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The utility locate is rather primitive utility which operates with a database of information about filesystem instead of
actual filesystem. Database is updated via cron using The
The utility locate is very useful for quick finding of files and directories using basic regular expression. As suhc is can sumplify and quicket navigatin in a complex maze of filesystem directories.
On Solaris it needs to be installed from GNU findutils. For linux alternative implementation is rlocate. There is also a secure version slocate - Security Enhanced version of the GNU Locate
locate [-d path | --database=path] [-e | --existing] [-i | --ignore-case ] [--version] [--help] pattern...
Locate provides a quick method to search for files on your system. It uses index database but that means that it depends of the currency of the database. This is a deficiency: you buy speed at the expense of currency. The index database makes searching much faster then find. \
|Instead of searching the default file name
database, search the file name databases in path, which is a colon-separated
list of database file names. You can also use the environment variable LOCATE_PATH
to set the list of database files to search. The option overrides the environment
variable if both are used.
The file name database format changed starting with GNU find and locate
version 4.0 to allow machines with different byte orderings to share the
databases. This version of locate can automatically recognize and read databases
produced for older versions of GNU locate or Unix versions of locate or
|Only print out such names that currently exist
(instead of such names that existed when the database was created). Note
that this may slow down the program a lot, if there are many matches in
|Ignore case distinctions in both the pattern and the file names.|
|--help||Print a summary of the options to locate and exit.|
|--version||Print the version number of locate and exit.|
locate perl -- Locate file perl in the DB and Print the path.
locate -i perl -- Same search as above, case insensitive.
locate -q perl -- Run in Quiet Mode.
locate -n 2 perl -- Limit the no. of results shown to 2 first.
locate -U locater -o locateDB -- Create index DB starting at locater and store the index file in locateDB.
In the above example the system would locate perl on the local machine.
Note: You may need to run the "updatedb" command to update the database in order to find the file you are searching for. This command should be ran from cron daily or several times a day.
To search for files by name without having to actually scan the
directories on the disk (which can be slow), you can use the
locate program. For each shell pattern you give it,
searches one or more databases of file names and displays the file names
that contain the pattern. See Shell
Pattern Matching, for details about shell patterns.
If a pattern is a plain string—it contains no metacharacters—
displays all file names in the database that contain that string. If a
pattern contains metacharacters,
locate only displays file
names that match the pattern exactly. As a result, patterns that contain
metacharacters should usually begin with a ‘*’,
and will most often end with one as well. The exceptions are patterns
that are intended to explicitly match the beginning or end of a file
If you only want
locate to match against the last
component of the file names (the “base name” of the files) you can use
the ‘--basename’ option. The
opposite behaviour is the default, but can be selected explicitly by
using the option ‘--wholename’.
is almost equivalent to
find directories -name pattern
where directories are the directories for which the file
name databases contain information. The differences are that the
locate information might be out of date, and that
handles wildcards in the pattern slightly differently than
(see Shell Pattern Matching).
The file name databases contain lists of files that were on the system when the databases were last updated. The system administrator can choose the file name of the default database, the frequency with which the databases are updated, and the directories for which they contain entries.
Here is how to select which file name databases
searches. The default is system-dependent. At the time this document was
generated, the default was
LOCATE_PATHto set the list of database files to search. The option overrides the environment variable if both are used.
locate can read file name databases generated by the
slocate package. However, these generally contain a list of
all the files on the system, and so when using this database,
locate will produce output only for files which are accessible to
you. See Invoking locate, for a
description of the ‘--existing’
option which is used to do this.
updatedb program can also generate database in a
format compatible with
Invoking updatedb, for a description of
its ‘--dbformat’ and ‘--output’
Jul 25, 2019 | linuxize.com
... ... ...
locatecommand also accepts patterns containing globbing characters such as the wildcard character
*. When the pattern contains no globbing characters the command searches for
*PATTERN*, that's why in the previous example all files containing the search pattern in their names were displayed.
The wildcard is a symbol used to represent zero, one or more characters. For example, to search for all
.mdfiles on the system you would use:locate *.md
To limit the search results use the
-noption followed by the number of results you want to be displayed. For example, the following command will search for all
.pyfiles and display only 10 results:locate -n 10 *.py
locateperforms case-sensitive searches. The
--ignore-case) option tels
locateto ignore case and run case-insensitive search.locate -i readme.md/home/linuxize/p1/readme.md /home/linuxize/p2/README.md /home/linuxize/p3/ReadMe.md
To display the count of all matching entries, use the
--count) option. The following command would return the number of all files containing
.bashrcin their names:locate -c .bashrc6
locatedoesn't check whether the found files still exist on the file system. If you deleted a file after the latest database update if the file matches the search pattern it will be included in the search results.
