially created as a service to the (now defunct) UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) without any remuneration. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License. Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.
FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.
This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...
|You can use PayPal to to buy a cup of coffee for authors of this site|
Last modified: March, 12, 2019