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GNU Grep Minitutorial

Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov

News Unix tools Utilities  Unix Grep   pcregrep Regular expressions


Unix grep is the old and pretty capricious text file search utility that can search either for strings or for regular expression.  I never have luck to write a complex regular expression that works from the first time in "old" grep (before introduction of Perl regular expressions) despite using Perl on daily basis (and due to my teaching experience being reasonably well-versed in regex syntax. ).

 Grep regex syntax has three variations:

This "multiple personalities" behavior is very confusing and that fact essentially spoil the broth.  I hate the fact that nobody has the courage to implement a new standard grep and that the current implementation has all warts accumulated during the 30 years of Unix existence. I highly recommend using -P option (Perl regular expressions). It make grep behavior less insane.

The simplest way of using grep is plain vanilla string search (fgrep or grep -F  invocation): you can select all lines that contain a certain string in one or more files. For example,

fgrep foo file# returns all the lines that contain a string "foo" in the file "file".

Another way of using grepis to have it accept data through STDIN. instead of having it search a file. For example,

ls | fgrep blah # lists all files in the current directory containing the string "blah"

As for regular expressions grep is very idiosyncratic in a sense that you need to remember to use backslash before any special character in a regular expressions. For example:

grep 'if | while'  #-- wrong

grep 'if \|while' #-- will work, please note single quotes

In complex cases it's always easier to use Perl or use grep -P option (Perl regular expression option is available only in GNU grep) than to explore intricacies of grep syntax.

In complex cases it's always easier to use Perl or use grep -P option (Perl regular expression option is available only in GNU grep) than to explore intricacies of grep syntax

Please note that only the latest GNU grep has an option -P that gives you the possibility to use Perl-style regular expressions. Here is the relevant quote from the GNU grep 2.5 documentation:

There are four major variants of grep, controlled by the following options.

The simplest example for grep is to find a word in the file:

grep foo myfile# lists the lines that match the regular expression "foo" in the file "myfile".

The name grepis a combination of editor command characters. It is from the editor command :g/RE/p, which translates to global Regular Expression print. In fgrep the f stands for fast.

This tutorial is based on the GNU version of grep. Other version are quite similar and sometimes more powerful but GNU grep is a standard de-facto and currently it beat others by having -P (Perl regex) option. 

The most primitive regular expression is a string. In this case grepreturns all matching lines that contain foo as a substring.  grep has a special version that does string searching very fast (fgrep, see below).

Another way of using grepis to use pipe, for example,

ls | grep blah # lists all files in the current directory containing the string "blah"

There are also several variants of grep that can search directly in archives, for example gzgrep and bzgrep.   gzgrep is an envelope for grep that can invoke the grep on compressed or  gzip'ed files. All options specified are passed directly to grep. If no  file  is specified,  then the standard input is decompressed and fed to grep.  Otherwise the given files are uncompressed if necessary and fed to grep.

Fgrep -- fast grep

fgrep command is optimal for quick search of ASCII text files for a specific string. It is especially valuable for search in large volumes of text. If you need to search an exact word (or any exact substring) it is unwise to use generic complex pattern matching algorithm for this task. It's like sending tanks to capture unarmed native village. fgrep is designed to be a fast exact string matching tool and it uses special string matching algorithm to achieve that.

fgrep can be invoked either directly or via option -F in a regular grep:

     grep -F [-c| -l| -q] [-bhinsvwx] -e string_list... [-f string_file]... 
     fgrep [-c| -l| -q] [-bhinsvwx] -e string_list... [-f string_file]... 

The command uses the string provided on the command line to search the file_list for a match. fgrep searches the file_list for each string listed. In case you use option -f , multiple strings can be stored in file.

The most popular options include:

-b Displays the block number in which the pattern was found before the line that contains the matching pattern.
-c Displays only a total count of matching lines for each file processed.
-e -string
-e string  The -estring option has the same effect as the string operand, but is useful when string begins with the hyphen or you need to specify several strings to search.

There are two ways to specify several strings to search:

  • To separate strings with the newline character (or use -f option, see below)
  • To use multiple -e options

If the strings overlap, the order of evaluation of strings is unspecified.

-f file Read in the strings to search for from file. This allows you to create a file containing all of the strings you want fgrep to search for in the file_list or standard input.
-h Suppress the displaying of filenames which precede lines that match the specified patterns when multiple files are searched.
-i Ignore the difference between uppercase and lowercase characters during comparisons.
-l Displays only the names of the files containing the specified pattern. The lines containing the patterns are not displayed.
-n Displays the line number before each line containing the pattern.
-v Displays only the lines that do not match the pattern. The v command in the ex editor performs the same type of function. It is an exception search. Search for every line except the ones containing the given pattern.
-x Displays only those lines matched in their entirety.

