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Altairís PBS Works is a suite of on-demand cloud computing technologies that allows enterprises to maximize ROI on computing infrastructure assets. PBS Works is the most widely implemented software environment for grid-, cluster- and on-demand computing worldwide.

The suiteís flagship product, PBS Professional, provides a flexible, on-demand computing environment that allows enterprises to easily share diverse (heterogeneous) computing resources across geographic boundaries. PBS Professional is a service orientated architecture, field-proven cloud infrastructure software that increases productivity even in the most complex computing environments.

If we assume $18 per core that is cited on the Web that means $18K per year for 1K cores (small to medium size cluster those days, as one server/blade usually have 20 to 32 cores).
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[Jun 21, 2018] How to install pbs on compute node and configure the server and compute node - Users-Site Administrators - PBS Professional Op

Jun 21, 2018 |

How to install pbs on compute node and configure the server and compute node? Users/Site Administrators You have selected 0 posts.

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cancel selecting Jun 2016 1 / 9 Jul 2016 Apr 2017 Joey Jun '16 Hi guys,
I am new to HPC and PBS or torque. I am able to install PBS pro from source code on my head node . But not sure how to install the compute node and cconfigure it. I didn't see any documentation in the github either. Can anyone give me some help? Thanks

buchmann Jun '16 Install is pretty similar on the compute nodes - however, you do not need the "server" parts.
There are OK docs on the Altair "pro" site, see answer to previous question "documentation-is-missing/81".

In short, you the Altair docs for v13, and/or the INSTALL file procedure. (Or install from pre-build binaries).
Actual method will depend on your system type etc.

I prefer to install using pre-compiled RPMs (CentOS72 systems), which presently means that I will compile these from tarball+spec-file (slightly modified spec-file).

Hope this helps.
/Bjarne subhasisb Jun '16 @Joey thanks for joining the pbspro forum.

You can find the documentation about pbspro here: 730

Kindly do not hesitate to post questions about any specific issues you are facing.

Subhasis Joey Jun '16 1 Thanks for your reply.

I rebuild the CentOS72 rpm with the src from
installed pbspro-server-14.1.0-13.1.x86_64.rpm on mye headnode
installed pbspro-execution-14.1.0-13.1.x86_64.rpm on my compute node.
On the head node
create /var/spool/pbs/server_priv/nodes with following:

computenode1 np=1


on the compute node

/var/spool/pbs/mom_priv/config as following

$logevent 0x1ff
$clienthost headnode
$restrict_user_maxsysid 999


after that I start the pbs on headnode and compute node without error:
#/etc/init.d/pbs start
But when I try to run pbsnodes -a, it tells me:
pbsnodes: Server has no node list
If I run a script it will just Queue there.

Both server firewalld are turned off and pingable.

Can anyone give me some help? Thanks

subhasisb Jul '16 Hi @Joey ,

Unlike torque, pbspro uses a real relational database underneath to store information about nodes, queues, jobs etc. Thus creating a nodes file is not supported under pbspro.

To add a node to pbs cluster, use the qmgr command as follows:

qmgr -c "create node hostname"


Joey Jul '16 Thanks for your reply. I thought PBS and torque are the same except one is open source and one is commerical. subhasisb Jul '16 Hi @Joey

They might feel similar since Torque was based on the OpenPBS codebase. OpenPBS was a version of PBS released as opensource many years back.

Post that, Altair engineering has put in a huge amount of effort towards PBS Professional and added tons of features and improvements in terms of scalability, robustness and ease of use over decades which resulted in it becoming the number one work load manager in the HPC world. Altair has now open-sourced PBS Professional.

So, pbspro is actually very different from torque in terms of capability and performance, and is actually a completely different product.

Let us know if you need further information in switching to pbspro.

Thanks and Regards,

10 months later sxy Apr '17 Hi Subhasis,

To add a node to pbs cluster, use the qmgr command as follows:

qmgr -c "create node hostname"

if a site has a few hundreds of compute nodes, the above method is very tedious.
would there be any easy/quick ways to register computer nodes with pbs server like the nodes file in torque?



mkaro Apr '17 This is one way to accomplish it

while read line; do [ -n "$line" ] && qmgr -c "create node $line"; done <nodefile

where nodefile contains the list of nodes, one per line.

