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Suse Enterprise Administration Bulletin, 2010

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Novell Announces SUSE Linux Enterprise 11 Service Pack 1

May 19, 2010

Novell today launched SUSE® Linux Enterprise 11 Service Pack 1 (SP1), which delivers the industry's broadest virtualization capabilities, powerful advances in high availability clustering, and more flexible maintenance and support options. As a result, customers can take advantage of the latest open source technologies to run their mission-critical services cost effectively on any platform – physical, virtual or cloud – today, as well as in the future.

SUSE Linux Enterprise 11 SP 1

Service Pack 1 includes KVM, and supports over 500 additional chipsets, networking and storage devices, further expanding your options. It runs on the latest x86 hardware, and is designed to support even next-generation processors from Intel and AMD. This gives you maximum choice, both today and in the future. With the release of Service Pack 1, we're announcing enhancements to our Partner Linux Driver Program. New tools, specifications and partner benefits make it easier for our partners to bring to market, support and maintain their third-party technology together with SUSE Linux Enterprise.

Service Pack 1 exposes many of the hardware RAS features of the latest Intel Xeon processors. Support for new CPU floating point and crypto features further improves performance and security. A more efficient scheduler, improved processor, memory and storage scalability, and enhanced high-availability clustering capabilities can also be found with this Service Pack. Also included is an improved Xen hypervisor, which better delivers improved performance, especially for I/O-intensive virtual workloads.

Service Pack 1 provides an improved update stack and enhanced tools—including web-based tools—to more easily configure, patch and update your Linux systems. File system improvements, and better integration with Windows 7 domains enhance interoperability. And for a limited time, you can take advantage of special offers for additional value. Qualifying customers can get free training, migration assistance, and unlimited virtualization licensing with their purchase of SUSE Linux Enterprise subscriptions.

With Service Pack 1, modifications to our update repositories, and enhancements to our maintenance and support policies, give you unprecedented flexibility and control. In certain cases, you will be able to stay on older package releases, and continue to receive technical support during the product's full lifecycle. And if you want reactive maintenance for non-current service packs, long-term service pack support options are available.

[Mar 04, 2011]   Novell Earnings Fall, But Linux Products Offer Hope

March 4, 2011 |

For Novell's first fiscal quarter of 2011, which ended on January 31, 2011, Novell reported revenues of $191 million. The first quarter 2011 revenue is a decline of nearly 6 percent from the $202 million in revenues Novell reported for the first quarter of 2010. On the net income side, Novell reported a net loss of $18 million or $0.05 per share which is in stark contrast with the first quarter of 2010 when Novell reported a profit of $20 million. Part of the Novell first quarter 2011 let loss stems from a $31 million tax charge related to Novell bringing non-U.S. cash back into the country.

Novell's results also showed mixed performance across its product lineup.

The identity and security management product group reported first quarter revenue of $29.2 million, a decline of 5.8 percent on a year-over-year basis. Novell's collaboration solutions also experienced a revenue decline during the quarter. First quarter 2011 collaboration solution revenues hit $64.8 million a decline of 9.4 percent on a year-over-year basis.

In contrast, Novell's Linux business held its own during the quarter. Novell's Linux platform products earned $37.8 million in revenue during the quarter, an increase of 0.9 percent on a year-over-year basis.

Novell has been busy in recent months expanding its Linux solutions.

Earlier this week, Novell launched SUSE Manager as a product for managing both SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) as well as Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). In the Linux appliance space, Novell now has partnerships with IBM, Dell and SAP.

In addition to integrating LibreOffice with openSUSE 11.4, Novell is now also providing commercial support for LibreOffice. Novell had previously been offering a supported version of called the Novell Edition.

