May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)
Home Switchboard Unix Administration Red Hat TCP/IP Networks Neoliberalism Toxic Managers
(slightly skeptical) Educational society promoting "Back to basics" movement against IT overcomplexity and  bastardization of classic Unix

Windows FAT/FAT32 filesystem internals

News See also Recommended Links NTFS Disk Repartitioning Filesystems Recovery Etc

FAT filesystem implementation supports (12/16/32 bit) FAT types. FAT32  addresses limitations of the earlier FAT16  file systems. FAT partitions can store both MsDos 8+3 directory entries and VFAT long filename slots. Additional inode attributes (mode, owner, access flags,...) can also be stored in special file for every directory. FAT as it applies to flexible/floppy and optical disk cartridges (FAT12 and FAT16 without LFN support) has been standardized as ECMA-107 and ISO/IEC 9293.

The FAT file system is amazingly simple and is supported by all popular operating systems for PC as well as most server OSes (Solaris is one example). FAT is the classic format for floppy disks and now is also used for solid-state memory cards.

The FAT filesystem was created by Bill Gates and Marc McDonald in 1977 for managing disks in Microsoft Disk BASIC. In August 1980 Tim Paterson incorporated FAT into his 86-DOS operating system ; the filesystem was the main difference between 86-DOS and CP/M the clone of which 86-DOS was.

FAT32 was created for Windows 95 and extended the life of the filesystem. It extended the size of the volumes to 32G and max size of the file to 4G.

Max file size for FAT32 is limited to 4G; that's too small for DVD ISO images

Limitations of the FAT32 File System in Windows XP

The following limitations exist using the FAT32 file system with Windows operating systems: NOTE: When attempting to format a FAT32 partition larger than 32 GB, the format fails near the end of the process.

The latest version of FAT is exFAT ( Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 users must have Service Pack 2 or later and install an update to support exFAT; see Download details Update for Windows XP (KB955704))



Old News ;-)

[Nov 12, 2009] Working with File Systems

November 03, 2005 | TechNet

Table 13-5 NTFS Size Limits

Description Limit
Maximum file size
Theory: 16 exabytes minus 1 KB (264 bytes minus 1 KB)

Implementation: 16 terabytes minus 64 KB (244 bytes minus 64 KB)

Maximum volume size
Theory: 264 clusters minus 1 cluster

Implementation: 256 terabytes minus 64 KB (232 clusters minus 1 cluster)

Files per volume
4,294,967,295 (232 files minus 1 file)

Maximum Sizes on FAT32 Volumes
A FAT32 volume must have a minimum of 65,527 clusters. Windows XP Professional can format FAT32 volumes up to 32 GB, but it can mount larger FAT32 volumes created by other operating systems. Table 13-6 lists FAT32 size limits.

Table 13-6 FAT32 Size Limits

Description Limit
Maximum file size
4 GB minus 1 byte (232 bytes minus 1 byte)

Maximum volume size
32 GB (implementation)

Files per volume

Maximum number of files and subfolders within a single folder
65,534 (The use of long file names can significantly reduce the number of available files and subfolders within a folder.)

Maximum Sizes on FAT16 Volumes
FAT16 supports a maximum of 65,524 clusters per volume. Table 13-7 lists FAT16 size limits.

Table 13-7 FAT16 Size Limits

Description Limit
Maximum file size
4 GB minus 1 byte (232 bytes minus 1 byte)

Maximum volume size
4 GB

Files per volume
Approximately 65,536 (216 files)

Maximum number of files and folders within the root folder
512 (Long file names can reduce the number of available files and folders in the root folder.)

Understanding File-Size Limits on NTFS and FAT

In the April 17 Windows Client UPDATE, I wrote about the 4GB file-size limit in FAT32. In response, I've received dozens of email messages telling me that FAT32 isn't limited to 4GB but rather that the 4GB limit is a FAT16 artifact. I also received messages questioning my assertion that NTFS is appropriate for small office/home office (SOHO) and small business users, but my point didn't center on NTFS's general appropriateness. I stand by my conclusion that if you're doing video editing on Windows, you need to use NTFS. 