[Jun 16, 2017] Tutorial - Submitting a job using qsub by Sreedhar Manchu

Notable quotes:
"... (the path to your home directory) ..."
"... (which language you are using) ..."
"... (the name that you logged in with) ..."
"... (standard path to excecutables) ..."
"... (location of the users mail file) ..."
"... (command shell, i.e bash,sh,zsh,csh, ect.) ..."
"... (the name of the host upon which the qsub command is running) ..."
"... (the hostname of the pbs_server which qsub submits the job to) ..."
"... (the name of the original queue to which the job was submitted) ..."
"... (the absolute path of the current working directory of the qsub command) ..."
"... (each member of a job array is assigned a unique identifier) ..."
"... (set to PBS_BATCH to indicate the job is a batch job, or to PBS_INTERACTIVE to indicate the job is a PBS interactive job) ..."
"... (the job identifier assigned to the job by the batch system) ..."
"... (the job name supplied by the user) ..."
"... (the name of the file contain the list of nodes assigned to the job) ..."
"... (the name of the queue from which the job was executed from) ..."
"... (the walltime requested by the user or default walltime allotted by the scheduler) ..."

Last modified by Yanli Zhang on Jul 10, 2012

qsub Tutorial

  1. Synopsis
  2. What is qsub
  3. What does qsub do?
  4. Arguments to control behavior
Synopsis qsub Synopsis ?
qsub [-a date_time] [-A account_string] [-b secs] [-c checkpoint_options] n No checkpointing is to be performed. s Checkpointing is to be performed only when the server executing the job is shutdown . c Checkpointing is to be performed at the default minimum time for the server executing the job. c=minutes Checkpointing is to be performed at an interval of minutes, which is the integer number of minutes of CPU time used by the job. This value must be greater than zero. [-C directive_prefix] [-d path] [-D path] [-e path] [-f] [-h] [-I ] [-j join ] [-k keep ] [-l resource_list ] [-m mail_options] [-N name] [-o path] [-p priority] [-P user[:group]] [-q destination] [-r c] [-S path_list] [-t array_request] [-u user_list] [- v variable_list] [-V ] [-W additional_attributes] [-X] [-z] [script]

For detailed information, see this page .

What is qsub?

qsub is the command used for job submission to the cluster. It takes several command line arguments and can also use special directives found in the submission scripts or command file. Several of the most widely used arguments are described in detail below.

Useful Information

For more information on qsub do More information on qsub ?
$ man qsub

What does qsub do?


All of our clusters have a batch server referred to as the cluster management server running on the headnode. This batch server monitors the status of the cluster and controls/monitors the various queues and job lists. Tied into the batch server, a scheduler makes decisions about how a job should be run and its placement in the queue. qsub interfaces into the the batch server and lets it know that there is another job that has requested resources on the cluster. Once a job has been received by the batch server, the scheduler decides the placement and notifies the batch server which in turn notifies qsub (Torque/PBS) whether the job can be run or not. The current status (whether the job was successfully scheduled or not) is then returned to the user. You may use a command file or STDIN as input for qsub.

Environment variables in qsub

The qsub command will pass certain environment variables in the Variable_List attribute of the job. These variables will be available to the job. The value for the following variables will be taken from the environment of the qsub command:

These values will be assigned to a new name which is the current name prefixed with the string "PBS_O_". For example, the job will have access to an environment variable named PBS_O_HOME which have the value of the variable HOME in the qsub command environment.

In addition to these standard environment variables, there are additional environment variables available to the job.

Arguments to control behavior

As stated before there are several arguments that you can use to get your jobs to behave a specific way. This is not an exhaustive list, but some of the most widely used and many that you will will probably need to accomplish specific tasks.

Declare the date/time a job becomes eligible for execution

To set the date/time which a job becomes eligible to run, use the -a argument. The date/time format is [[[[CC]YY]MM]DD]hhmm[.SS]. If -a is not specified qsub assumes that the job should be run immediately.


To test -a get the current date from the command line and add a couple of minutes to it. It was 10:45 when I checked. Add hhmm to -a and submit a command from STDIN.

Example: Set the date/time which a job becomes eligible to run ?
$ echo "sleep 30" | qsub -a 1047

Handy Hint

This option can be added to pbs script with a PBS directive such as Equivalent PBS Directive ?
#PBS -a 1047
Defining the working directory path to be used for the job

To define the working directory path to be used for the job -d option can be used. If it is not specified, the default working directory is the home directory.