[Nov 26, 2010] Novell Sells Out to Attachmate, Leaves the Future of Suse Linux Unclear

"the sale of Novell might not alter things for customers in the short term. "

What SLES customers do now know is that their server OS is going to be supplied by a company that "enables IT organizations to extend mission-critical services and assures they are managed, secure, and compliant." Which is nice, but not necessarily reassuring. When you rely on an OS to power the mission-critical workloads in your company, I'm guessing you want a well-known systems company standing behind it. Put it this way: All things being equal, would you rather get your server OS from a company like Oracle, IBM, HP or Red Hat, or from a conglomerate knocked together by a handful of private equity firms?

There has been no indication so far that any of the key people behind SLES will be changing, so the sale of Novell might not alter things for customers in the short term. But what of the longer term? The truth is that we don't know at this stage.


What's the fear and uncertainty concern all about? SUSE customers still continue to get the same support. As a matter of fact: Attachmate is basically elevating SUSE to a peer of the rest of Novell. According to the press release at Novell's site: "Attachmate Corporation plans to operate Novell as two business units: Novell and SUSE; and will join them with its other holdings, Attachmate and NetIQ".

Now having said that: How long before Attachmate turns around and sells SUSE to someone like VMware?

As far as I'm concerned, Attachmate managed to do what Novell management couldn't: They detached Novell and its nuclear patent arsenal from SUSE.

[Nov 22, 2010] Slashdot Linux Story Attachmate To Acquire Novell For $2.2B Cash

Omnifarious (11933)

Attachmate's strategy for the economic downturn was to lay off most of their development staff while still collecting maintenance from all their customers. And they only had to follow that strategy because the private equity group that owns them had sucked a ton of money out of the company by saddling it with a gigantic debt.

I don't feel very good about the prospects for sane, customer focused management from this particular company.

Omnifarious (11933)

Yes, and no. I consider it to be dishonest to customers. And if it weren't for the debt they had been saddled with, they would've been plenty profitable enough to avoid doing it at all.

Additionally, programmers are not easily replaceable. Every single project I've ever worked on inside a corporation had an amazing amount of 'tribal knowledge' locked in the heads of various developers. So not only are you battening down the hatches for the present when you lay them off, you're mortgaging your future by destroying the core intellectual base for the stuff you have.

Seniority was a big criteria when they did this, but the morale destruction caused a lot of their most senior and competent people to leave.

The whole fiasco painted a picture (to me) of management that didn't see a quality product as the key to improving their bottom line, but rather was more interested in the appearance of a quality product and making short-term decisions in the interests of the bottom line. They traded on their reputation with their customers to the detriment of those same customers.

You could argue that having the company go under would be even worse for those customers. But the only reason why that was a danger at all was because of previous decisions that treated profits as an end to themselves rather than as a reward for a job well done.

 rickb928 (945187)

Back in '95, we were lamenting this problem of defending NetWare in the face of an overwhelming Windows assault. The consensus then was that when the suits read a back cover ad declaring this the 'year of Windows', and the t-shirts get free development tools and the promise of write-once-run-everywhere, even though running your server tools on the client was never a requirement, then NetWare was doomed. This actually started with NTAS and picked up unstoppable momentum with Windows Server 2000. Nevermind that Exchange took a little while longer to come of age, for many shops NetWare was what they clung to GroupWise for. Once GW was hammered, it was over. The interesting GW exploits didn't help.

ZenWorks was, back then and up to at least 2004, really clever and actually made Windows administration tolerable if not cool. Schools used that a lot for various clever reasons. But Even Microsoft saw that ADS administration needed to improve, and it pretty much did. Add in some licensing spiffs, a continuing campaign to destroy NetWare compatibility, and Novell ran out of time and market. Last I checked, they had solid revenue from licensing, but the end was in sight. SUSE is a whole other story. Novell should have acquired OpenOffice. SCO didn't help.

I'm not hopeful for Novell. This looks like the carving of the turkey. All this time, and they will die the death of a thousand divestments. Arghh...

I truly miss my NAMP server. But not enough to build it again.

cyberkahn (398201)

I started my career in I.T. with Novell, but I left it behind when I saw the writing on the wall. I had been wishing for a miracle for the company like Google acquiring it, since IMHO a easy intuitive GUI driven directory service is lacking in the Non-Microsoft world. Especially one that plays well with other operating systems. Yes you can use other operating systems in an AD environment, but not as "out of the box" as Novell IMHO. Oh well... I guess we will see.

