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Apache mod_rewrite tips

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mod rewrite uses Perl-compatible regular expressions.


Old News ;-)

[Aug 23, 2012] Crazy Advanced Mod_Rewrite Debug Tutorial

A lot of the mod_rewrite "experts" and "gurus" floating around the net absolutely know their mod_rewrite, but what separates them from a beginner or novice is for the most part an understanding of what the URLS and Variables look like that are targeted by the regular expressions. Take this simple rewriterule that rewrites requests made without the www to www.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\.askapache\.com$ [NC]
RewriteRule .+{REQUEST_URI}

Pretty simple right? WRONG. Most people could not figure that out..

.HTACCESS files useful tips and tricks

Garnet Chaney Dot

By Garnet R. Chaney

Enabling server-side includes

Modifying the Environment

Adding new MIME types

Restricting documents

Authcate Restricted Documents

Protecting a single file

Redirecting the client

Rewriting the URL

Aside: Regular Expressions

More Rewrite voodoo

Want More Info About Apache Directives?

Source: Liberal borrowing from

Apache mod_rewrite and examples " Support Portal

What is mod_rewrite? Mod Rewrite allows you to change the URL that everyone sees when they visit your domain or a specific address. Just add the code to your .htaccess file (typically the one inside public_html).

Please remember we do not offer support to code this, nor do we promise to make your code work.


#Specify a default home page (index page)
DirectoryIndex home.html

#Allow only specified IPs to access your site
deny from all
allow from
allow from

# Never use www in the domain
# Replace '' with your domain name
RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(([a-z0-9_]+\.)?example\.com)$ [NC]
RewriteRule .? http://%1%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]

# Always use www in the domain
# Replace '' with your domain name
RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^([a-z.]+)?example\.com$ [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
RewriteRule .?{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]

# Set a default home directory, (this subfolder always loads)
# Replace 'folder' with your subfolder name
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule ^$ /folder/ [R=301,L]

# Rename a directory and force visitors to the new name
# Replace 'old' with your old folder name
# Replace 'new' with your new folder name
RewriteEngine on
RewriteRule ^/?old([a-z/.]*)$ /new$1 [R=301,L]

# Always use https for secure connections
# Replace '' with your domain name
# (as it appears on your SSL certificate)
RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} 80
RewriteRule ^(.*)$$1 [R=301,L]

# Block traffic from multiple referrers
RewriteEngine on
Options +FollowSymlinks
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} badsite\.com [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} badforum\.com [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} badsearchengine\.com[NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]

"Leveraging `mod_rewrite`" - Mike West

Sunday, May 14, 2006

I have three kinds of mod_rewrite rules in my .htaccess file:

Through judicious application of these mod_rewrite rules, I have more or less complete control over the URLs people use to visit my site, and moreover, control over the way search engines deal with my old (and at times obsolete) content.

"This Doesn't Exist Anymore" Rules

Once upon a time, I uploaded some mp3's to a super secret directory on my webserver so that I could download them at the office and enjoy some tunes on my horridly locked-down work machine. As you might guess, the super secret directory name was neither particularly super, nor spectacularly secret. MP3 search engines tracked down the directory within hours, and I realized my mistake after my bandwidth usage for the week skyrocketed.

I killed off the directory pretty quickly, but the damage was done. I was still getting tons of hits for those non-existent files, and the 'file not found' responses were making it pretty much impossible to get any useful information out of my error logs.

The right thing to do in this situation is to serve up a 410 ('Gone') HTTP error for any and all requests for files that were sitting around at some point in the past, but have since been removed. mod_rewrite makes this an absolute breeze:

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/mp3/ [NC] RewriteRule ^(.*) - [G,L] 

In fact, I have a whole series of rules that return 410 errors. The relevant section of my .htaccess files looks like:

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/mint [NC,OR] RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/mp3 [NC,OR] RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/matchmaker [NC,OR] RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/ars/? [NC] RewriteRule ^(.*) - [G,L] 

The OR at the end of each RewriteCond chains them together in exactly the way you might imagine. If any of the conditions matches, then the rule triggers, and a 410 error code is returned. Brilliant!

"Go Away" Rules

Along with 410 error codes, you'll probably also find some use for 403 ('Forbidden') errors. For example, if you deploy content with CVS or SVN, then you've got files sitting around in your public document root that contain information you'd probably prefer not to share with everyone in the world (see Dan Benjamin's explanation for discussion of this very issue with Ruby on Rails' Capistrano). The files exist, so you shouldn't send a 404 ('Not Found') or a 410 ('Gone') error, but do you want to forbid access via the web. The following rules solve the problem:

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^(.*/)?CVS/ [NC,OR] RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^(.*/)?\.svn/ [NC] RewriteRule ^(.*) - [F,L] 

The first line tests to see whether or not the requested CVS or .svn file actually exists before throwing a 403 ('Forbidden') error. It's a bit pedantic, but one ought not return a 'Forbidden' error for a file that's really 'Not Found'.

It's also worth noting here that the OR binds more tightly than the implicit AND in the first line. The rules therefore evaluate to something like "If the file exists AND (it's a CVS OR .svn file)", which makes sense for this application.