I've run into the 4GB wall when creating files on FAT32 partitions. Because I realized that the problem might have been caused by the video-creation software I was using, I tried again with different software to create an AVI file larger than 4GB. No dice: As soon as the file size reached 4GB, the application failed.

With that 4GB figure stuck in my head, I went to my accustomed research tools and found plenty of references to the FAT32 4GB limit. To back up that number, I searched the Microsoft Web site and found numerous articles confirming that the file-size limit on FAT32 is (2^32)-1 bytes, or one byte less than a full 4GB.

The confusion about FAT file size seems to stem from the fact that FAT16 has a 4GB limit on partition size, whereas FAT32 has a 2TB limit on partition size. A large number of my respondents appear to have confused "partition" with "file." To add a little additional confusion, many respondents commented that they're running large drives as one partition on FAT32. In these days of inexpensive 120GB+ hard disks, I guess my definition of "large" differs from that of these readers.

Windows XP and Windows 2000 limit partition creation to no larger than 32GB on FAT32. This limitation is by design: Microsoft wants you to use NTFS for large drives. If you use Windows Me or Windows 98 to format a drive, XP and Win2K can use a FAT32 partition larger than 32GB; however, these OSs can't create the partition. Also, keep in mind that when you use ATA/IDE hard disks larger than 127GB, you might need to update your computer's or hard disk controller's BIOS to properly support those larger drives.



I have used this File Generator to generate huge files (over 2GB or 4GB) and it worked. So David Chernicoff is right.

The tool is available here:

Partition Surprise 0.1 Supported filesystems FAT filesystem internals

Guidelines for Configuring and Managing Dual and Multi-Boot Configurations

FAT32 for Windows NT 4.0 v1.01
from Sysinternals: a FAT32 file system driver for NT 4.0. Dual booting with Windows 95OSR2 and Windows98 just got more efficient!

Long File Names

Long File Names (LFNs) were introduced in the original Windows 95, and remain a significant compatibility issue to this day. But to understand LFNs, you have to understand how normal file names work! A good learning tool for this purpose is "DirSnoop", which can be downloaded from the 'net. This views directory entries in their raw form, and it can be fun to associate DirSnoop as a non-default right-click action for "File Folder" (Win9x-speak for "directory").

The internal structure of LFNs is more rigorously documented elsewhere on the Internet; the focus here will be on practical things that go wrong with LFNs and how to anticipate and manage these. It's also crucial not to get confused between LFNs and other Win9x file system compatibility issues, such as FAT32 or VFAT (e.g. DOS Compatibility Mode).

8.3 names

Every file system data object is pointed to by a directory entry of 32 bytes in length, which contain information about the file; name, address of the first cluster (if any), length of the file in bytes, time and date stamps, and a set of attribute bits that determine whether the file was recently backed up, should be displayed, may be written to, etc.

But not every data object within the file system is a file - some of the attribute bits are used to signify subdirectories or volume labels. There should only be one volume label per disk volume, found in the root; however, subdirectories may abound. A subdirectory is stored like a file, except that the data clusters of this "file" are interpreted as further lists of file system objects.

There are 11 bytes set aside for the object name in a directory entry. All 11 can be used for volume labels, but in the case of files and (sub)directories, the 11 bytes are interpreted as 8 bytes of name, and 3 bytes of extension (the "three letters after the dot" that determine what should be done with the file). This pattern of 8 name characters plus a 3 character extension is referred to as the 8.3 naming convention, which also excludes spaces, certain other characters, and uses only upper case letters internally. It's quite a restrictive convention to live with, if you want to use meaningful names; hence the challenge to add long file name support while remaining compatible with programs bound to 8.3 names and conventions.