[Nov 22, 2010] Novell agrees to be bought by Attachmate for $2.2 billion

The deal is not a shock but what it means for Suse is unclear.

Novell has agreed to be acquired by Attachmate, a 30-year old IT host connectivity and systems management integration firm in a deal that will also send IP to Microsoft. The $2.2 billion deal includes Novell's SUSE Linux, which Attachmate will spin into a separate business unit.

The agreement is expected to be completed in the first quarter of 2011...  

SUSE Linux, which includes server and desktop versions of SUSE Linux Enterprise (SLE), is considered to be the number two enterprise Linux distribution behind Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

... ... ...

Thirty-year-old Attachmate, which has about 65,000 customers, is an IT host connectivity and systems/security management integrator that has offices on six continents and is headquartered in Seattle. It is owned by an investment group led by Francisco Partners, Golden Gate Capital, and Thoma Bravo.

... ... ...

Novell's last major SUSE Linux Enterprise release was SLE 11 Service Pack 1 (SP1), announced in May in server and desktop versions. SLE 11 SP1 advanced the server version's virtualization capabilities with full support for KVM, and also boosted high availability clustering support. The desktop version updated audio, Bluetooth, and multi-monitor support.

Among the many questions surrounding the deal is what will happen with Novell-back projects such as OpenSUSE, which maintains a popular, open source desktop distro and upstream contributor to SLE. The community-driven OpenSUSE Project is also preparing a MeeGo version of the distro.

Novell also backs the Mono project, which develops the dual-licensed cross-platform "Mono" implementation of Microsoft's .NET development framework.

Stated Jeff Hawn, chairman and CEO of Attachmate Corp., "This acquisition will add significant assets to our current portfolio holdings and the Novell and SUSE brands will allow us to deliver even more value to customers. We have great respect for Novell's business, its employees and its commitment to customers. Moreover, we look forward to maintaining and further strengthening Novell and SUSE solutions to meet market demands."

VMware Buying Novell Why Add More Blah ITworld

The Wall Street Journal is reporting rumors that VMware may buy Novell's SUSE Linux OS business, though Attachmate is competing for the rest of the company's assets.

VMware and Novell have agreed on everything but price, according to the WSJ, which cites unnamed analysts as saying the tools built to help Linux administrators manage virtualized OSes will strengthen VMware's own VM management apps.

Gartner analyst Chris Wolf likes the idea for the strength of Novell's SUSE as much as any other reason.

VMware had already agreed to include SUSE with the vSphere hypervisor, and announced plans to make SUSE the base OS VMware Studio virtual-appliance development kit. Virtual appliances are preconfigured applications that can be installed on a hypervisor to run as virtual machines with a minimum of time or effort from the customer. VMware had relied on an ultra-light OS called the Just Enough OS.

Having its own high-quality OS reduces the impact of having Microsoft, Oracle and Red Hat tune their OSes for their virtualization stacks and against VMware's, Wolf writes.

In that way of looking at things, SUSE Linux -- a perfectly solid Linux distro for under-the-covers roles in the data center or cloud platforms, but nothing that's been setting the world on fire -- makes VMware a better competitor against Microsoft because VMware doesn't have to rely on Windows as the operation system for the VM.

We're not exactly moving toward a world where a lot fewer things run on Windows, though. Android, sure. "The Cloud" in general, sure, except the apps that run on often run on Windows, which run on VMs which run on the cloud.

So, yeah, it might be good to have your own OS in there for server-based VMs, and Linux management tools are certainly more mature than VMware's, especially if you like character-based interfaces.

But can SUSE Linux be a huge win for VMware as a whole? I just don't see it.