Special Characters and Quotes

Special Characters

Here, we outline the special characters for grep. Note that in egrep (which uses extended regular expressions), which actually are no more functional than standard regular expressions if you use GNU grep ) , the list of special characters increases ( | in grep is the same as \| egrep and vice versa, there are also other differences. Check the man page for details ) The following characters are considered special and need to be "escaped":

?  \  .  [  ]  ^  $

Note that a $ sign loses its meaning if characters follow it (I think) and the carat ^ loses its meaning if other characters precede it.
Square brackets behave a little differently. The rules for square brackets go as follows:


Single quotes are the safest to use, because they protect your regular expression from the shell. For example, grep "!" file  will often produce an error (since the shell thinks that "!" is referring to the shell command history) while grep '!' file  will not.

When should you use single quotes ?

The answer is this: if you want to use shell variables, you need double quotes; otherwise always use single quotes.

 For example,

grep "$HOME" file

searches file for the name of your home directory, while

grep '$HOME' file

searches for the string $HOME

Regular Grep

Usage of  grep with regular expressions is pretty idiosyncratic in a sense that you need to remember to use backslash before any special character in a regular expressions even if you use a single quotes. For example:

grep 'if | while'  #-- wrong

grep 'if \|while'  #-- will work, please note that despite single quotes we need a backslash

egrep 'if|while'  # -- will work (this is an extended grep

grep -P 'if|while' # -- also will work (Perl regular expressions are used)

There are actually four major variants of grep, controlled by the following options.

  1. `-G' `--basic-regexp' Interpret the pattern as a basic regular expression. This is the default.
  2. `-E' `--extended-regexp' Interpret the pattern as an extended regular expression. 
  3. `-F' `--fixed-strings' Interpret the pattern as a list of fixed strings, separated by newlines, any of which is to be matched.
  4. `-P' `--perl-regexp' Interpret the pattern as a Perl regular expression.

    In addition, two shortcuts EGREP and FGREP are available. EGREP is the same as `grep -E'. FGREP is the same as `grep -F' Also there is a separate implementation of grep that uses Perl regular expressions, called pcregrep

In complex cases it's always easier to use Perl than to explore intricacies of grep syntax.  In any case I strongly recommend you to use option -P if it is available. that's the best way to preserve your sanity.

grep grep -E    grep -P
a\+ a+ a+
a\? a? a?
a\|b a|b a|b
\(expression\) (expression1) (expression1)
\{m,n\} {m,n} {m,n}
\{,n\} {,n} {,n}
\{m,} {m,} {m,}
\{m} {m} {m}

Grep Regular Expressions Warts

In basic regular expressions the metacharacters `?', `+', `{', `|', `(', and `)'  should be  backslashed  `\?', `\+', `\{', `\|', `\(', and `\)'.  As GNU grep manual stated:

Traditional egrep did not support the `{' metacharacter, and some egrep implementations support `\{' instead, so portable scripts should avoid `{' in `egrep' patterns and should use `[{]' to match a literal `{'.

GNU egrep attempts to support traditional usage by assuming that `{' is not special if it would be the start of an invalid interval specification. For example, the shell command

egrep '{1'

searches for the two-character string '{1' instead of reporting a syntax error in the regular expression. POSIX.2 allows this behavior as an extension...

To search for a line containing text hello.gif, the correct command is

grep  hello\\.gif file


grep -P 'hello\.gif' file

More on Regular Expressions

To match a selection of characters, use []. This is often used to make search less case sensitive: 

[Hh]ello  matches lines containing hello  or Hello 

Ranges of characters are also permitted.

[0-3]  is the same as [0123] 
[a-k]  is the same as [abcdefghijk]
[A-C]  is the same as [ABC]
[A-Ca-k]  is the same as

There are also some alternate forms :

[[:alpha:]]  is the same as [a-zA-Z]
[[:upper:]]  is the same as [A-Z]
[[:lower:]]  is the same as [a-z]
[[:digit:]]  is the same as [0-9]
[[:alnum:]]  is the same as [0-9a-zA-Z]
[[:space:]]  matches any white space including tabs


Suppose you want to search for a string which contains a certain substring in more than one place. An example is the heading tag in HTML. Suppose I wanted to search for <H1>some string</H1>  . This is easy enough to do. But suppose I wanted to do the same but allow H2 H3 H4 H5 H6  in place of H1. The expression <H[1-6]>.*</H[1-6]>  is not good enough since it matches <H1>Hello world</H3>  but we want the opening tag to match the closing one. To do this, we use a backreference