Long File Names

LFNs are stored as directory entries with an "impossible" combination of attribute bits - thus causing them to be safely ignored by most software written before Windows 95. Like volume labels, they point to no data clusters; in fact, they are pure character data, with no other information. Each character takes two bytes of space, so that LFNs up to 16 characters can be held within a single directory entry; longer names take up additional entries.

Spaces can be used, but some characters are still reserved for use as delimiters or redirection symbols. Both upper and lower case letters can be used, although the case is used only for display within the Win9x system. An LFN is generated whenever a file name that is invalid as 8.3 and is not in ALLCAPS is created within Windows through the Win32 API. File names that are 8.3-valid, but not in ALLCAPS, have a "cosmetic" LFN to preserve the letter case for display - something that becomes important when uploading to UNIX-based servers or web sites.

It's important to remember that the LFN is used in addition to the 8.3 name within the Win9x file system, and is associated with it by virtue of its position in the directory. All other information about the file (length, cluster address, etc.) is stored within the 8.3-named entry. When the file is stored in contexts other than the Win9x file system, this may not be the case; for example, only one name is used within a .zip archive, and the other name is lost.

Other file systems handle longer names (with or without spaces) natively, but may have limitations of their own, e.g. a file system used on CD-ROM may not accept names that start with a space. But few file systems support or store alternate names for the same object.

LFN Risks and Issues

These include software compatibility issues, data corruption risks, slight performance degradation, and problems with command line parameter management:

Pre-LFN disk utilities

Whereas "normal" pre-LFN programs will ignore LFNs, some programs that are written to manage or repair the details of the file system will trip over them. File system repair utilities such as MS-DOS 6.x Scandisk, pre-LFN Norton Disk Doctor, etc. will flag them as illegal entries (as indeed they are, within pre-LFN file systems) and may delete them; pre-LFN "directory sort" utilities will move them away from the real 8.3 named entries they are supposed to be associated with, as will pre-LFN defraggers such as MS-DOS 6.x Defrag and pre-LFN Norton Speed Disk.

While the file is still intact and accessible via the underlying 8.3 name, problems arise when inter-file links are broken or when it's not possible to guess the identity of the file (e.g. which "Invoice *.doc" is INVOIC~9.DOC ?). Windows uses LFNs internally (crazy, but true) so that the OS may not be able to run if these are mangled.

Pre-LFN software

Pre-LFN software won't see LFNs; instead, the raw underlying 8.3 names are seen and used. This can create problems if such files are copied, moved or renamed; changing the 8.3 name has the effect of blowing away the LFN associated with it. Under these circumstances, a rename will cause the LFN to change to the new 8.3 name; a copy or move will simply leave it behind.

This difference is useful when one needs to deliberately strip away LFNs, either for performance reasons or for use on disks that are destined to be maintained by pre-LFN environments.

DOS and DOS Mode

Anything prior to WinStart.bat within the startup axis cannot see LFNs, and neither can Win9x DOS mode or previous versions of MS-DOS.

The only exception to this are utilities that access the directory entries directly, rather than relying on API calls. Examples include the rather hairy Microsoft LFNBack.exe that is on most Win9x CDs, and the safer and better 3rd-party downloadable freeware DOSLFNBk.exe; both of these can be used to backup LFNs from within DOS mode.

LFNs used as 8.3 name data

There's a need for DOS Mode archivers of backup utilities that can "see" LFNs, but you can go seriously wrong here. For example, the freeware InfoZip might appear just the ticket as it sees LFNs and runs in both Windows and DOS Mode, and the .zip file standard itself is quite comfortable with LFNs.

However, if you create a .zip such that this contains LFNs, and then extract it in a non-LFN-aware environment (such as PKUnZip 2.04g, or InfoZip in DOS Mode), you will get neither the original 8.3 name (which was not stored in the archive) nor the LFN. What you will get is an 8.3 name taken as-is from the LFN name data; a name that may contain lower case letters, spaces, or other illegal characters. For example, the name "My Documents" might be extracted as "My Docum.ent", and as that space is within the actual 8.3 name itself, it will cause problems in both DOS Mode and Windows.