[Jun 09, 2010]   Boot Directly into a Shell

Whether you are using GRUB or LILO as the boot loader, you can boot your system directly into a shell. Within this shell, you automatically have root permissions. To boot directly into the shell Bash, enter the following at the boot prompt of your system:


After booting, the system prompt looks like this: You have only a limited environment available:

Only the root file system is mounted.

You have a limited PATH variable.

You have only US English keyboard layout.

[May 29, 2010]   How BMW virtualised with SuSE Linux and Xen by Cliff Saran

May 28, 2010 |

BMW is using the Xen para virtualisation tool in SuSE Linux Enterprise Server to run test and development production systems. The company has deployed Xen to replace its ageing PA-Risc, Sun Sparc and IBM Power 4/5 Unix server hardware with industry-standard PC servers.

The car maker worked with Novell to replace 1,400 Unix servers with Linux systems. It chose Xen over VMware because native products where the virtualisation is supported within the operating system are easier to maintain, according to Andreas Poeschel, IT specialist at BMW Group.

... ... ...

BMW has chosen not to run its database servers on Xen, because the servers are restricted by physical I/O bandwidth, which means their performance is not improved on a virtual machine. Instead, Xen is used to run applications.

BMW uses predominantly open source command line tools to manage the 600 virtual servers it runs on Xen. "Our admin staff prefer scripts [to manage virtual machines]," said Poeschel. "The GUI-based management tools provided by VMware are not essential. If open source software is suitable, we will use it." As such, Linux administrators use familiar command line tools and the bash scripting language to operate the Xen virtualisation environment.

... ... ..

Poeschel said BMW developed 5,000 lines of script code to manage Xen. The open source rdiff-backup tool is used to back up and restore virtual machine images.

[May 26, 2010]   Never ever play lose with /boot partition.

Here is the recent story connected with the upgrade of the OS (in this case Suse 10) to a new service pack (SP3)

After the upgrade sysadmin discovered that instead of /boot partition mounted there is none but there is a /boot directory directory on the boot partition populated by the update. This is so called "split kernel" situation when one (older) version of kernel boots and then it finds different (more recent) modules in /lib/modules and complains. There reason of this strange behavior of Suse update was convoluted and connected with LVM upgrade it contained after which LVM blocked mounting of /boot partition.  

Easy, he thought. Let's boot from DVD, mount boot partition to say /boot2 and copy all files from the /boot directory to the boot partition.

And he did exactly that. To make things "clean" he first wiped the "old" boot partition and then copied the directory.

After rebooting the server he see GRUB prompt; it never goes to the menu. This is a production server and the time slot for the upgrade was 30 min. Investigation that involves now other sysadmins and that took three hours as server needed to be rebooted, backups retrieved to other server from the tape, etc, reveals that /boot directory did not contain a couple of critical files such as /boot/message and /boot/grub/menu.lst. Remember /boot partition was wiped clean. 

BTWs /boot/message is an executable and grub stops execution of stpped /boot/grub/menu.lst.when it encounted instruction

gfxmenu (hd0,1)/message

Here is an actual /boot/grub/menu.lst.

# Modified by YaST2. Last modification on Thu May 13 13:43:35 EDT 2010
default 0
timeout 8
gfxmenu (hd0,1)/message
##YaST - activate

###Don't change this comment - YaST2 identifier: Original name: linux###
title SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP3
root (hd0,1)
kernel /vmlinuz- root=/dev/vg01/root vga=0x317 splash=silent showopts
initrd /initrd-

###Don't change this comment - YaST2 identifier: Original name: failsafe###
title Failsafe -- SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP3
root (hd0,1)
kernel /vmlinuz- root=/dev/vg01/root vga=0x317 showopts ide=nodma apm=off acpi=off noresume edd=off 3
initrd /initrd-


Luckily there was a backup done before this "fix". Four hours later server was bootable again. 

[May 25, 2010]   IBM Adopts Novell's Linux OS for Lotus, Websphere Appliances —
By Sean Michael Kerner

April 21, 2010  |

"We collect revenue when the ISV ships a revenue generating application," Josh Dorfman, director alliance marketing at Novell told "For Novell, this is a new route to market and a way of growing our overall Linux market share."