"Fixing Other People's Links" Rules

I've used a few domains over the lifetime of this blog, and search engines have links to files on all of them. Since I want all my URLs to refer to the same domain (to reduce confusion, and accumulate Page Rank correctly), I use mod_rewrite to map all requests to those other domains to my domain of choice. John Gruber's recent .htaccess article does a brilliant job explaining this sort of redirection, so I'll just note the syntax I use here (I like to explicitly note that the error code is 301 ('Moved Permanently') instead of using the full name, but that's simply personal preference; both work fine):

RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^(www\.)?reversal\.org$ [NC] RewriteRule ^(.*)$1 [R=301,L] 

Beyond differing domains, I've used a number of different URL schemas. Before I migrated to TextPattern, each article on the site was accessible via a URL that looked something like '/blog/id/<id number>'. I wasn't a huge fan of this URL schema, and I welcomed the chance to flip to something that made more sense. The new URL schema looks like '/archive/<short title>', which is friendlier both to end-users and search engines.

The problem, of course, is that the articles on the old site had been indexed by search engines, and linked by other bloggers. When I migrated to the new URL schema, I wanted to make sure that those old links would still go somewhere relevant.

There isn't much to say about this, really, as it's simply a manual mapping from URL #1 to URL #2 using a 301 ('Moved Permanently') error code:

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/blog/id/12 [NC] RewriteRule ^.*$ /archive/event-handlers-and-other-distractions? [R=301,L] 

If you're planning a similar move, it would be best to determine which of your pages are actually linked regularly by other sites, and generate the mod_rewrite rules that are most relevant to your circumstances. I examined my 'Not Found' error logs religiously for the first couple of days after moving to the new framework, and created mod_rewrite rules for any errors that popped up more than once or twice.

This practice is actually a good ongoing maintenance idea. In his recent Django talk at Google, Jacob Kaplan-Moss mentioned that the Django team uses the 'Not Found' errors as a useful source of user suggestions. If people continually look for an '/archives/' URL, then maybe it's a good idea to make one, or write a mod_rewrite rule to direct that request to your '/past-posts/' page, etc. For example, I'm directing a few 'suggestions' to my bio:

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/resume.php [NC,OR] RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/contact.php [NC,OR] RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/contact/ [NC,OR] RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/resume/ [NC,OR] RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/bio.php [NC] RewriteRule ^(.*) [R=301,L] 


  1. Older post: mcw_ma_gnolia
  2. Newer post: Working with Subversion File Properties

This entry was published on Sunday, May 14, 2006. Articles published around the same time can be found in the archive.

Further reading: If you enjoyed this post, you might like to take a look at some of my other posts about 'HOWTO'. I've also made available a list of all the topics I've written about if you're interested in my (folkless) folksonomy.

Htaccess rewrites, Mod_Rewrite Tricks and Tips

Mod_Rewrite Tips and Tricks are lot of .htaccess rewrite examples that show specific uses for creating .htaccess rewrites to do all kinds of cool and profitable stuff for your site. Htaccess Rewrites are enabled by using the Apache module mod_rewrite, which is one of the most powerful Apache modules and features availale. Htaccess Rewrites through mod_rewrite provide the special ability to Rewrite requests internally as well as Redirect request externally.

When the url in your browser's location bar stays the same for a request it is an internal rewrite, when the url changes an external redirection is taking place. This is one of the first, and one of the biggest mental-blocks people have when learning about mod_rewrite… But I have a secret weapon for you to use, a new discovery from years of research that makes learning mod_rewrite drastically quicker and easier. It truly does or I wouldn't be saying so in the introduction of this article.

Despite the tons of examples and docs, mod_rewrite is voodoo.
Damned cool voodoo, but still voodoo.
Brian Moore

Note: After years of fighting to learn my way through rewriting urls with mod_rewrite, I finally had a breakthrough and found a way to outsmart the difficulty of mod_rewrite that I just couldn't seem to master. The Mod_Rewrite RewriteCond/RewriteRule Variable Value Cheatsheet is the one-of-a-kind tool that changed the game for me and made mod_rewriting no-harder than anything else.

So keep that mod_rewrite reference bookmarked and you will be able to figure out any RewriteRule or RewriteCond, an amazing feat considering it took me a LONG time to figure this stuff out on my own. But that was before the craziness, one of the most challenging and productive .htaccess experiments I've done… An experiment so ILL it's sick like a diamond disease on your wrist! $$$. That mod_rewrite experiment/tutorial was the culmination of many different advanced mod_rewrite experiments I had done in the past and included most of my very best .htaccess tricks. With the cheatsheet it's no longer Voodoo.. Its just what you do. Now lets dig in!

Some handy links to help you navigate this page:

Htaccess rewrites TOC

If you really want to take a look, check out the mod_rewrite.c and mod_rewrite.h files.

Be aware that mod_rewrite (RewriteRule, RewriteBase, and RewriteCond) code is executed for each and every HTTP request that accesses a file in or below the directory where the code resides, so it's always good to limit the code to certain circumstances if readily identifiable.

For example, to limit the next 5 RewriteRules to only be applied to .html and .php files, you can use the following code, which tests if the url does not end in .html or .php and if it doesn't, it will skip the next 5 RewriteRules.

RewriteRule !\.(html|php)$ - [S=5]
RewriteRule ^.*-(vf12|vf13|vf5|vf35|vf1|vf10|vf33|vf8).+$ - [S=1]

.htaccess rewrite examples should begin with:

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /

Require the www

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\.askapache\.com$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$$1 [R=301,L]

Loop Stopping Code

Sometimes your rewrites cause infinite loops, stop it with one of these rewrite code snippets.