For this reason I prefer to use PKZip 2.50 (PKZip25.exe) rather than InfoZip, as it will refuse to operate in DOS or DOS Mode.

Numeric Tails

One of two Great Discredited Registry Hacks (the other being killing off IsShortcut as a way of hiding icon shortcut arrows) involved a setting that changed the way 8.3 names were generated from LFNs when creating names.

The LFN-to-8.3 naming method is:

Spaces are stripped, then the first 6 characters are used as the name stub, followed by a tilde (~ or "squiggle") and next required digit {1,2,3...}, then a dot (not stored internally) and the first 3 characters following the last dot in the LFN. The digit chosen will be the lowest that avoids a same-name clash with an 8.3 name already present in that directory; if all digits 1-9 are taken, the name stub is shortened and the number takes an extra digit to the left (i.e. ...NEXTIS~8.EXT, NEXTIS~9.EXT, NEXTI~10.EXT...)


"A Long File Name.a.b.c.d" -> ALONGF~1.D

"My Safe Picture.gif.exe" -> MYSAFE~1.EXE

"My Safe Picture.gif.executable" -> MYSAFE~2.EXE

If the registry setting to disable numeric tales was added, these names would be created differently:

"A Long File Name.a.b.c.d" -> ALONGFIL.D

"My Safe Picture.gif.exe" -> MYSAFEPI.EXE

"My Safe Picture.gif.executable" -> MYSAFE~1.EXE

Where you have ambiguity like this, you no longer have a function (i.e. a process that generates only one result) and situations arise where "behavior is undefined".

Ambiguous LFNs

Any LFNs that have the same first six non-space characters and extension will generate the same name stub. The numeric tail is generated by enumeration rather than identity, so it is a matter of what order they were created in that determines which is called what. For example, consider this:

"Invoice 001.doc" -> INVOIC~1.DOC

"Invoice 002.doc" -> INVOIC~2.DOC

"Invoice 003.doc" -> INVOIC~3.DOC

"Invoice 004.doc" -> INVOIC~4.DOC

Now, "Invoice 003.doc" is deleted. Will "Invoice 005.doc" be INVOIC~3.DOC, or INVOIC~5.DOC? If these files are linked to from an Excel 6 spreadsheet (which is LFN-unaware), will the link to "Invoice 003.doc" now point to "Invoice 005.doc"? If this directory is backed up, and then restored elsewhere with the files created out of sequence (or into a dir that already has several "Invoice ???.doc" files present) will that spreadsheet's links be anything remotely sane?

Moral: Don't use same six characters for lots of file names; it also bedevils data recovery!

Life would be a lot cleaner and simpler had Microsoft called "Program Files" and "My Documents" "Programs" and "Docs" respectively. That avoids both parsing issues and the problem of ambiguous 8.3 names. For example, if you were to backup in this order...

"C:\Program Files" -> PROGRA~1

"C:\Program Fools" -> PROGRA~2

...and restored these in this order...

"C:\Program Fools" -> PROGRA~1

"C:\Program Files" -> PROGRA~2

...then apps that refer to their paths via 8.3 names (e.g. anything involving .inf handler, AutoExec.bat Path, etc.) will get the wrong directory and won't work.

This isn't such an unlikely scenario as it sounds; it's common to rename away a "Program Files" when doing a parallel Windows installation, and if you'd renamed it to "Program Files old" rather than, say, "ex-Program Files", your new installation might track PROGRA~2 instead of PROGRA~1. That might cause problems when you try and integrate the two into one working installation.

This enumeration-vs.-identity dilemma is a basic info-theory boo-boo that recurs in Plug-n-Play and drive letter management. It is one cause of problems that can arise after restoring Windows-based backups; the others being files that were open or in a dynamic state when the backup was made, and inter-file inconsistencies due to processes running within the backup period.