Example: Define the working directory path to be used for the job ?
$ pwd /home/manchu $ cat dflag.pbs echo "Working directory is $PWD" $ qsub dflag.pbs 5596682.hpc0. local $ cat dflag.pbs.o5596682 Working directory is /home/manchu $ mv dflag.pbs random_pbs/ $ qsub -d /home/manchu/random_pbs/ /home/manchu/random_pbs/dflag.pbs 5596703.hpc0. local $ cat random_ps/dflag.pbs.o5596703 Working directory is /home/manchu/random_pbs $ qsub /home/manchu/random_pbs/dflag.pbs 5596704.hpc0. local $ cat dflag.pbs.o5596704 Working directory is /home/manchu

Handy Hint

This option can be added to pbs script with a PBS directive such as Equivalent PBS Directive ?
#PBS -d /home/manchu/random_pbs

Manipulate the output files

As a default all jobs will print all stdout (standard output) messages to a file with the name in the format <job_name>.o<job_id> and all stderr (standard error) messages will be sent to a file named <job_name>.e<job_id>. These files will be copied to your working directory as soon as the job starts. To rename the file or specify a different location for the standard output and error files, use the -o for standard output and -e for the standard error file. You can also combine the output using -j.

Create a simple submission file: ?
$ cat sleep .pbs #!/bin/sh for i in {1..60} ; do echo $i sleep 1 done
Create a simple submission file: ?
$ qsub -o sleep .log sleep .pbs

Handy Hint

This option can be added to pbs script with a PBS directive such as Equivalent PBS Directive ?
#PBS -o sleep.log
Submit your job with the standard error file renamed: ?
$ qsub -e sleep .log sleep .pbs

Handy Hint

This option can be added to pbs script with a PBS directive such as Equivalent PBS Directive ?
#PBS -e sleep.log
Combine them using the name sleep.log: ?
$ qsub -o sleep .log -j oe .pbs

Handy Hint

This option can be added to pbs script with a PBS directive such as Equivalent PBS Directive ?
#PBS -o sleep.log #PBS -j oe


The order of two letters next to flag -j is important. It should always start with the letter that's been already defined before, in this case 'o'. Place the joined output in another location other than the working directory: ?
$ qsub -o $HOME/tutorials/logs/sleep.log -j oe sleep .pbs

Mail job status at the start and end of a job

The mailing options are set using the -m and -M arguments. The -m argument sets the conditions under which the batch server will send a mail message about the job and -M will define the users that emails will be sent to (multiple users can be specified in a list seperated by commas). The conditions for the -m argument include:

Using the sleep.pbs script created earlier, submit a job that emails you for all conditions: ? $ qsub -m abe -M [email protected] sleep .pbs

Handy Hint

This option can be added to pbs script with a PBS directive such as Equivalent PBS Directive ?
#PBS -m abe #PBs -M [email protected]

Submit a job to a specific queue

You can select a queue based on walltime needed for your job. Use the 'qstat -q' command to see the maximum job times for each queue.

Submit a job to the bigmem queue: ?
$ qsub -q bigmem sleep .pbs

Handy Hint

This option can be added to pbs script with a PBS directive such as Equivalent PBS Directive ?
#PBS -q bigmem

Submitting a job that is dependent on the output of another

Often you will have jobs that will be dependent on another for output in order to run. To add a dependency, we will need to use the -W (additional attributes) with the depend option. We will be using the afterok rule, but there are several other rules that may be useful. (man qsub)


To illustrate the ability to hold execution of a specific job until another has completed, we will write two submission scripts. The first will create a list of random numbers. The second will sort those numbers. Since the second script will depend on the list that is created we will need to hold execution until the first has finished.

random.pbs ?
$ cat random.pbs #!/bin/sh cd $HOME sleep 120 for i in {1..100}; do echo $RANDOM >> rand.list done
sort.pbs ?
$ cat sort .pbs #!/bin/sh cd $HOME sort -n rand.list > sorted.list sleep 30

Once the file are created, lets see what happens when they are submitted at the same time:

Submit at the same time ?
$ qsub random.pbs ; qsub sort .pbs 5594670.hpc0. local 5594671.hpc0. local $ ls random.pbs sorted.list sort .pbs sort .pbs.e5594671 sort .pbs.o5594671 $ cat sort .pbs.e5594671 sort : open failed: rand.list: No such file or directory

Since they both ran at the same time, the sort script failed because the file rand.list had not been created yet. Now submit them with the dependencies added.