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/(stats/|missing\.html|failed_auth\.html|error/).* [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [L]
RewriteCond %{ENV:REDIRECT_STATUS} 200
RewriteRule .* - [L]

Cache-Friendly File Names

This is probably my favorite, and I use it on every site I work on. It allows me to update my javascript and css files in my visitors cache's simply by naming them differently in the html, on the server they stay the same name. This rewrites all files for /zap/j/anything-anynumber.js to /zap/j/anything.js and /zap/c/anything-anynumber.css to /zap/c/anything.css

RewriteRule ^zap/(j|c)/([a-z]+)-([0-9]+)\.(js|css)$ /zap/$1/$2.$4 [L]

SEO friendly link for non-flash browsers

When you use flash on your site and you properly supply a link to download flash that shows up for non-flash aware browsers, it is nice to use a shortcut to keep your code clean and your external links to a minimum. This code allows me to link to for non-flash aware browsers.

RewriteRule ^getflash/?$ [NC,L,R=307]

Removing the Query_String

On many sites, the page will be displayed for both page.html and page.html?anything=anything, which hurts your SEO with duplicate content. An easy way to fix this issue is to redirect external requests containing a query string to the same uri without the query_string.

RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^GET\ /.*\;.*\ HTTP/
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} !^$
RewriteRule .*{REQUEST_URI}? [R=301,L]

Sending requests to a php script

This .htaccess rewrite example invisibly rewrites requests for all Adobe pdf files to be handled by /cgi-bin/pdf-script.php

RewriteRule ^(.+)\.pdf$  /cgi-bin/pdf-script.php?file=$1.pdf [L,NC,QSA]

Setting the language variable based on Client

For sites using multiviews or with multiple language capabilities, it is nice to be able to send the correct language automatically based on the clients preferred language.

RewriteCond %{HTTP:Accept-Language} ^.*(de|es|fr|it|ja|ru|en).*$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ - [env=prefer-language:%1]

Deny Access To Everyone Except PHP fopen

This allows access to all files by php fopen, but denies anyone else.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^.+$ [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F,L]

If you are looking for ways to block or deny specific requests/visitors, then you should definately read Blacklist with mod_rewrite. I give it a 10/10

Deny access to anything in a subfolder except php fopen

This can be very handy if you want to serve media files or special downloads but only through a php proxy script.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^[A-Z]{3,9}\ /([^/]+)/.*\ HTTP [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F,L]

Require no www

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^askapache\.com$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$$1 [R=301,L]

Check for a key in QUERY_STRING

Uses a RewriteCond Directive to check QUERY_STRING for passkey, if it doesn't find it it redirects all requests for anything in the /logged-in/ directory to the /login.php script.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} !passkey
RewriteRule ^/logged-in/(.*)$ /login.php [L]

Removes the QUERY_STRING from the URL

If the QUERY_STRING has any value at all besides blank than the?at the end of /login.php? tells mod_rewrite to remove the QUERY_STRING from login.php and redirect.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} .
RewriteRule ^login.php /login.php? [L]

Fix for infinite loops

An error message related to this isRequest exceeded the limit of 10 internal redirects due to probable configuration error. Use 'LimitInternalRecursion' to increase the limit if necessary. Use 'LogLevel debug' to get a backtrace.or you may seeRequest exceeded the limit,probable configuration error,Use 'LogLevel debug' to get a backtrace, orUse 'LimitInternalRecursion' to increase the limit if necessary

RewriteCond %{ENV:REDIRECT_STATUS} 200
RewriteRule .* - [L]

External Redirect .php files to .html files (SEO friendly)

RewriteRule ^(.*)\.php$ /$1.html [R=301,L]

Internal Redirect .php files to .html files (SEO friendly)

Redirects all files that end in .html to be served from filename.php so it looks like all your pages are .html but really they are .php

RewriteRule ^(.*)\.html$ $1.php [R=301,L]

block access to files during certain hours of the day

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
# If the hour is 16 (4 PM) Then deny all access
RewriteCond %{TIME_HOUR} ^16$
RewriteRule ^.*$ - [F,L]

Rewrite underscores to hyphens for SEO URL

Converts all underscores "_" in urls to hyphens "-" for SEO benefits… See the full article for more info.

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteRule !\.(html|php)$ - [S=4]
RewriteRule ^([^_]*)_([^_]*)_([^_]*)_([^_]*)_(.*)$ $1-$2-$3-$4-$5 [E=uscor:Yes]
RewriteRule ^([^_]*)_([^_]*)_([^_]*)_(.*)$ $1-$2-$3-$4 [E=uscor:Yes]
RewriteRule ^([^_]*)_([^_]*)_(.*)$ $1-$2-$3 [E=uscor:Yes]
RewriteRule ^([^_]*)_(.*)$ $1-$2 [E=uscor:Yes]
RewriteCond %{ENV:uscor} ^Yes$
RewriteRule (.*)$1 [R=301,L]

Require the www without hardcoding

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\.[a-z-]+\.[a-z]{2,6} [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ([a-z-]+\.[a-z]{2,6})$     [NC]
RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]

Require no subdomain

RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} \.([a-z-]+\.[a-z]{2,6})$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]

Require no subdomain

RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} \.([^\.]+\.[^\.0-9]+)$
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]

Redirecting WordPress Feeds to Feedburner

Full article:Redirecting WordPress Feeds to Feedburner

RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/feed\.gif$
RewriteRule .* - [L]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} !^.*(FeedBurner|FeedValidator) [NC]
RewriteRule ^feed/?.*$ [L,R=302]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule . /index.php [L]

Only allow GET and PUT Request Methods

Article: Request Methods

RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteRule .* - [F]

