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The  mkdir command makes a new directory. You can pass multiple arguments to mkdir. Each argument is used by mkdir as the name of a new directory to create.

Following is the general format of the mkdir command.

     mkdir [ -m mode ] [ -p ] directory_list


The following options and their arguments may be used to control how mkdir functions.

-m mode Mode to use for new directories. This allows you to specify what mode all of the new directories will have when they are created. The default is 777 minus your umask number or the system's default umask number.
-p Parent directory creator. If you specify a pathname to create a new directory and the parent directories do not exist, mkdir will create them as needed.


The following arguments may be passed to the mkdir command.

directory_list The list of names to be created as directories. The directory names may be pathnames or single filenames.


Each new directory created will have two entries placed in it by mkdir. The first entry is . (dot) which represents the directory itself (current directory). The second entry, .. (dot dot), represents the parent directory of the new directory.

You must have write permission for the directory where you are creating the new directories. If you do not have write permission, you will not be allowed to create the new directories.

When you create a new directory the system builds a new inode (information node) for the directory. This allows access to the data stored in the directory file and informs the system that the file is a directory type file. The directory file is a preformatted file, containing the filename and its related inode number.

The permissions given to a new directory are set to your current mode. When you initially begin to log in, your mode is set to 777 (-rwxrwxrwx). If the system's profile or your .profile performs an umask, your modes may be different. Use the umask command to check your current modes. Type umask and press Return to display your current umask value. Refer to the module on chmod for an explanation of the modes.

The user-ID and group-ID of the new directories are the same as the real user-ID and group-ID of the creating process. If you create a directory, then it will be owned by you and have your group-ID.

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[Dec 09, 2015] 4 Useful Tips on mkdir, tar and kill Commands in Linux

You are supposed to create a long/complex directory tree similar to given below. What is the most effective way to achieve this?

Directory tree structure to achieve as suggested below.

$ cd /home/$USER/Desktop
$ mkdir tecmint
$ mkdir tecmint/etc
$ mkdir tecmint/lib
$ mkdir tecmint/usr
$ mkdir tecmint/bin
$ mkdir tecmint/tmp
$ mkdir tecmint/opt
$ mkdir tecmint/var
$ mkdir tecmint/etc/x1
$ mkdir tecmint/usr/x2
$ mkdir tecmint/usr/x3
$ mkdir tecmint/tmp/Y1
$ mkdir tecmint/tmp/Y2
$ mkdir tecmint/tmp/Y3
$ mkdir tecmint/tmp/Y3/z

The above scenario can simply be achieved by running the below 1-liner command.

$ mkdir -p /home/$USER/Desktop/tecmint/{etc/x1,lib,usr/{x2,x3},bin,tmp/{Y1,Y2,Y3/z},opt,var}

To verify you may use tree command

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