The expression \n where n is a number, matches the contents of the n'th set of parentheses in the expression

\<H\([1-6]\).*</H\1>  matches what we were trying to match before.



fgrep -l 'hahaha' * # just the names of matching files

fgrep  'May 16'  /var/logs/https/access # we are searching string, so fgrep is better

fgrep -v '' /var/logs/https/access  # filtering using -v options

find . -type f -print | xargs fgrep -l 'hahaha' 


Suppose you want to match a specific number of repetitions of a pattern. A good example is IP address. You could search for an arbitrary IP address like this:

grep -P '[:digit:]{1,3}(\.[:digit:]{1,3}){3}' file 

There is actually no difference between [0-9]  and [[:digit:]]  but the latter can be faster.

The same can be done for phone numbers written in 999-999-9999 form:


To search email that has come from a certain address:

grep -P '^From:.*somebody\@' /var/spool/mail/root

To search several variants of the same name:

grep -P 'Nic?k\(olai\)\? Bezroukov'  # matches Nick Bezroukov  or Nikolai Bezroukov.

grep -P 'cat|dog' file  # matches lines containing the word "cat" or the word "dog"
grep -P '^\(From\|To\|Subject\):'  # matches corresponding part of the email header

Using -l option

    grep -l 'nobody\@nowhere' /spam/*

Using -w option

$ grep -w '\<abuse' *
$ grep -w 'abuse\>' *

The first command searches for those lines where any word in that line begins with the letters 'abuse' and the second command searches for those lines where any word in that line ends with the letter 'abuse'

Grep with pipes

     ls -l  | xargs -n1 fgrep -l '[email protected]'

The output of grep can also be piped to another program as follows:

     ps -ef | grep httpd | wc -l # count how many 'httpd' processes are running:

     grep -v '^#'  ~/ | less  #display non comment lines of

Grep for html files:

Let's find the HTML tags that are not closed before the line break.

egrep '<[^>]*$' *.html


Tip 1: How to block an extra line when grepping ps output for a string or pattern:  

ps -ef | grep '[c]ron'

If the pattern had been written without the square brackets, it would have matched not only the ps  output line for cron, but also the ps  output line for grep. on the length of a line except the available memory.

Tip 2: How do I search directories recursively?

grep -r 'hello' ~/*.html

searches for `hello' in all html files under the user home directory.  For more control of which files are searched, use find  and xargs. For example,

find ~ -name *html -type f -print | xargs grep 'hello' 

Tip 3: How do I output context around the matching lines?

grep -C 2 'hello' * # prints two lines of context around each matching line. 
Tip 4: In order to force grep to print the name of the file apprend  /dev/null to the list of files:
find . -type f -print | xargs fgrep -l 'hahaha'  '{}' /dev/null
Tip 5: Find all the hrefs that point to URLs that mistakenly have a space in them. This example uses the enhanced regular expressions of egrep.

grep -P -i 'href="[^"]* [^"]*"' *.html


Softpanorama Grep Page

GNU grep 2.5g manual

Grep is fundamental

GREP for Linguists by: Stuart Robinson.

Grep tutorial by Donovan Rebbechi (Rutgers University, NJ) See also adaptation at grep_tutorial

SimICS Tutorial grep

Steve Ramsay's Guide to Regular Expressions

Regular Expression Tutorial

[PDF] Tutorial: Using regular expressions

How Regexes Work Finding Things in Unix



grep, print lines matching a pattern 2.1 GNU Extensions

GNU Extensions

`-A num'
Print num lines of trailing context after matching lines.


`-B num'
Print num lines of leading context before matching lines.


`-C num'
Print num lines of output context.


The matching string is surrounded by the marker specify in GREP_COLOR. WHEN may be `never', `always', or `auto'.


Same as `--context=num' lines of leading and trailing context. However, grep will never print any given line more than once.


Print the version number of grep  to the standard output stream. This version number should be included in all bug reports.


Print a usage message briefly summarizing these command-line options and the bug-reporting address, then exit.


If the first few bytes of a file indicate that the file contains binary data, assume that the file is of type type. By default, type is `binary', and grep  normally outputs either a one-line message saying that a binary file matches, or no message if there is no match. If type is `without-match', grep  assumes that a binary file does not match; this is equivalent to the `-I' option. If type is `text', grep  processes a binary file as if it were text; this is equivalent to the `-a' option. Warning: `--binary-files=text' might output binary garbage, which can have nasty side effects if the output is a terminal and if the terminal driver interprets some of it as commands.