The only way to really backup all the information within the file system (while regenerating actual cluster positioning) is to back everything up outside of Windows, and use a separate process to backup the LFNs (e.g. DOSLFNBk.exe). Most of the time it works out OK, as long as you don't have hybrid LFN/8.3 access to similarly-named data files.

Ambiguous LFN display

There are certain characters that can be valid within LFNs, but will not be displayed by the Windows interface (i.e. Explorer.exe in its various guises). Typically the trouble character is shown as an underscore ("_") character.

Suspect this if you have what appears to be two entries with the same name (having excluded a .pif or .lnk etc.) or a file that you can't seem to "get a grip on" ("not found" errors when trying to access or delete it).

As long as the entire directory is not deranged (genuine same-name entries are quite common in an insane file system) and the rest of the file's directory information is sane (i.e. not a 57G file on a 2G drive) then you can use the DOS wildcard approach to rename or remove it.

You may also have to do this in the case of invalid 8.3 names generated by processing LFN name data outside an LFN-aware environment.

False extensions

This has significant safety implications, and is already exploited by malware. Because you can have as many dots within an LFN (the dot is a valid character under LFN rules, though not under 8.3 rules), you can get misleading names such as:


"My Safe Picture.GIF.pif"


Couple this with the Microsoft default practice of hiding file extensions for registered file types, and you have a recipe for disaster. An .exe can have any icon embedded with it, so it's trivial to create a Zipped_Files.exe with a WinZip icon within - looking just like a "safe" archive.

The problem is compounded when certain dangerous extensions are hidden, regardless of how you set up Explorer; .shs, .shb, .lnk and .pif are all dangerous file types that fall into this category. Part of the problem can be managed by renaming away SHSCrap.dll so that .shs and .shb files cannot be processed by the system.

In this respect, Windows Millennium exacerbates the problem by making it more difficult to rename away system files (SFP replaces them on the fly) and by losing the facility to display the real 8.3 name via the file's Properties.

LFN bloat

Each directory sector can hold 16 entries, or 8 entries if all names have fairly short LFNs. Every subdirectory starts with two entries for the . (self) and .. (parent) pointers. A FAT32 volume under 8G in size will use 4k clusters by default, i.e. can hold 126 directory entries (or 63 with short LFNs) before having to link in additional clusters and thus potentially become fragmented.

But directories can often hold thousands of files, so fragmentation and slowdown are common. Fragmentation not only impacts performance, but increases the size of the double-zero on the dartboard (the time during which a crash will interrupt a file write operation and thus cause data corruption).

This is probably one of the reasons why users complain about "My Documents" taking long to "open", and is a reason why one gets fed up with programmers who blithely create thousands of temp files with lower-case names that generate cosmetic LFNs and thus double the bloat factor.

You can imagine the slowdown when processes have to create new, arbitrary-but-unique named temp files at the end of a 20-cluster fragmented mess of a temp directory.

Other scenarios where directory length (rather than file load) cause slowdowns are the case of a software botch that causes masses of zero-length .inf files to be spawned, and the Prolin/Creative virus that moves wads of .jpg and .zip files to the root of the C: volume. The latter causes slowdown on FAT32 volumes, and oddball errors on FAT16 volumes (as FAT16 has a fixed limit on the number of entries the root directory can hold).

The other form of LFN bloat is nonsense like "C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Common Files\Office\Microsoft Common Files\Some Common Files for MS Office\Version 10\Standard edition\Shared\Blob.dll". These gratuitously long paths break several backup utilities, CD file system standards, Path environment and parameter space restrictions, and are thrown up as errors by ScanDisk in DOS Mode.

Consider this if you were wondering why "clean up" batch files with lines like 'Del "C:\Windows\Application Data\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Quick Launch\Launch Outlook Express.lnk"' don't seem to work.