Dorfman added that Novell has flexible pricing on the SUSE Appliance Program tools and collects support revenue only when SLES is deployed with a customer.

... ... ...

"IBM is using SUSE Linux Enterprise Server and the Appliance Program to support the development of a variety of different appliances from across the company," Dorfman said. "Not all use SUSE Studio. The motivation is to provide a configured software appliance that is tested and ready to deploy across a range of hardware and environments -- physical, virtual or cloud. This makes it much faster, easier and lower-cost for customers to realize value."

IBM and Novell overall have a strategic relationship that extends back over twenty years on various collaboration efforts. With SUSE Linux in particular, this year marks the 10-year anniversary of SUSE Linux running on IBM's System z.

"Novell is a strategic alliance partner and they have actively engaged us to collaborate in this space," Jean Staten Healy, director Linux strategy at IBM, told "However, this is not exclusive and doesn't preclude other relationships."

[May 14, 2010]   OpenVZ Forum Support = [solved] modprobe problem

See also modprobe FATAL could not load modules.dep

[May 14, 2010]   Re [opensuse] Recovered 10.3 system with 11.2 recovery disk, now get - modprobe FATAL Could not load /lib/modules/

See also modprobe FATAL could not load modules.dep

On Sun, 2010-01-03 at 02:21 -0600, David C. Rankin wrote:

I recovered my 10.3 system with the 11.2 install dvd. I booted the installed system from the 11.2 disk and then re-installed grub. Now I get the following modprobe error whenever I try to copy files from sdb -> sda:

Jan 3 02:06:53 nirvana modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/modules/ No such file or directory

Sounds like the 11.2 recovery gave you an 11.2 kernel in /boot, with an
11.2 initrd, but didn't give you the 11.2 kernel rpm with the modules.

I suspect your 10.3 kernel is still under /boot though, and it may even
be available as a boot option already in /boot/grub/menu.lst, but if it
isn't, edit that file and make it point to the correct kernel file.

If the kernel isn't available under /boot, you may have to reinstall the
rpm, which should take care of menu.lst automatically

Anders On Sun, 2010-01-03 at 12:46 +0100, Carlos E. R. wrote:

Ah! There is an "/etc/depmod.conf" file, look in there.

No, there you can only override the search order of the directories inside the kernel directory.

The path of the kernel directory is basedir/versiondir/. You can change the basedir with the -d parameter to modprobe (it is /lib/modules by default), and you can change the versiondir with the -S parameter (or by replacing uname, the default is the output of 'uname -r')

Or you can recompile module-init-tools. But you can't change the defaults with a config file.

Incidentally, the post-build-checks package does install its own uname script, which can be configured to return a different output than the currently running kernel, with a config file /.kernelversion, but even
that wouldn't confuse modprobe, since it uses the uname syscall, not the executable


On Sunday, 2010-01-03 at 02:21 -0600, David C. Rankin wrote:


I recovered my 10.3 system with the 11.2 install dvd. I booted the installed system from the 11.2 disk and then re-installed grub. Now I get the following modprobe error whenever I try to copy files from sdb -> sda:

Jan 3 02:06:53 nirvana modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/modules/ No such file or directory
Jan 3 02:06:53 nirvana modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/modules/ No such file or directory

It seems like depmod got confused. But I don't know where the information to search for modules.dep is stored. Have a look to see if the kernel files in /boot are consistent. Try running depmod.

Ah! There is an "/etc/depmod.conf" file, look in there.

