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|Contents||Bulletin||Scripting in shell and Perl||Network troubleshooting||History||Humor|
|News||batch command||Books||Recommended Links||jobs||atq command||Examples|
|Time Specification||Options||at.allow/at.deny||Unix at command||Grid engine||SGE Parallel Environment||Creating and modifying SGE Queues|
|date command||nohup command||Enterprise Job schedulers||Cron Tips||Sysadmin Horror Stories|
The command jobs is one of the three commands that consititute simple batch scheduler in Unix. The other two are batch command and atq command . There is also script atrun which allow to specify the load threshold below which batch jobs are allowed to run.
The internal jobs command displays all processes in background or in a suspended state. Jobs are processes you have started in foreground, background, or have suspended. There are three states of jobs:
|* foreground||A process whose I/O is attached to your terminal. If a process is executing in foreground, you have to wait until it completes to execute the next command.|
|* background||A process detached from your terminal. The process is executing while you continue to work at your terminal.|
|* suspended||A process that is not executing. It is waiting to be moved to foreground or background to continue execution.|
If you end a command line with an ampersand (&) the process is immediately placed in background for processing.
You will need to use the jobs command to list any processes you have suspended or placed in the background. When a background job completes, the shell notifies you between commands. If you try to log out while you have suspended jobs, the shell warns you and does not log you out.
If you start a command in foreground, you can suspend it by typing Ctrl-Z. You can place it in background with the bg command. The fg command allows you to reattach to the process in the foreground. A suspended job does not execute. It remains at the same instruction where you suspended it.
Following is the general format of the jobs command.
jobs [ -lnp ]
The following options may be used to control how jobs functions.
|-l||Lists the process IDs in addition to the normal output.|
|-n||Displays jobs that have stopped or exited since last notified.|
|-p||Displays only the process IDs. Not implemented on some systems.|
The output of the jobs command provides you with the information you need to control jobs. We'll use the following output to explain the information provided by jobs.
jobs -l + 5931 Stopped vi myfile - 5917 Running du -s / > /tmp/du.all  5898 Done(0) ls -R | lp
The first column contains the job number enclosed in square brackets. The plus (+) signifies the current job. The current job is the last job placed in background or stopped. The minus (-) signifies the previous job.
The second column contains the process ID (PID). Some systems display this as a default; others require the -l option.
The third column contains the current state of the job. The possible states are:
|Done(n)||The job has completed with return code n.|
|Running||The job is executing (processing) in background.|
|Stopped||The job has been suspended from execution.|
|Terminated||The job has been aborted via a signal.|
Column four contains the name of the command you entered.
Refer to the bg, fg, kill, stop and suspend commands described in modules 9, 51, 70, 125, and 129.
In this activity you use the jobs command to display all suspended and background jobs. Begin at the shell prompt.
cj> jobs - 1423 Running du -s / > /dev/null + 1428 Stopped vi x
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