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dircolors - color setup for ls 

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creeping featurism
: /kree?ping fee?chr?izm/, n.
1. Describes a systematic tendency to load more chrome and features onto systems at the expense of whatever elegance they may have possessed when originally designed. See also feeping creaturism. “You know, the main problem with BSD Unix has always been creeping featurism.
2. More generally, the tendency for anything complicated to become even more complicated because people keep saying “Gee, it would be even better if it had this feature too”. (See feature.) The result is usually a patchwork because it grew one ad-hoc step at a time, rather than being planned. Planning is a lot of work, but it's easy to add just one extra little feature to help someone ... and then another ... and another.... When creeping featurism gets out of hand, it's like a cancer. The GNU hello program, intended to illustrate GNU command-line switch and coding conventions, is also a wonderful parody of creeping featurism; the distribution changelog is particularly funny. Usually this term is used to describe computer programs, but it could also be said of the federal government, the IRS 1040 form, and new cars. A similar phenomenon sometimes afflicts conscious redesigns; see second-system effect. See also creeping elegance.

This utility which Linux-only creature output commands to set the LS_COLORS environment variable.

Syntax is:

 dircolors [OPTION]... [FILE]


-b, --sh, --bourne-shell
output Bourne shell code to set LS_COLORS
-c, --csh, --c-shell
output C shell code to set LS_COLORS
-p, --print-database
output defaults
display this help and exit
output version information and exit

If FILE is specified, read it to determine which colors to use for which file types and extensions. Otherwise, a precompiled database is used. For details on the format of these files, run `dircolors --print-database'.  

dir_colors - configuration file for dircolors(1)

The program ls(1) uses the environment variable LS_COLORS to determine the colors in which the filenames are to be displayed. This environment variable is usually set by a command like

eval `dircolors some_path/dir_colors`

found in a system default shell initialization file, like /etc/profile or /etc/csh.cshrc. (See also dircolors(1).) Usually, the file used here is /etc/DIR_COLORS and can be overridden by a .dir_colors file in one's home directory.

This configuration file consists of several statements, one per line. Anything right of a hash mark (#) is treated as a comment, if the hash mark is at the beginning of a line or is preceded by at least one whitespace. Blank lines are ignored.

The global section of the file consists of any statement before the first TERM statement. Any statement in the global section of the file is considered valid for all terminal types. Following the global section is one or more terminal-specific sections, preceded by one or more TERM statements which specify the terminal types (as given by the TERM environment variable) the following declarations apply to. It is always possible to override a global declaration by a subsequent terminal-specific one.

The following statements are recognized; case is insignificant:


TERM terminal-type
Starts a terminal-specific section and specifies which terminal it applies to. Multiple TERM statements can be used to create a section which applies for several terminal types.
COLOR yes|all|no|none|tty
(Slackware only; ignored by GNU dircolors(1).) Specifies that colorization should always be enabled (yes or all), never enabled (no or none), or enabled only if the output is a terminal (tty). The default is no.
(Slackware only; ignored by GNU dircolors(1).) Specifies that eight-bit ISO 8859 characters should be enabled by default. For compatibility reasons, this can also be specified as 1 for yes or 0 for no. The default is no.
OPTIONS options
(Slackware only; ignored by GNU dircolors(1).) Adds command line options to the default ls command line. The options can be any valid ls command line options, and should include the leading minus sign. Please note that dircolors does not verify the validity of these options.
NORMAL color-sequence
Specifies the color used for normal (non-filename) text.
FILE color-sequence
Specifies the color used for a regular file.
DIR color-sequence
Specifies the color used for directories.
LINK color-sequence
Specifies the color used for a symbolic link.
ORPHAN color-sequence
Specifies the color used for an orphaned symbolic link (one which points to a nonexistent file). If this is unspecified, ls will use the LINK color instead.
MISSING color-sequence
Specifies the color used for a missing file (a nonexistent file which nevertheless has a symbolic link pointing to it). If this is unspecified, ls will use the FILE color instead.
FIFO color-sequence
Specifies the color used for a FIFO (named pipe).
SOCK color-sequence
Specifies the color used for a socket.
DOOR color-sequence
(Supported since file-utils 4.1) Specifies the color used for a door (Solaris 2.5 and later).
BLK color-sequence
Specifies the color used for a block device special file.
CHR color-sequence
Specifies the color used for a character device special file.
EXEC color-sequence
Specifies the color used for a file with the executable attribute set.
LEFTCODE color-sequence
Specifies the left code for non-ISO 6429 terminals (see below).
RIGHTCODE color-sequence
Specifies the right code for non-ISO 6429 terminals (see below).
ENDCODE color-sequence
Specifies the end code for non-ISO 6429 terminals (see below).
*extension color-sequence
Specifies the color used for any file that ends in extension.
.extension color-sequence
Same as *.extension. Specifies the color used for any file that ends in .extension. Note that the period is included in the extension, which makes it impossible to specify an extension not starting with a period, such as ~ for emacs backup files. This form should be considered obsolete.