Prevent Files image/file hotlinking and bandwidth stealing

RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://(www\.)?*$ [NC]
RewriteRule \.(gif|jpg|swf|flv|png)$ /feed/ [R=302,L]

Stop browser prefetching

RewriteEngine On
SetEnvIfNoCase X-Forwarded-For .+ proxy=yes
SetEnvIfNoCase X-moz prefetch no_access=yes
# block pre-fetch requests with X-moz headers
RewriteCond %{ENV:no_access} yes
RewriteRule .* - [F,L]

This module uses a rule-based rewriting engine (based on a regular-expression parser) to rewrite requested URLs on the fly. It supports an unlimited number of rules and an unlimited number of attached rule conditions for each rule, to provide a really flexible and powerful URL manipulation mechanism. The URL manipulations can depend on various tests, of server variables, environment variables, HTTP headers, or time stamps. Even external database lookups in various formats can be used to achieve highly granular URL matching.

This module operates on the full URLs (including the path-info part) both in per-server context (httpd.conf) and per-directory context (.htaccess) and can generate query-string parts on result. The rewritten result can lead to internal sub-processing, external request redirection or even to an internal proxy throughput.

Further details, discussion, and examples, are provided in the detailed mod_rewrite documentation.


If you aren't already comfortable using mod_rewrite then I recommend this excellent mod_rewrite guide by one of my favorite mod_rewrite gurus that I've met.

htaccess Guide Sections

" Search Engine Friendly Redirects | .htaccess Tutorial Index | " Speed up your site with Caching and cache-control

" Blocking Bad Bots and Scrapers with .htaccess
Undetectable Sniffing On Ethernet "

My Picks
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The love of liberty is the love of others; the love of power is the love of ourselves.
-- William Hazlitt

htaccess Guide

The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect. Tim Berners-Lee

Leave your own comment

Reader Comments

  1. rahat ~

    i want to add a page automatically to user made directory like giving it a new URL on the site so if any one can help me on this

  2. ash ~

    excellent post….thanks :)

  3. perochak ~


    I am looking for HTaccess code for Pagination.

    I have the url as

    Any one can help??


  4. Jerome Bailey ~

    this was good and helpful man. keep it up.

    one concern though, when i tried to use the rule to rewrite hyphens to underscores, images on a particular page were not showing up, do you know why?

  5. Thomas ~


    "Require the www without hard coding" does not work, any solutions???

    Options +FollowSymLinks
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteBase /
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\.[a-z-]+\.[a-z]{2,6} [NC]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ([a-z-]+\.[a-z]{2,6})$     [NC]
    RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]
  6. mejrel ~

    my htaccess file works ok when i enter parameters manually on address bar but i want to redirect to that url permanently. How can i do that please help.. My htaccess file look like this:

    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteRule ^catalog-([^-]*)-([^-]*)-([^-]*)-([^-]*)\.html$ /s_list.php?loc=$1&type=$2&price1=$3&price2=$4 [L]
  7. SALIM ~

    Hi friends:
    Instead of having this URL :
    I want to hide only the port and the URL will be like this:

    What I do to resolve this problem.

    Thanks a lot for your response

  8. wyrmmage ~

    The "Make a prefetching hint for Firefox." link goes nowhere, because the section is not present in the page.

  9. BrianMI ~

    This tutorial was helpful, but I'm not able to get a rewrite done on my site.

    In essence here is what I want to happen:

    301 redirect


    Can anyone share how to do this exactly? (this is all on a wordpress site)

  10. Irfan Suleman ~

    awesome, thanks

  11. Snehasis Mohapatra ~

    Below lines are used to redirect anything in the URl after the domain to a single file .

    1st two lines are used to block the URL used regularly for including CSS/JS these such files and the 3rd one is to redirect all urls to a single PHP file.

    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteRule ^(.*)+$ yourfile.php [NC]

    Hope this may help you in any way.


  12. Vikram ~

    I knew about skip functionality in htaccess from this post and it solved my big problem on which I spend 2hrs.

    Thank you.
    Thank you very much.


  13. Roman ~

    Leslie wrote:

    I have a WordPress site and am using:

    RedirectMatch 302 /download/example(.*)$1

    for redirects in my .htaccess file to my affiliate links but everything seems to go horribly wrong when using ampersands in my redirected urls and they are required in many instances.
    Anyone have any ideas on how to fix this?

    Try escaping ampersands with a back slash. I've had the same problem, and that's how I've solved it.

  14. Earneste ~

    I have a lot of duplicate pages created with query strings such as this or

    There are no equal signs in the query strings. I have done a extensive search can not find the source of this. Google somehow sees these url with query strings but i can't

    How can i used mod rewrite to remove them?

    I used the following below but it does not seem to work

    RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^GET\ /.*\;.*\ HTTP/
    RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} !^$
    RewriteRule .*{REQUEST_URI}? [R=301,L]
  15. Philippe ~

    thanks, good tutorial

    If I use your code for Cache-Friendly File Names, is it going to create 301 redirects or is it Apache internal rewrite?

    thank you,

  16. revanth ~


    I have used url rewrite to my site, and in my site I have a page products.php I used it to redirect to rewrite.html and it is working fine. But the client wants to redirect the site to the same page i.e, rewrite.html if he hard codes the URL. Also i.e, if he directly types the URL in the browser please give me solution.