Submit them with the dependencies added ?
$ qsub random.pbs 5594674.hpc0. local $ qsub -W depend=afterok:5594674.hpc0. local sort .pbs 5594675.hpc0. local $ qstat -u $USER hpc0. local : Req 'd Req' d Elap Job ID Username Queue Jobname SessID NDS TSK Memory Time S Time -------------------- -------- -------- ---------------- ------ ----- --- ------ ----- - ----- 5594674.hpc0.loc manchu ser2 random.pbs 18029 1 1 -- 48:00 R 00:00 5594675.hpc0.loc manchu ser2 sort .pbs 1 1 -- 48:00 H --

We now see that the sort.pbs job is in a hold state. And once the dependent job completes the sort job runs and we see:

Job status with the dependencies added ?
$ qstat -u $USER hpc0. local : Req 'd Req' d Elap Job ID Username Queue Jobname SessID NDS TSK Memory Time S Time -------------------- -------- -------- ---------------- ------ ----- --- ------ ----- - ----- 5594675.hpc0.loc manchu ser2 sort .pbs 18165 1 1 -- 48:00 R --

Useful Information

Submitting multiple jobs in a loop that depend on output of another job

This example show how to submit multiple jobs in a loop where each job depends on output of job submitted before it.


Let's say we need to write numbers from 0 to 999999 in order onto a file output.txt. We can do 10 separate runs to achieve this, where each run has a separate pbs script writing 100,000 numbers to output file. Let's see what happens if we submit all 10 jobs at the same time.

The script below creates required pbs scripts for all the runs.

Create PBS Scripts for all the runs ?
$ cat #!/bin/bash for i in {0..9} do cat > pbs.script.$i << EOF #!/bin/bash #PBS -l nodes=1:ppn=1,walltime=600 cd \$PBS_O_WORKDIR for ((i=$((i*100000)); i<$(((i+1)*100000)); i++)) { echo "\$i" >> output.txt } exit 0; EOF done
Change permission to make it an executable ?
$ chmod u+x
Run the Script ?
$ ./
List of Created PBS Scripts ?
$ ls -l pbs.script.* -rw-r--r-- 1 manchu wheel 134 Oct 27 16:32 pbs.script.0 -rw-r--r-- 1 manchu wheel 139 Oct 27 16:32 pbs.script.1 -rw-r--r-- 1 manchu wheel 139 Oct 27 16:32 pbs.script.2 -rw-r--r-- 1 manchu wheel 139 Oct 27 16:32 pbs.script.3 -rw-r--r-- 1 manchu wheel 139 Oct 27 16:32 pbs.script.4 -rw-r--r-- 1 manchu wheel 139 Oct 27 16:32 pbs.script.5 -rw-r--r-- 1 manchu wheel 139 Oct 27 16:32 pbs.script.6 -rw-r--r-- 1 manchu wheel 139 Oct 27 16:32 pbs.script.7 -rw-r--r-- 1 manchu wheel 139 Oct 27 16:32 pbs.script.8 -rw-r--r-- 1 manchu wheel 140 Oct 27 16:32 pbs.script.9
PBS Script ?
$ cat pbs.script.0 #!/bin/bash #PBS -l nodes=1:ppn=1,walltime=600 cd $PBS_O_WORKDIR for ((i=0; i<100000; i++)) { echo "$i" >> output.txt } exit 0;
Submit Multiple Jobs at a Time ?
$ for i in {0..9}; do qsub pbs.script.$i ; done 5633531.hpc0. local 5633532.hpc0. local 5633533.hpc0. local 5633534.hpc0. local 5633535.hpc0. local 5633536.hpc0. local 5633537.hpc0. local 5633538.hpc0. local 5633539.hpc0. local 5633540.hpc0. local $
output.txt ?
$ tail output.txt 699990 699991 699992 699993 699994 699995 699996 699997 699998 699999 - bash -3.1$ grep -n 999999 $_ 210510:999999 $

This clearly shows the nubmers are in no order like we wanted. This is because all the runs wrote to the same file at the same time, which is not what we wanted.

Let's submit jobs using qsub dependency feature. This can be achieved with a simple script shown below.