Win9x internals

Strangely, some fresh-for-Win95 parts of Windows 9x are not LFN aware. A classic example in the .inf handler that is used when installing hardware drivers and so forth; it cannot list or find LFNs, and will often throw up a "where-is-it?" browse dialog when trying to access stuff that you'd pointed it to just one mouse click and dialog ago.

This has not got better, right up to Windows ME. It's odd, because the PnP and .inf handler is new to Win9x; it's not a legacy thing brought over from Win3.yuk - presumably it was one of the first things they developed and stabilized before kludging on LFN support.

Non-LFN volumes in Win9x

Sometimes users report they are unable to copy LFNs onto a particular hard drive volume; all they see there are 8.3 names. I've never seen this, but then I always do my FDisking and Formatting in DOS Mode.

I've read that this can happen if you do these actions within Windows, and then start working on the new volume while in the same Windows session; the problem goes away after restarting Windows.

You may also see this if you explicitly disable LFN support within System, Performance, File System, Troubleshooting for some reason. DOS Compatibility Mode and Safe Mode will not do this, however.

Parameter management

The space character is used as a parameter delimiter by, and the parameter parsing logic of many programs. This is countered by enclosing LFNs with spaces in quotes, so that whereas My Proctologist would be seen as two parameters, "My Proctologist" is seen as one.

Command line processors may add quotes, or not, and parser logic may strip quotes, or not. For example, you need to add an explicit "%1" to the command line for LView Pro, else it won't see associated files if there's a space in the file spec, but if you do that for IView, it won't see anything.

Consider this the likely problem when you have "unable to run Program" (for a reference to "C:\Program Files\SomePath\SomeApp.exe") errors on startup, or starting an application, or launching a file.

Consider this also when you see "can't find xxx" errors when the file you are trying to "open" happens to be in a directory with a space in it, or itself has a name with a space in it.

Somewhere; either in a shortcut, an .ini file, or within HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT, you will see a %1 that should be "%1", or a command line like "C:\Program Files\SomePath\SomeApp.exe" that needs an extra set of quotes. Exported .reg files have quotes around string values, so explicit quotes appear as "doubled" there. HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT takes the first parameter as %1, so adding an explicit "%1" via the "front door" has the effect of enquoting the auto-generated %1 parameter.

Makes you really wish they'd called it C:\PROGRAMS, doesn't it?

Recommended Links

Google matched content

Softpanorama Recommended

FAT File System (Microsoft)

File Allocation Table - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Q154997 - Description of the FAT32 File System

undocumented aspects of Windows 9x/NT/2000/ME -- has articles on how interrupts work, how protected mode  and real mode works,

FAT32 Linux access for FAT32 partitions. Very good. A lot of useful links

mtools Tools for accessing DOS, W95/NT and OS/2 disks.

PartitionMagic - Product Information -- nice utility to convert between FAT16 and FAT32 or convert them into something else

Most cases of FAT corruption are connected with attempts of viruses to infect FAT32 or user doing something wrong with FAT32. Here is some info that I hope can help.



Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers :   Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism  : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy


War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda  : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotesSomerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose BierceBernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes


Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 :  Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method  : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law


Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds  : Larry Wall  : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOSProgramming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC developmentScripting Languages : Perl history   : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history

Classic books:

The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-MonthHow to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Haterís Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite

Most popular humor pages:

Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor

The Last but not Least Technology is dominated by two types of people: those who understand what they do not manage and those who manage what they do not understand ~Archibald Putt. Ph.D

Copyright © 1996-2021 by Softpanorama Society. was initially created as a service to the (now defunct) UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) without any remuneration. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License. Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.

FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.

This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...

You can use PayPal to to buy a cup of coffee for authors of this site


The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the Softpanorama society. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose. The site uses AdSense so you need to be aware of Google privacy policy. You you do not want to be tracked by Google please disable Javascript for this site. This site is perfectly usable without Javascript.

Last modified: February 19, 2014