  17. Alessio ~

    How to get read of the ID? i have

    There are 2 Things i would like to achieve:

    1. Most important is getting read of the id "8″
    2. Might be able to figure out myself, just want to have a slash instead of a filetype at the end. Like: /

    This would be the goal, no id, nice slash. Any help highly appreciated.

  18. tonilony ~


    I use the free CMS Joomla for my websites. Now I changed my .htaccess for removing the query_string. Unfortunately Joomla uses in the back-end the query_string for different options. This looks like: Therefore I would like to exclude this url/folder from removing the query_string. I would really appreciate your help.

    Thanks, Toni

  19. pera webbhotell ~

    Hi I need a RewriteCond that will take
 is any domain that must end with .se

    and then a RewriteRule to get it like this[]

    have been trying some days now….

  20. Abhi ~

    I was reading and i just cant understand which line to use?

    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^ [NC] 
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$$1 [R=301,NC] 
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\.domain\.com$ [NC]
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$$1 [R=301,NC] 

    Both seem to work ok?

  21. Ali Honari ~

    I have 5 landing pages and I want .htaccess code for this:
    Sample 5 pages Landing URLs Examples:

    (pt,mbc,it,ea,fq are folders and all are having own index.php file)
    I want to put that kind of URLs on net (for craiglist , facebook etcc. for advertisments purpose.)

    if any access above URL it should be back to

    FYI: Facebook_ad_5 is any word, where i ll place the i ll leave links but it should be redirect to the index.php of the folder.

    Thanks for help.

  22. sweta makode ~


    In my website I used the url like which i had done using mod_rewrite in .htaccess file,originally the url is like =user&pid=page.php, but now the client had asked me for the url like , is it possible to get it done by URL mapping and using the concept of virtual subdomain or I have to introduce the concept of subdomains creation in my website to get it done.

    Please reply asap.


  23. movers ~

    Excellent information, lots of helpful tips, I have been racking my brain trying to find ways to do this, and then I found askapache!

  24. Priya ~


    I want to direct to

    I will be having the folder user1 in root. Can anyone suggest an htaccess rewrite for this?


  25. Php Resources ~

    I found rewriting on my site with same using hyphen

  26. Phil ~

    Shouldn't the "Internal Redirect .php files to .html files (SEO friendly)" NOT have the [R] tag? otherwise, the location bar is changed, correct?

    I think that was Vector Thorn's issue as well.

  27. Peter Bearseley ~

    Hi Guys,

    Please advise me with the following redirect request?


    Any help much appreciate it.


  28. argh ~

    I stopped caring about the content of this site the moment it started to play music. No, I don't want that to happen unless I press "play" somewhere.

  29. stu ~

    hey, so…

    How to redirect all traffic to a subdirectory on a site to another page, **without** using mod_rewrite:

    RedirectMatch 301 /catalog/(.*)$

    In the above example, all traffic to the /catalog/ directory is redirected to / (the homepage). This is equivalent to the above:

    RedirectMatch 301 /catalog/(.*)$

    This does a 301 (permanent redirect). 302 (temporary) is also possible.

  30. AskApache ~

  31. Jal Ulati ~

    @ IMEL

    IMEL wrote: "Hi,
    I just want to ask one question, for example: if I have website with URL address
    But I just want to display URL like "".
    What should I do?
    Thanks in advance"

    Imel, I also would like to know the answer to your question. It would seem to me to be a fundamental problem, and surely very simple to solve. And yet, I've searched for too long and found NO answer.

    How can this be? What are we missing?

  32. Wasim ~

    too good man.. i almost solved my problem of .htaccess by reading this article. just a quick question.. i am stuck on one of my requirement, here it goes ..

    i want to redirect any url from my website that look like this..



    would really appreciate any help from anyone :)

  33. Adnan ~

    Hi , i m having a problem ,

    i am using


    and this is redirected to the page written in htaccess, i just want to use the same url as above. how can it be possible

  34. art.mania ~


    very cool post!! thanks a lot!!

    I read all your article and tried to sort out my problem, but I'm still having trouble :/ I would appreciate you so much if you give your few minutes to see my issue; (explained at the link below)

    I appreciate so much! I'm fighting with this issue for weeks, but couldnot make even a step :(

  35. Q ~

    Wanting to do away with .htaccess to speed server… How to move these commands to httpd.config?

    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^mysite\.com
    RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} ^80$
    RewriteRule (.*)$1 [R=301,L,QSA]

    Simply moving them over doesn't work.
    Years ago it took me forever to figure out the above commands to help search rankings with the non www thingy.

  36. Hussain ~

    Hi i need a little bit of help. my requirement is to fix the page name with extension and variable name because i want to make my URL more short
    like below url
    OLD URL:

    NEW URL (Required):

    Please guide me,

  37. FMut ~

    Nice examples… this helped heaps.
    I'm still having trouble doing the following; if anyone cares to guide me..

    I have a PHP framework that uses root level index.php, so a typical URL will look like this:

    it is simple enough to remove the index.php so the URL looks pretty, like:

    Where I get stuck is trying to "replace" the index.php with a "KEYWORD" – to help with SEO… e.g.
    but retain the underlying URL (as far as PHP application is concerned) as

    Is this possible?

  38. Vector Thorn ~

    Ah, i got it; i was using them for redirects, and now i see that by not actually redirecting you can accomplish this.

  39. Vector Thorn ~

    With all the mod_rewrite articles out there that show you how to redirect a request, none of them show you how to keep the url in the address bar the same?