Simple Script to Submit Multiple Dependent Jobs ?
$ cat dependency.pbs #!/bin/bash job=`qsub pbs.script.0` for i in {1..9} do job_next=`qsub -W depend=afterok:$job pbs.script.$i` job=$job_next done
Let's make it an executable ?
$ chmod u+x dependency.pbs
Submit dependent jobs by running the script ?
$ ./dependency.pbs $ qstat -u manchu hpc0. local : Req 'd Req' d Elap Job ID Username Queue Jobname SessID NDS TSK Memory Time S Time -------------------- -------- -------- ---------------- ------ ----- --- ------ ----- - ----- 5633541.hpc0.loc manchu ser2 pbs.script.0 28646 1 1 -- 00:10 R -- 5633542.hpc0.loc manchu ser2 pbs.script.1 -- 1 1 -- 00:10 H -- 5633543.hpc0.loc manchu ser2 pbs.script.2 -- 1 1 -- 00:10 H -- 5633544.hpc0.loc manchu ser2 pbs.script.3 -- 1 1 -- 00:10 H -- 5633545.hpc0.loc manchu ser2 pbs.script.4 -- 1 1 -- 00:10 H -- 5633546.hpc0.loc manchu ser2 pbs.script.5 -- 1 1 -- 00:10 H -- 5633547.hpc0.loc manchu ser2 pbs.script.6 -- 1 1 -- 00:10 H -- 5633548.hpc0.loc manchu ser2 pbs.script.7 -- 1 1 -- 00:10 H -- 5633549.hpc0.loc manchu ser2 pbs.script.8 -- 1 1 -- 00:10 H -- 5633550.hpc0.loc manchu ser2 pbs.script.9 -- 1 1 -- 00:10 H -- $
Output after first run ?
$ tail output.txt 99990 99991 99992 99993 99994 99995 99996 99997 99998 99999 $
Output after final run ?
$ tail output.txt 999990 999991 999992 999993 999994 999995 999996 999997 999998 999999 $ grep -n 100000 output.txt 100001:100000 $ grep -n 999999 output.txt 1000000:999999 $

This shows that numbers are written in order to output.txt. Which in turn shows that jobs ran one after successful completion of another.

Opening an interactive shell to the compute node

To open an interactive shell to a compute node, use the -I argument. This is often used in conjunction with the -X (X11 Forwarding) and the -V (pass all of the users environment)

Open an interactive shell to a compute node ?
$ qsub -I

Passing an environment variable to your job

You can pass user defined environment variables to a job by using the -v argument.


To test this we will use a simple script that prints out an environment variable.

Passing an environment variable ?
$ cat variable.pbs #!/bin/sh if [ "x" == "x$MYVAR" ] ; then echo "Variable is not set" else echo "Variable says: $MYVAR" fi

Next use qsub without the -v and check your standard out file

qsub without -v ?
$ qsub variable.pbs 5596675.hpc0. local $ cat variable.pbs.o5596675 Variable is not set

Then use the -v to set the variable

qsub with -v ?
$ qsub - v MYVAR= "hello" variable.pbs 5596676.hpc0. local $ cat variable.pbs.o5596676 Variable says: hello

Handy Hint

This option can be added to pbs script with a PBS directive such as Equivalent PBS Directive ?
#PBS -v MYVAR="hello"

Useful Information

Multiple user defined environment variables can be passed to a job at a time. Passing Multiple Variables ?
$ cat variable.pbs #!/bin/sh echo "$VAR1 $VAR2 $VAR3" > output.txt $ $ qsub - v VAR1= "hello" ,VAR2= "Sreedhar" ,VAR3= "How are you?" variable.pbs 5627200.hpc0. local $ cat output.txt hello Sreedhar How are you? $

Passing your environment to your job

You may declare that all of your environment variables are passed to the job by using the -V argument in qsub.


Use qsub to perform an interactive login to one of the nodes:

Passing your environment: qsub with -V ?
$ qsub -I -V

Handy Hint

This option can be added to pbs script with a PBS directive such as Equivalent PBS Directive ?

Once the shell is opened, use the env command to see that your environment was passed to the job correctly. You should still have access to all your modules that you loaded previously.

Submitting an array job: Managing groups of jobs .hostname would have PBS_ARRAYID set to 0. This will allow you to create job arrays where each job in the array will perform slightly different actions based on the value of this variable, such as performing the same tasks on different input files. One other difference in the environment between jobs in the same array is the value of the PBS_JOBNAME variable.


First we need to create data to be read. Note that in a real application, this could be data, configuration setting or anything that your program needs to run.