To display only the names of the files that exist at the time
locateis run use the
--existing) option. For example, the following would return only the existing
.jsonfiles:locate -e *.json
If you need to run a more complex search you can use the
--regexp) option which allows you to search using a basic regexp instead of patterns. This option can be specified multiple times.
For example, to search for all
.avifiles on your system and ignore case you would run:locate --regex -i "(\.mp4|\.avi)"
Jul 16, 2017 | www.tecmint.comLimit Search Queries to a Specific Number
You can limit your search returns to a required number to avoid redundancy with your search results using the
For example, if you want just 20 results from your queries, you can type the following command:$ locate "*.html" -n 20 /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/aapocclcgogkmnckokdopfmhonfmgoek/0.9_0/main.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/aohghmighlieiainnegkcijnfilokake/0.9_0/main.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/felcaaldnbdncclmgdcncolpebgiejap/1.1_0/main.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/kbfnbcaeplbcioakkpcpgfkobkghlhen/14.752.848_0/forge.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/kbfnbcaeplbcioakkpcpgfkobkghlhen/14.752.848_0/src/popup.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/nlipoenfbbikpbjkfpfillcgkoblgpmj/3.9.16_0/additional-feature.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/nlipoenfbbikpbjkfpfillcgkoblgpmj/3.9.16_0/background.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/nlipoenfbbikpbjkfpfillcgkoblgpmj/3.9.16_0/edit.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/nlipoenfbbikpbjkfpfillcgkoblgpmj/3.9.16_0/help.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/nlipoenfbbikpbjkfpfillcgkoblgpmj/3.9.16_0/options.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/nlipoenfbbikpbjkfpfillcgkoblgpmj/3.9.16_0/popup.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/nlipoenfbbikpbjkfpfillcgkoblgpmj/3.9.16_0/purchase.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/nlipoenfbbikpbjkfpfillcgkoblgpmj/3.9.16_0/upload.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/nlipoenfbbikpbjkfpfillcgkoblgpmj/3.9.16_0/oauth2/oauth2.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/nmmhkkegccagdldgiimedpiccmgmieda/188.8.131.52_0/html/craw_window.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/pkedcjkdefgpdelpbcmbmeomcjbeemfm/5516.1005.0.3_0/cast_route_details.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/pkedcjkdefgpdelpbcmbmeomcjbeemfm/5516.1005.0.3_0/feedback.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/pkedcjkdefgpdelpbcmbmeomcjbeemfm/5516.1005.0.3_0/cast_setup/devices.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/pkedcjkdefgpdelpbcmbmeomcjbeemfm/5516.1005.0.3_0/cast_setup/index.html /home/tecmint/.config/google-chrome/Default/Extensions/pkedcjkdefgpdelpbcmbmeomcjbeemfm/5516.1005.0.3_0/cast_setup/offers.html
The results will show the first 20 files that end with3. Display The Number of Matching Entries
If you want to display the count of all matching entries of file " tecmint ", use the locate -c command.$ locate -c [tecmint]* 15504. Ignore Case Sensitive Locate Outputs
By default, locate is configured to process queries in a case sensitive manner meaning
TEXT.TXTwill point you to a different result than
To have locate command ignore case sensitivity and show results for both uppercase and lowercase queries, input commands with the
-ioption.$ locate -i *text.txt* /home/tecmint/TEXT.txt /home/tecmint/text.txt5. Refresh mlocate Database
Since locate command relies on a database called mlocate . The said database needs to be updated regularly for the command utility to work
To update the mlocate database, you use a utility called updatedb . It should be noted that you will need superuser privileges for this to work properly, is it needs to be executed as root or sudo privileges.$ sudo updatedb6. Display Only Files Present in Your System
When you have an updated mlocate database**, locate command still produces results of files whose physical copies are deleted from your system.
To avoid seeing results of files not present in your machine at the time of punching in the command, you will need to use the locate-e command. The process searches your system to verify the existence of the file you're looking for even if it is still present in your mlocate.db .$ locate -i -e *text.txt* /home/tecmint/text.txt7. Separate Output Entries Without New Line
locate command's default separator is the newline
(\\n)character. But if you prefer to use a different separator like the ASCII NUL , you can do so using the
-0command line option.$ locate -i -0 *text.txt* /home/tecmint/TEXT.txt/home/tecmint/text.txt8. Review Your Locate Database
If you're in doubt as to the current status of your mlocate.db , you can easily view the locate database statistics by using the
-Scommand.$ locate -S Database /var/lib/mlocate/mlocate.db: 32,246 directories 4,18,850 files 2,92,36,692 bytes in file names 1,13,64,319 bytes used to store database9. Suppress Error Messages in Locate
Constantly trying to access your locate database does sometimes yield unnecessary error messages stating that you do not have the required privileges to have root access to the mlocate.db , because you're only a normal user and not the required Superuser.