    For example, you say you can redirect:

    to the page:
    /?somepage=1234 [R=301]

    But when you do that, the user is taken to that page, and it is shown in the address bar as the dynamic page. So how to you keep the original url in the address bar?

  40. juan fernando ~

    I have several domains point to the same htdocs directory.
    i have some static content that resides under htdocs/ so how do i take a request that is images/blah.jpg and properly check against htdocs/ and if the file doesn't exist then go to view.php?search=images/blah.jpg ?

    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(.*)$ [NC]
    RewriteCond %1/%{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f
    RewriteCond %1/%{REQUEST_FILENAME} -d
    RewriteRule index.php?=%{REQUEST_FILENAME} [L]
  41. Richard ~

    Awesome job, this was the page that pulled all the pieces together for me.



  42. pilot ~

    2nd Follow-up on REQUIRE NO SUBDOMAIN - the other (first) prototype above

    Just a note on the other version above. It reads:

    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} \.([a-z-]+\.[a-z]{2,6})$ [NC]
    RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]

    It may be worth noting that the domain name part of the filter is missing numbers. That is, the class "[a-z-]" means any lower case alphabetical character and the "-" dash symbol, but numbers can also be used in domains. I still do not see why the forward slash is placed preceding the $1 in the rewrite (see earlier comments on this). So I propose the following instead:

    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} \.([a-z0-9-]+\.[a-z]{2,6})$ [NC]
    RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ http://%1$1 [R=301]
  43. pilot ~

    Follow up to previous post about REQUIRE NO SUBDOMAIN

    I have tried the following bit of code and it seems to work in every conceivable case. I have a mixed SSL and non-SSL website with gates directing according back and forth accordingly. The Rewrite directive with the "http://..." doesnt cause problems, I think for the reasons I outlined in the previous post. Also, I run some servers on nonnormal ports for SSL (i.e., not 443) but this recipe also seems to work when explicitly detailing the port in the request (i.e., ). I guess the reason is that HTTP_HOST includes the port number as part of the variable and I have NOT excluded numbers in the second negative class of the conditional (unlike in the original REQUIRE NO SUBDOMAIN above and so they do not get rewritten.

    In any case, the code I am using (successfully… so far) is:

    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} \.([^.]+\.[^.]+)$
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://%1$1 [R=301]

    Note also I have omitted the "L" tag - I have and you might have further Rewrites in he same directory…

    Also note: per my previous note, I removed the backslash \ escapes from the character classes in the conditionals without problem, so I assume the original taken from here was not optimal. For comparison, the older version I am referring to reads:

    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} \.([^\.]+\.[^\.0-9]+)$
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]
  44. pilot ~

    Wonderful work/tutorial! A real pleasure to see actually how apache operates!!


    In the second example of No Subdomains it states:

    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteBase /
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} \.([^\.]+\.[^\.0-9]+)$
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]

    Why are the "." in the classes escaped with \ ? Are not all meta characters automatically escaped in class ranges?
    Why or how does the "/" work in the %1/$1? Does not the $1 already include the / ?
    In the second class [^\.0-9] the numbers must be there for the case where a port has been identified I assume (?), because an IP address would anyway show up with 2 or more "." But then, shouldn't ":" also be included? Or did I miss something?

    As an aside, I think this also works for cases where one is alternating between SSL and otherwise if (and only if) one has further rewrites to handle where the page should be encrypted. From the tutorial I read it would seem that when authentication is processed, the returned page will be passed once through to get the domain correct, but then on the second pass will not be rewritten (as it not longer meets the conditions) and so be forced to SLL (by whatever other rewrites or redirects are present).

  45. Samson ~

    I want to add the ability to put a hyphen in the subdomain. Can I do this also with .htaccess rewrite? If so how do I code this?

  46. mathguy ~

    Awesome information Please provide me the solution for the following.
    I have used the following redirection code in my .htaccess file which used to work fine in server where I hosted early.

    RewriteEngine on
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/(.*).html
    RewriteRule ^(.*).html /math-tutorial/tutor.php?name=$1 [L]

    The Rewrite condition work perfectly, but not the rewrite rule.


  47. Andrew ~

    I've been trying to change php extensions to html for the last week and they simply will not abide by the rule

    RewriteBase /
    RewriteRule ^(.*)-p-(.*).html$ .php?city=$2&%{QUERY_STRING}

    It's dring me crazy :(

    Any help would be cool

  48. EJ ~

    Super htaccess article.
    It was a good help to me.

  49. TrueFalse ~

    Great stuff here! However, I don't completely understand the Prevent Hotlinks example code you've given. In the code you list your domain name - should that be MY domain name when I'm implementing? What's up with the /feed/ element?
    I noticed that the version at this site replaced /feed/ with /feed.gif - I don't get it…

    That site also added the line

    Options +FollowSymLinks

    at the beginning of their Prevent Hotlinks example. Is that correct/needed?


  50. jayanta ~

    I want when a user comes to, it automatically shows the content and all the requests like

    Can anybody write that script for me, or guide me to the nearest search engine, because I can't find any search engines, and I don't know how to use google.

  51. F. Fox ~

    Great tips. All very usefull, and I needed them all!


  52. Chuck ~

    Excellent article, BTW. So here's my issue. I am using htaccess to do mod_rewriting for friendly URLs (in MODx CMS), but I also need to redirect all the old pages from the old site (.php files). I've been trying to use Redirect 301 directives but they fail.

    So I did some searching and came across a possible solution, but I have yet to make it work, hopefully you can help:

    I am trying to get$1 to redirect to a url without those variables visible.