[OpenSUSE 11.1] modprobe FATAL Could not load -lib-modules - openSUSE Forums

See also modprobe FATAL could not load modules.dep
Re: [OpenSUSE 11.1] modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/mod

Maybe you didn't start an upgrade explicitly, but the YaST autoupdater may have done it. You can see the last 20 packages installed and when, by:

rpm -qa --last | head -20
My bet is the kernel was updated behind the scenes, and you haven't rebooted yet. Re: [OpenSUSE 11.1] modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/mod


Originally Posted by ken_yap 

Maybe you didn't start an upgrade explicitly, but the YaST autoupdater may have done it. You can see the last 20 packages installed and when, by:


rpm -qa --last | head -20
My bet is the kernel was updated behind the scenes, and you haven't rebooted yet. You are right. Although the result don't show up unless I do head -100 (it has updated lots of other things as well). If it had updated the system, why didn't it create the /lib/modules/ directory and now spitting out errors?!

I have created a symlink. So /lib/modules/ is now symlinked to /lib/modules/ and the error has stopped.

Is there any way to know if I reboot the system, it will come back up good?

I guess when I rebooted the system, auto-yast2-installation kicked off. How do I turn off Yast Auto Updater/ auto-yast2-installation?

Thanks. modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/mod

No, don't do that symlink. You're not supposed to mix modules from different kernel releases. But it doesn't matter anyway. The old kernel has been deleted and you have no choice but to use the new kernel when you reboot. That's why the module directory for the old kernel didn't exist any more.

YaST autoupdate is configured from Software > Online Update Configuration. It's normally weekly.

I've always thought SUSE's handling of automatic kernel updates a little bit reckless. Currently only one version is retained, the most recent. Of course you can install the update manually and retain the previous version, but expecting normal users to use CLI tools is not realistic. Debian and Ubuntu keep all previous versions which leads to a pile of old kernels and initrds. The most sensible handling I've seen so far is RHEL where the last n (normally 3) kernels are retained. If a new kernel is installed, the oldest is removed. That way the last version is still on disk and doesn't cause bafflement when module loading is attempted after an update.

Irregular Activity » Blog Archive » modprobe FATAL could not load -lib-modules- – Fix!!

See also modprobe FATAL could not load modules.dep
Didn’t fix the problem unfortunately, but the I stumbled across a forum post over at Remote-Exploit and the following rather simple command fixed the whole shebang:


And now it works like a treat! Original Post at the RE Forums here.

Filed under Linux

2 comments to...
“modprobe FATAL could not load /lib/modules/ – Fix!!”

holy loller
September 22nd, 2009

hi try this:

update-initramfs -c -k

it works!

[May 14, 2010]   modprobe FATAL Could not load -lib-modules ... modules.dep: No such a file or directory

I experienced the same problem with SLES 10 SP3 after installing current patches via YAST on May 13, 2010. Creating of the symbolic link like recommended below (/lib/modules/ -> /lib/modules/ solved the problem.

I'm getting "modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/modules/ No such file or directory" in /var/log/messages

This is a OpenSUSE 11.1 box and I haven't modified/ updated/ upgraded anything related to kernel. I use this box only for apache, bind and dhcp servers.

I looked around the system and there is no /lib/modules/
but there is /lib/modules/

uname -a shows #1 SMP

/etc/sysconfig/bootloader shows

default name as DEFAULT_NAME="openSUSE 11.1 -"

In /boot/grub directory it shows two files have been changed/ created recently: menu.lst.old and menu.lst - both the files have been modified at the exact same time!



# Modified by YaST2. Last modification on Wed Apr 29 11:03:02 2009
default 0
timeout 8
##YaST - generic_mbr
gfxmenu (hd0,1)/message
##YaST - activate

###Don't change this comment - YaST2 identifier: Original name: linux###
title openSUSE 11.1 -
    root (hd0,1)
    kernel /vmlinuz- root=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-ST3160828AS_5MT3MBZH-part1 resume=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-ST3160828AS_5MT3MBZH-part3 splash=silent showopts vga=0x31a
    initrd /initrd-

###Don't change this comment - YaST2 identifier: Original name: failsafe###
title Failsafe -- openSUSE 11.1 -
    root (hd0,1)
    kernel /vmlinuz- root=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-ST3160828AS_5MT3MBZH-part1 showopts ide=nodma apm=off noresume nosmp maxcpus=0 edd=off powersaved=off nohz=off highres=off processor.max_cstate=1 x11failsafe vga=0x31a
    initrd /initrd-