Create Input Data

To create input data, run this simple one-liner:

Creating input data ?
$ for i in {0..4}; do echo "Input data file for an array $i" > input.$i ; done $ ls input.* input.0 input.1 input.2 input.3 input.4 $ cat input.0 Input data file for an array 0

Submission Script
Submission Script: array.pbs ?
$ cat array.pbs #!/bin/sh #PBS -l nodes=1:ppn=1,walltime=5:00 #PBS -N arraytest cd ${PBS_O_WORKDIR} # Take me to the directory where I launched qsub # This part of the script handles the data. In a real world situation you will probably # be using an existing application. cat input.${PBS_ARRAYID} > output.${PBS_ARRAYID} echo "Job Name is ${PBS_JOBNAME}" >> output.${PBS_ARRAYID} sleep 30 exit 0;

Submit & Monitor

Instead of running five qsub commands, we can simply enter:

Submitting and Monitoring Array of Jobs ?
$ qsub -t 0-4 array.pbs 5534017[].hpc0. local

qstat ?
$ qstat -u $USER hpc0. local : Req 'd Req' d Elap Job ID Username Queue Jobname SessID NDS TSK Memory Time S Time -------------------- -------- -------- ---------------- ------ ----- --- ------ ----- - ----- 5534017[].hpc0.l sm4082 ser2 arraytest 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- $ qstat -t -u $USER hpc0. local : Req 'd Req' d Elap Job ID Username Queue Jobname SessID NDS TSK Memory Time S Time -------------------- -------- -------- ---------------- ------ ----- --- ------ ----- - ----- 5534017[0].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-0 12017 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534017[1].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-1 12050 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534017[2].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-2 12084 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534017[3].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-3 12117 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534017[4].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-4 12150 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- $ ls output.* output.0 output.1 output.2 output.3 output.4 $ cat output.0 Input data file for an array 0 Job Name is arraytest-0


pbstop by default doesn't show all the jobs in the array. Instead, it shows a single job in just one line in the job information. Pressing 'A' shows all the jobs in the array. Same can be achieved by giving the command line option '-A'. This option along with '-u <NetID>' shows all of your jobs including array as well as normal jobs.

pbstop ?
$ pbstop -A -u $USER


Typing 'A' expands/collapses array job representation.

Comma delimited lists

The -t option of qsub also accepts comma delimited lists of job IDs so you are free to choose how to index the members of your job array. For example:

Comma delimited lists ?
$ rm output.* $ qsub -t 2,5,7-9 array.pbs 5534018[].hpc0. local $ qstat -u $USER hpc0. local : Req 'd Req' d Elap Job ID Username Queue Jobname SessID NDS TSK Memory Time S Time -------------------- -------- -------- ---------------- ------ ----- --- ------ ----- - ----- 5534018[].hpc0.l sm4082 ser2 arraytest 1 1 -- 00:05 Q -- $ qstat -t -u $USER hpc0. local : Req 'd Req' d Elap Job ID Username Queue Jobname SessID NDS TSK Memory Time S Time -------------------- -------- -------- ---------------- ------ ----- --- ------ ----- - ----- 5534018[2].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-2 12319 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534018[5].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-5 12353 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534018[7].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-7 12386 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534018[8].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-8 12419 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534018[9].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-9 12452 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- $ ls output.* output.2 output.5 output.7 output.8 output.9 $ cat output.2 Input data file for an array 2 Job Name is arraytest-2

A more general for loop - Arrays with step size

By default, PBS doesn't allow array jobs with step size. qsub -t 0-10 <pbs.script> increments PBS_ARRAYID in 1. To submit jobs in steps of a certain size, let's say step size of 3 starting at 0 and ending at 10, one has to do

qsub -t 0,3,6,9 <pbs.script>

To make it easy for users we have put a wrapper which takes starting point, ending point and step size as arguments for -t flag. This avoids default necessity that PBS_ARRAYID increment be 1. The above request can be accomplished with (which happens behind the scenes with the help of wrapper)

qsub -t 0-10:3 <pbs.script>

Here, 0 is the starting point, 10 is the ending point and 3 is the step size. It is not necessary that starting point must be 0. It can be any number. Incidentally, in a situation in which the upper-bound is not equal to the lower-bound plus an integer-multiple of the increment, for example

qsub -t 0-10:3 <pbs.script>

wrapper automatically changes the upper bound as shown in the example below.