Most color-capable ASCII terminals today use ISO 6429 (ANSI) color sequences, and many common terminals without color capability, including xterm and the widely used and cloned DEC VT100, will recognize ISO 6429 color codes and harmlessly eliminate them from the output or emulate them. ls uses ISO 6429 codes by default, assuming colorization is enabled.

ISO 6429 color sequences are composed of sequences of numbers separated by semicolons. The most common codes are:

 0     to restore default color
 1     for brighter colors 
 4     for underlined text
 5     for flashing text
30     for black foreground
31     for red foreground
32     for green foreground
33     for yellow (or brown) foreground
34     for blue foreground
35     for purple foreground
36     for cyan foreground
37     for white (or gray) foreground
40     for black background
41     for red background
42     for green background
43     for yellow (or brown) background
44     for blue background
45     for purple background
46     for cyan background
47     for white (or gray) background

Not all commands will work on all systems or display devices.

ls uses the following defaults:

NORMAL   0       Normal (non-filename) text
FILE     0       Regular file
DIR      32      Directory
LINK     36      Symbolic link
ORPHAN   undefined       Orphanned symbolic link
MISSING  undefined       Missing file
FIFO     31      Named pipe (FIFO)
SOCK     33      Socket
BLK      44;37   Block device
CHR      44;37   Character device
EXEC     35      Executable file

A few terminal programs do not recognize the default properly. If all text gets colorized after you do a directory listing, change the NORMAL and FILE codes to the numerical codes for your normal foreground and background colors.  


If you have a color-capable (or otherwise highlighting) terminal (or printer!) which uses a different set of codes, you can still generate a suitable setup. To do so, you will have to use the LEFTCODE, RIGHTCODE, and ENDCODE definitions.

When writing out a filename, ls generates the following output sequence: LEFTCODE typecode RIGHTCODE filename ENDCODE, where the typecode is the color sequence that depends on the type or name of file. If the ENDCODE is undefined, the sequence LEFTCODE NORMAL RIGHTCODE will be used instead. The purpose of the left- and rightcodes is merely to reduce the amount of typing necessary (and to hide ugly escape codes away from the user). If they are not appropriate for your terminal, you can eliminate them by specifying the respective keyword on a line by itself.

NOTE: If the ENDCODE is defined in the global section of the setup file, it cannot be undefined in a terminal-specific section of the file. This means any NORMAL definition will have no effect. A different ENDCODE can, however, be specified, which would have the same effect.  


To specify control- or blank characters in the color sequences or filename extensions, either C-style \-escaped notation or stty-style ^-notation can be used. The C-style notation includes the following characters:


\a      Bell (ASCII 7)
\b      Backspace (ASCII 8)
\e      Escape (ASCII 27)
\f      Form feed (ASCII 12)
\n      Newline (ASCII 10)
\r      Carriage Return (ASCII 13)
\t      Tab (ASCII 9)
\v      Vertical Tab (ASCII 11)
\?      Delete (ASCII 127)
\nnn Any character (octal notation)
\xnnn        Any character (hexadecimal notation)
\_      Space
\\     Backslash (\)
\^      Caret (^)
\#      Hash mark (#)

Please note that escapes are necessary to enter a space, backslash, caret, or any control character anywhere in the string, as well as a hash mark as the first character.  



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