###Don't change this comment - YaST2 identifier: Original name: linux###
title openSUSE 11.1 -
    root (hd0,1)
    kernel /vmlinuz- root=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-ST3160828AS_5MT3MBZH-part1 resume=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-ST3160828AS_5MT3MBZH-part3 splash=silent showopts vga=0x31a
    initrd /initrd-

###Don't change this comment - YaST2 identifier: Original name: failsafe###
title Failsafe -- openSUSE 11.1 -
    root (hd0,1)
    kernel /vmlinuz- root=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-ST3160828AS_5MT3MBZH-part1 showopts ide=nodma apm=off noresume nosmp maxcpus=0 edd=off powersaved=off nohz=off highres=off processor.max_cstate=1 x11failsafe vga=0x31a
    initrd /initrd-



# Modified by YaST2. Last modification on Wed Apr 29 11:03:02 2009
default 0
timeout 8
##YaST - generic_mbr
gfxmenu (hd0,1)/message
##YaST - activate

###Don't change this comment - YaST2 identifier: Original name: linux###
title openSUSE 11.1 -
    root (hd0,1)
    kernel /vmlinuz- root=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-ST3160828AS_5MT3MBZH-part1 resume=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-ST3160828AS_5MT3MBZH-part3 splash=silent showopts vga=0x31a
    initrd /initrd-

###Don't change this comment - YaST2 identifier: Original name: failsafe###
title Failsafe -- openSUSE 11.1 -
    root (hd0,1)
    kernel /vmlinuz- root=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-ST3160828AS_5MT3MBZH-part1 showopts ide=nodma apm=off noresume nosmp maxcpus=0 edd=off powersaved=off nohz=off highres=off processor.max_cstate=1 x11failsafe vga=0x31a
    initrd /initrd-
Looks like menu.lst has been modified and the old version is in menu.lst.old - but who would change it? Yast? How? And how can I fix this mess?


Hmm. Why don't you try and create a symbolic link /lib/modules/ -> /lib/modules/ If all your woes are gone you might simply leave it at that.

The reason for all this might be that you have automatic updates via YAST enabled(forgot the name SuSE / Novell uses for that). That might have gotten you a new kernel (as it should) with no update of the modules.dep (buggy?). You might try to download / update those possibly by installing the kernel sources.

How to Setup and Configure Apache Web Server in SLES 10
Dave Simons explains how to setup and configure the Apache Web server in SLES 10.

Creating Software RAID Configurations in SLES 10

Dave Simons explains how to create a Software RAID configuration in SLES 10.

Dec 15, 06

The first thing I would like to explain is when you should, and can, use a software RAID configuration. Here are a few cases where a software RAID configuration with SLES 10 would be beneficial:

Before we go on, it's assumed that you have SLES 10 running, with 4 disks that are NOT being used. On these 4 disks we'll will create the RAID set.

In this AppNote I'll explain how to create and configure a RAID set with EVMS (Enterprise Volume Management System). You can also use the default LVN (local Volume Manager) to create a software RAID, but because EVMS supports more filesystems and is cluster aware - and LVN soes not - I will use EVMS.

Using ClusterSSH to Perform Tasks on Multiple Servers Simultaneously

As an administrator of SLES/OES Linux clusters or multiple SUSE Linux servers you are probably familiar with that fact that you have to make an identical change on more than one server. Those can be things like editing files, execute commands, collect data or some other administrative task.

There are a couple of way to do this. You can write a script that performs the change for you, or you can SSH into a server, make the change and repeat that task manually for every server.

Now both ways can cost an extended amount of time. Writing and testing a shell script takes some time and performing the task by hand on lets say five or more servers also costs time.

Now, wouldn't it be a real timesaver when you have only one console in which you can perform tasks on multiple servers simultaneously? This solution can be found in ClusterSSH.