Print the byte offset within the input file before each line of output. When grep  runs on MS-DOS or MS-Windows, the printed byte offsets depend on whether the `-u' (`--unix-byte-offsets') option is used; see below.


`-D action'
If an input file is a device, FIFO or socket, use action to process it. By default, action is `read', which means that devices are read just as if they were ordinary files. If action is `skip', devices, FIFOs and sockets are silently skipped.


`-d action'
If an input file is a directory, use action to process it. By default, action is `read', which means that directories are read just as if they were ordinary files (some operating systems and filesystems disallow this, and will cause grep  to print error messages for every directory or silently skip them). If action is `skip', directories are silently skipped. If action is `recurse', grep  reads all files under each directory, recursively; this is equivalent to the `-r' option.


Print the filename for each match.


Suppress the prefixing of filenames on output when multiple files are searched.


Set the line buffering policy, this can be a performance penality.


Displays input actually coming from standard input as input coming from file LABEL. This is especially useful for tools like zgrep, e.g. gzip -cd foo.gz |grep --label=foo something


Suppress normal output; instead print the name of each input file from which no output would normally have been printed. The scanning of every file will stop on the first match.


Process a binary file as if it were text; this is equivalent to the `--binary-files=text' option.
Process a binary file as if it did not contain matching data; this is equivalent to the `--binary-files=without-match' option.
Select only those lines containing matches that form whole words. The test is that the matching substring must either be at the beginning of the line, or preceded by a non-word constituent character. Similarly, it must be either at the end of the line or followed by a non-word constituent character. Word-constituent characters are letters, digits, and the underscore.


For each directory mentioned in the command line, read and process all files in that directory, recursively. This is the same as the `--directories=recurse' option.


When processing directories recursively, only files matching file_pattern will be search.


When processing directories recursively, skip files matching file_pattern.


`-m num'
Stop reading a file after num matching lines. If the input is standard input from a regular file, and num matching lines are output, grep  ensures that the standard input is positioned to just after the last matching line before exiting, regardless of the presence of trailing context lines. This enables a calling process to resume a search. For example, the following shell script makes use of it:
while grep -m 1 PATTERN
  echo xxxx
done < FILE

But the following probably will not work because a pipe is not a regular file:

# This probably will not work.
cat FILE |
while grep -m 1 PATTERN
  echo xxxx

When grep  stops after NUM matching lines, it outputs any trailing context lines. Since context does not include matching lines, grep  will stop when it encounters another matching line. When the `-c' or `--count' option is also used, grep  does not output a count greater than num. When the `-v' or `--invert-match' option is also used, grep  stops after outputting num non-matching lines.


Obsolete synonym for `-i'.


Treat the file(s) as binary. By default, under MS-DOS and MS-Windows, grep  guesses the file type by looking at the contents of the first 32kB read from the file. If grep  decides the file is a text file, it strips the CR  characters from the original file contents (to make regular expressions with ^  and $  work correctly). Specifying `-U' overrules this guesswork, causing all files to be read and passed to the matching mechanism verbatim; if the file is a text file with CR/LF  pairs at the end of each line, this will cause some regular expressions to fail. This option has no effect on platforms other than MS-DOS and MS-Windows.


Report Unix-style byte offsets. This switch causes grep  to report byte offsets as if the file were Unix style text file, i.e., the byte offsets ignore the CR  characters which were stripped. This will produce results identical to running grep  on a Unix machine. This option has no effect unless `-b' option is also used; it has no effect on platforms other than MS-DOS and MS-Windows.


If possible, use the mmap  system call to read input, instead of the default read  system call. In some situations, `--mmap' yields better performance. However, `--mmap' can cause undefined behavior (including core dumps) if an input file shrinks while grep  is operating, or if an I/O error occurs.


Output a zero byte (the ASCII NUL  character) instead of the character that normally follows a file name. For example, `grep -lZ' outputs a zero byte after each file name instead of the usual newline. This option makes the output unambiguous, even in the presence of file names containing unusual characters like newlines. This option can be used with commands like `find -print0', `perl -0', `sort -z', and `xargs -0' to process arbitrary file names, even those that contain newline characters.


Treat the input as a set of lines, each terminated by a zero byte (the ASCII NUL  character) instead of a newline. Like the `-Z' or `--null' option, this option can be used with commands like `sort -z' to process arbitrary file names.

Several additional options control which variant of the grep  matching engine is used. See section 4. grep  programs.



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