    Here's what I have:

    Options +FollowSymlinks
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteBase /
    # Redirects
    RewriteRule ^page.php?jan=$1 /text-to-article [R=301,L]

    I have a list of about 100 files, not all have variables, but all are php files.

    Thanks :)

  53. Pollux ~

    How to simply rewrite all my .php extensions to .html. This is my .htaccess file but it is not working properly. My homepage doesn't display anymore!!

    Options +FollowSymLinks
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteRule ^(.*)\.php$ /$1.html [R=301,L]
  54. Prasad ~

    Nice post!
    But It didn't help me with my issue…
    I am currently hosting at and have purchased
    When I use mask URL for my domain forwarding, I always see in the browser
    I want that when the 'my-post' link is clicked, the URL should show as (since internal request generated is
    Can someone help me please

  55. Leslie ~

    I have a WordPress site and am using:

    RedirectMatch 302 /download/example(.*)$1

    for redirects in my .htaccess file to my affiliate links but everything seems to go horribly wrong when using ampersands in my redirected urls and they are required in many instances.

    Anyone have any ideas on how to fix this?

  56. monokrome ~

    You know, it's more realistic to be forcing users NOT use www instead of requiring www. The subdomain www is deprecated nowadays, since modern systems know what service you are requesting without needing a separate zone for each.

    Just thought this was worth mention.

  57. Rishi ~

    Hello There.. I dont know much about .htaccess
    I have a small issue, let me explain.. I have Joomla installed in the /Joomla directory..

    eg: site .com/Joomla

    I want when a user comes to site .com, it automatically shows the content of site .com/Joomla

    and all the requests like site .com/index.php?com=xxx etc to site .com/Joomla/index.php?com=xxx

    means i want to remove the use of 'Joomla' string, without physically delete it

    Can anybody write that script for me, or guide me


  58. Tryna ~

    your css has put a strike or del through everything, making it a little hard to read. Might want to fix that.

  59. Ramesh ~

    hi all

    how to secure specified folder using in apache in htacces file..

  60. Mark ~

    These redirects work in my "httpd.conf" but not in my .htaccess file.

    My .htaccess is working because other directives work in there such as ErrorDocument.

    My setup is Apache 2.2, Tomcat 6.0, Windows.

    Any ideas?

  61. stu ~

    nice tips, is missing a rule to block PHP injection attempts:

    RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} ^(.*)=http: [NC]
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ - [F,L]
  62. santy ~

    hello everyone,

    I am new in php developing, i am do code for mod_rewrite for my site it is run well but problem is when i rewrite my URL page give right output but my css and images not appeared please sugest me for this prob

    thanks in advance… santy.

  63. KPLN! ~

    I think it can be great, adding more

    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d

    .htaccess usage samples with file handlers.
    Please add some tutorials and .htaccess code samples about it.

  64. ~

    Thanks for the collection. It extends my understanding to the capability of a htaccess file : )

  65. J M ~

    Thanks, very useful .htaccess examples and well layed out.

  66. mosh ~

    very nice .htaccess tutorial!
    now i can put hotlinking protection :)


  67. imel ~

    I just want to ask one question, for example: if I have website with URL address
    But I just want to display URL like "".
    What should I do?
    Thanks in advance

  68. Rich LeClair ~

    Hey thanks for this tutorial – very awesome, but i still have a lot to learn about htaccess – mabe you can help me. i believe my request is simple.

    i want to take any request for
    where ### is an integer from 1 to 99999

    and redirect the user to
    where ### is said number.

    it seems easy enough? right?

    thanks for the help in advance!

  69. Nizzy ~

    I like to generate a random directory name in the URL with .htaccess, is it possible?

    2. .htaccess redirects to

    so, I want to generate this ".sdf4p" string randomly for each request (directory names aren't generated in advanced, so I need to pick randomly. I just want to create that string randomly). but how?

    thanks for your help.

  70. Lokesh ~

    I have been stuck with this one for a pretty long time. I m zero when it comes to htacees. hence i need a little help. I have subdomain under my site mentioned above /iphone, working fine, but the link below to visit next pages does not work cuz the url is wrong. its supposed to be /iphone/page/pagenumber where as it shows up /page/pagenumber. my rewrite rule is

    RewriteRule ^iphone/page/([0-9999]+)/?$ /index.php?postpage=$1 [L,QSA]

    Can someone help me with this?

  71. PS Website Design ~

    Brilliant – just what I needed! Thanks for putting this htaccess rewrite guide together.

  72. Shomari Sharpe ~

    Hi i've tried your methods for activating url rewriting on my website but nothing happens. I test locally on my laptop running Kubuntu Linux 7.10 and nada. I desire to use rewrite for three specific php files..

    Please i really need the help

  73. Rich Bowen ~

    YES! YES! YES! rewrite .htaccess, hack htacess to hide index.php, static ip address,htaccess auto_prepend_file,htaccess rewritecond .php,php synchronize files,rewrite dynamic urls to flat

  74. david bowman ~

    zomg, this is one of the most useful pages on the internets!

  75. Michael ~

    @These are awesome..

    I wonder if you can help with one rule? I want to direct:
    domain/archive/some-text.php?123 to: domain/archive.php?123 I have tried multiple variations but can't figure that out. Any ideas? I would sure appreciate it!!