With ClusterSSH it is possible to make a SSH connection to multiple servers and perform tasks from one single command window, without any scripting. The 'cssh' command lets you connect to any server specified as a command line argument, or to groups of servers (or cluster nodes) defined in a configuration file.

The 'cssh' command opens a terminal window to every server which can be used to review the output sent from the cssh-console, or to edit a single host directly. Commands given in to the cssh-console are executed on every connected host. When you start typing in the cssh-console you'll see that the same command also show up on the commandline of the connected systems.

The state of connected systems can be toggled from the cssh-console. So if you want to exclude certain hosts temporarily from specific command, you can do this with a single mouseclick. Also, hosts can be added on the fly and open terminal windows can automatically be rearranged.

One caveat to be aware of is when editing files. Never assume that file is identical on all systems. For example, lines in a file you are editing may be in a different order. Don't just go to a certain line in a file and start editing. Instead search for the text you want to exit, just to be sure the correct text is edited on all connected systems.


Configuration files section from the man-page:


This file contains a list of tags to server names mappings. When any name is used on the command line it is checked to see if it is a tag in /etc/clusters (or the .csshrc file, or any additional cluster file specified by -c). If it is a tag, then the tag is replaced with the list of servers from the file. The file is formatted as follows:

<tag> [[email protected]]<server> [[email protected]]<server> [...]


# List of servers in live

live [email protected] [email protected] server3 server4

Clusters may also be specified within the users .csshrc file, as documented below.

/etc/csshrc & $HOME/.csshrc

This file contains configuration overrides - the defaults are as marked. Default options are overwritten first by the global file, and then by the user file.


ClusterSSH can be used to any system running the SSH daemon.


Posted: 16 Nov 2007


RPM package is a powerful utility for managing the software packages of major Linux distributions. RPM can be used to install and remove software packages, update packages and get an overview of all installed packages.

Here are some useful commands to manipulate RPM packages:

== Query / Verify commands

  1. Getting detailed information about the package wget:
    rpm -qi wget
  2. Determining which package installed the file /usr/bin/wget:
    rpm -qf /usr/bin/wget
  3. Showing all the files installed by the package wget:
    rpm -ql wget
  4. Viewing the documentation files for the command wget:
    rpm -qd wget
  5. Listing all files included in the not yet installed package wget by entering the following:
    rpm -qpl /mnt/iso/suse/i586/wget-1.10.2-78.i586.rpm
  6. Listing all files included in the installed package wget:
    rpm -ql wget
  7. Verifying that a package is no longer installed by entering:
    rpm -qa | grep wget
  8. Seeing what has changed in the files on your hard drive since the wget RPM was originally installed by entering the following:
    rpm -V wget
  9. Checking package to ensure its integrity and origin: (NOTE: gpg or pgp software must be installed on your system before you use this command)
    rpm -K /mnt/iso/suse/i586/wget-1.10.2-78.i586.rpm

== Install / Uninstall / Upgrade commands

  1. Installing the package wget:
    rpm -ivh /mnt/iso/suse/i586/wget-1.10.2-78.i586.rpm
  2. Uninstalling the package wget:
    rpm -e wget
  3. Upgrading the package wget: (NOTE: if the package is not installed it will install it for You, like option "-ivh")
    rpm -Uvh /mnt/iso/suse/i586/wget-1.10.2-78.i586.rpm
  4. Extracting RPM file using rpm2cpio and cpio command: (NOTE: RPM content will be extracted the current directory)
    rpm2cpio wget-1.10.2-78.i586.rpm | cpio -idmv


19 Nov 2007
Protecting Apache against DOS attack with mod_evasive (feature)
Damian Myerscough shows you how to install and configure mod_evasive so your Apache web server can defend against HTTP DOS attacks and brute force attacks.

Cool Solutions- Install HP Data Protector on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server

20 Nov 2007
Understanding how RAIDed Disks Interact with the SLES Boot Process (tip)
Ivan Vari shares a solution for a problem he had installing a SLED/SLES system onto software raided (RAID1) disks.



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