Arrays with step size ?
[[email protected] ~]$ qsub -t 0-10:3 array.pbs 6390152[].hpc0. local [[email protected] ~]$ qstat -u $USER hpc0. local : Req 'd Req' d Elap Job ID Username Queue Jobname SessID NDS TSK Memory Time S Time -------------------- -------- -------- ---------------- ------ ----- --- ------ ----- - ----- 6390152[].hpc0.l sm4082 ser2 arraytest -- 1 1 -- 00:05 Q -- [[email protected] ~]$ qstat -t -u $USER hpc0. local : Req 'd Req' d Elap Job ID Username Queue Jobname SessID NDS TSK Memory Time S Time -------------------- -------- -------- ---------------- ------ ----- --- ------ ----- - ----- 6390152[0].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-0 25585 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 6390152[3].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-3 28227 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 6390152[6].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-6 8515 1 1 -- 00:05 R 00:00 6390152[9].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-9 505 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- [[email protected] ~]$ ls output.* output.0 output.3 output.6 output.9 [[email protected] ~]$ cat output.9 Input data file for an array 9 Job Name is arraytest-9 [[email protected] ~]$


By default, PBS doesn't support arrays with step size. On our clusters, it's been achieved with a wrapper. This option might not be there on clusters at other organizations/schools that use PBS/Torque.


If you're trying to submit jobs through ssh to login nodes from your pbs scripts with statement such as ?
ssh login-0-0 "cd ${PBS_O_WORKDIR};`which qsub` -t 0-10:3 <pbs.script>"

arrays with step size wouldn't work unless you either add

shopt -s expand_aliases

to your pbs script that's in bash or add this to your .bashrc in your home directory. Adding this makes alias for qsub come into effect there by making wrapper act on command line options to qsub (For that matter this brings any alias to effect for commands executed via SSH).

If you have

#PBS -t 0-10:3

in your pbs script you don't need to add this either to your pbs script or to your .bashrc in your home directory.

A List of Input Files/Pulling data from the ith line of a file

Suppose we have a list of 1000 input files, rather than input files explicitly indexed by suffix, in a file file_list.text one per line:

A List of Input Files/Pulling data from the ith line of a file ?
[[email protected] ~]$ cat array.list #!/bin/bash #PBS -S /bin/bash #PBS -l nodes=1:ppn=1,walltime=1:00:00 INPUT_FILE=` awk "NR==$PBS_ARRAYID" file_list.text` # # ...or use sed: # sed -n -e "${PBS_ARRAYID}p" file_list.text # # ...or use head/tail # $(cat file_list.text | head -n $PBS_ARRAYID | tail -n 1) ./executable < $INPUT_FILE

In this example, the '-n' option suppresses all output except that which is explicitly printed (on the line equal to PBS_ARRAYID).

qsub -t 1-1000 array.list

Let's say you have a list of 1000 numbers in a file, one number per line. For example, the numbers could be random number seeds for a simulation. For each task in an array job, you want to get the ith line from the file, where i equals PBS_ARRAYID, and use that value as the seed. This is accomplished by using the Unix head and tail commands or awk or sed just like above.

A List of Input Files/Pulling data from the ith line of a file ?
[[email protected] ~]$ cat array.seed #!/bin/bash #PBS -S /bin/bash #PBS -l nodes=1:ppn=1,walltime=1:00:00 SEEDFILE=~/data/seeds SEED=$( cat $SEEDFILE | head -n $PBS_ARRAYID | tail -n 1) ~/programs/executable $SEED > ~/results/output.$PBS_ARRAYID
qsub -t 1-1000 array.seed 

You can use this trick for all sorts of things. For example, if your jobs all use the same program, but with very different command-line options, you can list all the options in the file, one set per line, and the exercise is basically the same as the above, and you only have two files to handle (or 3, if you have a perl script generate the file of command-lines).

Delete all jobs in array

We can delete all the jobs in array with a single command.

Deleting array of jobs ?
$ qsub -t 2-5 array.pbs 5534020[].hpc0. local $ qstat -u $USER hpc0. local : Req 'd Req' d Elap Job ID Username Queue Jobname SessID NDS TSK Memory Time S Time -------------------- -------- -------- ---------------- ------ ----- --- ------ ----- - ----- 5534020[].hpc0.l sm4082 ser2 arraytest 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- $ qdel 5534020[] $ qstat -u $USER $

Delete a single job in array

Delete a single job in array, e.g. number 4,5 and 7

Deleting a single job in array ?