    If you have tried the right variations you may not have Apache Rewrite enabled…

    But if you do… you could try something like this…

    Options +FollowSymLinks
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteBase /
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} .
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\.
    RewriteRule (.*)$1 [R=301,L]
    ## Activate the mod_rewrite Engine
    ## Support for LookBack + 'ForceType'
    RewriteRule ^(index|shop)/(.*)$ index.php/$2 [L,NC]
    ## Support for Apache RewriteRule
    RewriteRule cat_([0-9]+)(\.[a-z]{3,4})?(\?.*)?$        index.php?_a=viewCat&catId=$1&$3 [L,NC]
    RewriteRule prod_([0-9]+)(\.[a-z]{3,4})?(\?.*)?$    index.php?_a=viewProd&productId=$1&%3 [L,NC]
    RewriteRule info_([0-9]+)(\.[a-z]{3,4})?(\?.*)?$    index.php?_a=viewDoc&docId=$1&$3 [L,NC]
    RewriteRule tell_([0-9]+)(\.[a-z]{3,4})?(\?.*)?$    index.php?_a=tellafriend&productId=$1&$3 [L,NC]
    RewriteRule _(saleItems)(\.[a-z]+)?(\?.*)?$   index.php?_a=viewCat&catId=$1&$3 [L,NC]

    - I wouldn't recommend leaving the "?" in the display as this indicates a dynamic page and some search engines cannot index them.

    Good Luck.

  76. Stephen ~

    These are awesome.. I wonder if you can help with one rule? I want to direct:




    I have tried multiple variations but can't figure that out. Any ideas? I would sure appreciate it!!

  77. Marco ~

    I use the following code on my site, however I would like the /support/ directory to be skipped, so the rewrites do not apply to it. I did try to place a .htaccess with RewriteEngine Off, in the support directory, however, that didn't do the trick.

    Any suggestions?

    Options +FollowSymlinks
    RewriteEngine on
    RewriteBase /
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(.+)$ [NC]
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]
    # Rewrite current-style URLs of the form 'index.php?q=x'.
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ index.cgi?q=$1 [L,QSA]
  78. Tugacari ~

    I want to redirect all requests for flv files to another website dir.

    I have "" and I want to redirect to ""

    What rewrite rule should I write in order to achieve this ?


  79. david ~

    wow , fantatist tips !!
    i ll try to do it for my website:
    I have only a question, is important for SEO the files end with .html ? like: web/page1.html or the simple can have an address like: web/page

    you can look my modrewrite with basic things

  80. Kpln ~
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^ [NC]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^(www.)?([^.]+) [NC]
    RewriteRule ^$ /fake_subdomain.php?page=tag&tag=%2 [L]

    making sub domains can bee added :)
    good article thnx friend… Mod_rewrite favorite…

  81. article dude ~

    Just a short note to thank you for this page, it has helped me countless times, I come here every time I need to modify my htaccess file so, many thanks for your help, I love the caching article too :)

  82. Ducky ~

    Hey, I've been reading around your entries. Very helpful. :)

    I'm actually in a bind here, and maybe you could help? I'm noticing that .cur files that are missing are not recorded in my error log. I'm also unable to redirect or even just rewrite the cursor files that are missing to ones that exist. I'm using 403 404 500 and 301 back and forth to see if anything works, but so far, nothing. Help? :)

  83. Michael ~

    I was working on some .htaccess file and moved all the NON-www to www. but in the process this also moved the subdomains like shop.weathat_com to www.weathat_com/shop/ Although this works and creates working pages, I would like to keep the non to www. redirect but also keep the subdomain non redirect. It isn't letting me do this so is there another way?

    Also I would like to make revert to shop.weathat_com

    My htaccess file looks like this.

    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} .
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\.
    RewriteRule (.*) http://www.weathat_com/$1 [R=301,L]
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteBase /

    ++++ some other stuff for removing the dynamic URLs

    After all the searching on the Net I couldn't find the answer.

    And one more question? Is my Ranking Better for having the subdomain transfer to a directory folder?

    Thanks, Mike

  84. Douglas Karr ~

    Great post! I've done a little work with .htaccess but I find the syntax a little confusing. Here's what I would like to do… I would like to create a 'mobile' theme for my blog and allow people to go to it simply by the subdomain.

    In other words, if the subdomain is www or no www, any direction to the themes would stay as they are:

    However, if the subdomain is mobile:
    Any references to the theme would be redirected to:

    Is that possible?

  85. b.b.goyal ~

    i especially liked "some one is reading". how u implemented that?

  86. Chris [TK] ~

    wow… great tutorial :)

    thanks a lot :)

  87. Tim ~

    Cool, we need this on We've bookmarked it for ourselves, but I think the general community would like it.

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Tags: 301 Redirect, 302 Redirect, 401, 403 Forbidden, Advanced, Apache, Apache Htaccess, Apache Modules, apache ssl, askapache, Bandwidth, Cache, Cache-Control, caching, cheatsheet, code snippets, CSS, Dig, errordocument, Examples, experiments, feed, FeedBurner, Firefox, Flash, GET, Hacking, hotlinking, Htaccess, htaccess guide, htaccess rewrite, htaccess tricks, htaccess tutorial, Htpasswd, HTTP Headers, httpd, httpd.conf, HTTPS SSL, Javascript, Login, Mod_Rewrite, Mod_Rewrite examples, Mod_Security, Nice, PDF, Perl, PHP, Port, Redirect, Redirecting URLS, Redirection, Request Method, Rewrite Tricks, rewritecond, rewriterule, Security, SEO, server, servers, SetEnvIf, SPEED, SSI, stat, SymLinks, trick, tutorial, WordPress,

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