To completely do away with these message, use the
-qcommand.$ locate "\*.dat" -q*10. Choose a Different mlocate Location
If you're inputting queries looking for results not present in the default mlocate database and want answers from a different mlocate.db located somewhere else in your system, you can point the locate command to a different mlocate database at a different part of your system with the
-dcommand.$ locate -d <new db path> <filename>
locate command might seem like one of those utilities that does everything you asked it to do without much of a hustle but in truth, in order for the process to keep its efficiency, the mlocate.db needs to be fed with information every now and then. Failure to do so might render the program a bit useless.
Sun Managers did it again. Answered all three questions correctly in less
than 24 hours!
Kudos to Dr. Peter Watkins (firstname.lastname@example.org) for answering almost immediatly
with the correct answers. I'm going to use his summary (which is brief)
since I could do no better. Peter writes...
>Taking your questions in a completely random order;
> + For Solaris 2.x try the GNU version of 'find'. Currently
> at version 3.8 I think. This has the 'locate' function
> which replicates the fastfind feature.
> Try ugle.unit.no:/pub/gnu/find-3.8.tar.gz
Quite so. I grabbed a copy and it's a perfect solution for my solaris
machines that never came with a fast find. Gnu's Great!
> + I suspect that the reason for duplicate names is that
> updatedb is actually a script (try looking at it) which
> descends the filesystem structure. Consequently if you
> specify / and /fred then fred will get searched twice.
> If you look at the updatedb script you will see that
> certain directories can be included/excluded there. Try
> that instead.
Correct again. I was specifically specifying each partition when in
fact the script is smart enough to assume you want everything minus
a few obvious things that no one would want. This was creating
redundancy which accounts for files being reported twice.
> + Your problem of updatedb not working at all seems a bit
> odd. I suggest you first try;
> /usr/lib/find/updatedb / /usr /nat1 /nat2
> by hand without chucking the output. Possibly the 'find'
> command is not where updatedb expects - look at the
> updatedb script again.
And so I did. It almost immediatly blew up complaining about a lack
of /tmp space. I cheated by changing the script to use a tmp space
out on a data disk. Now it works like a champ. First time in years!
My thanks to Dr. Peter Watkins as well as the other 9 respondees who
wrote later. Most were not able to answer all three questions but
everyone had something interesting to share with me. To see what...
(or if you're one of the other 9 respondees and want to see your name
in print)... credits and micro-summaries below...
Sometimes you need to find a file that was present in the filesystem for a long time (for example some unix command). In this case you can use
slocateit, depending on your distribution. There is just one problem with using locate or slocate, and that's staying up to date. Here's how they work and how to use them, and a brief tease on rlocate,their nimble, more timely, heir apparent.
Slocate and locate both do essentially the same thing: search a database containing the file names and locations on the system for a match and report all that are found. Both count on another program -- updatedb -- to do the heavy lifting by creating/maintaining the database to be searched. Slocate provides greater security by storing the permissions and ownership of each file, and then only showing the files that the user running the
slocaterequest has permission to access.
The format of the
locate options pattern.
If you're only interested in how many times the pattern is found, you can specify the
-coption in your search, like this:locate -c mono
To search case insensitive use the
-ioption:locate -i whereami
Since updatedb normally runs just once a day, sometimes you need to find a file that has been created since the last update. When that's the case, just enter the command
updatedbas root and let it run. It may take several minutes to complete, or even longer if you have a large number of files to be accounted for. To find out how large your database is, enter the
locate -S, like this:warthawg@linux:~> locate -S Database
/var/lib/locatedb is in the LOCATE02 format. Locate database size: 3411612 bytes Filenames: 401444 with a cumulative length of 20196439 bytes of which 38656 contain whitespace, 0 contain newline characters, and 43 contain characters with the high bit set. Compression ratio 83.11%
Having to run the database update program before doing a search in order to have access to the latest files on your system is far from being an elegant solution. Some people just don't want to wait. If that describes you, then you might want to check out a new project called rlocate by Rasto Levrinc. It's based on slocate but with nearly real-time search capabilities. rlocate -- currently available in a beta release -- requires a Linux kernel at 2.6 or later. It functions as a kernel module which maintain a daily database containing the files and directories created since the last time updatedb was run.
When slocate is executed, both the daily database of new files maintained by the rlocate kernel module and the nightly database of all files are searched. The result is a search that yields results no more than 2 seconds old.
slocate [-qi] [-d
slocate [-i] [-r
slocate [-qv] [-o
slocate [-Vh] [--version] [--help]
This manual page documents the GNU version of slocate. slocate Enables system users to search entire filesystems without displaying unauthorized files.
locate projectLists all files that contain the string "project". If that command does not work you will need to run the command:
slocate -uThis command builds the slocate database which will allow you to use the locate (slocate) command. It may take a few minutes to run.
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The Last but not Least Technology is dominated by two types of people: those who understand what they do not manage and those who manage what they do not understand ~Archibald Putt. Ph.D
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