$ qsub -t 0-8 array.pbs 5534021[].hpc0. local $ qstat -u $USER hpc0. local : Req 'd Req' d Elap Job ID Username Queue Jobname SessID NDS TSK Memory Time S Time ----------- -- ---- ---------- ---- ---- -- ----- --- - --- 5534021[].hpc0.l sm4082 ser2 arraytest 1 1 -- 00:05 Q -- $ qstat -t -u $USER hpc0. local : Req 'd Req' d Elap Job ID Username Queue Jobname SessID NDS TSK Memory Time S Time -------------------- -------- -------- ---------------- ------ ----- --- ------ ----- - ----- 5534021[0].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-0 26618 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534021[1].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-1 14271 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534021[2].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-2 14304 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534021[3].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-3 14721 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534021[4].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-4 14754 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534021[5].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-5 14787 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534021[6].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-6 10711 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534021[7].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-7 10744 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534021[8].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-8 9711 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- $ qdel 5534021[4] $ qdel 5534021[5] $ qdel 5534021[7] $ qstat -t -u $USER hpc0. local : Req 'd Req' d Elap Job ID Username Queue Jobname SessID NDS TSK Memory Time S Time -------------------- -------- -------- ---------------- ------ ----- --- ------ ----- - ----- 5534021[0].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-0 26618 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534021[1].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-1 14271 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534021[2].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-2 14304 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534021[3].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-3 14721 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534021[6].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-6 10711 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- 5534021[8].hpc0. sm4082 ser2 arraytest-8 9711 1 1 -- 00:05 R -- $ qstat -t -u $USER $

[Jun 16, 2017] Pay-Per-Use Becomes Mantra for Altair Engineering by
Michael Feldman

January 18, 2008

To address this, Altair Engineering has developed a unified pay-per-use licensing model across their entire product line - HyperWorks (CAE applications), PBS GridWorks (workload management) and HiQube (business intelligence analytics). The model is designed to circumvent some of the limitations of hardware-based licensing. Essentially what the company sells are license tokens that are only drawn when an application is running. Tokens are dispensed from a central license server when an application is executing and returned to the token pool when the application is finished. The model allows these application licenses to be shared across a system, a LAN, or even a wide area network.

The idea originated with the company's original HyperWorks product line, where the token-based scheme was first introduced. Last summer, Altair converted their PBS GridWorks licensing model to the HyperWorks model. Prior to that, the GridWorks products were employing a more traditional licensing mechanism that treated each type of hardware platform differently. With the introduction of the PBS Professional 9.0, a single "license" uses three GridWorks tokens to run a single job on a single processor core. In the U.S., each GridWorks token costs $4.50, which works out to $13.50 per license per year, or about 1/4 the price of the previous licensing scheme.

By isolating the software licensing requirements from the hardware platform, users are able to use the hardware more flexibly. This is an especially important distinction when multicore processors and utility computing environments are involved, since it provides a more equitable model for sharing hardware resources with other software running concurrently on the same platforms.

While license tokens are the common currency across all Altair products, the denomination of tokens used for GridWorks products is different from that used for HyperWorks products: 1 HyperWorks token unit = 100 GridWorks token units. Also, different Altair applications may draw different numbers of tokens. For example, HyperMesh (a CAE HyperWorks application), draws 21 HyperWorks tokens independent of the core count, while PBS Professional uses three GridWorks tokens per job per core. If the job needs 4 cores, GridWorks would draw 12 tokens from the pool. Once execution completes, those tokens are available for other applications. So the 21 HyperWorks tokens used to run a HyperMesh application during the day could be used to run 175 simultaneous PBS GridWorks jobs (using four cores each) at night.

For codes that run 24/7, such as some solver applications (e.g., RADIOSS used at Ford for crash simulations), they would use dedicated licensing, where the tokens were statically locked to specific hardware. In this case, the tokens could be returned to the pool, at least temporarily, if for example, the hardware is taken down for maintenance.

According to Michael Humphrey, VP of the PBS GridWorks product line, the whole model is especially valuable if a company can maintain a continuous computing level. "The biggest companies - the Boeings, the Fords, the GMs of the world - get the most value out of their HyperWorks units because they use the most applications and they share them globally," explains Humphrey.

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