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May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)
Skepticism and critical thinking is not panacea, but can help to understand the world better
The FAKE NEWS media (failing @nytimes, @NBCNews, @ABC, @CBS, @CNN) is not my enemy, it is the enemy of the American People! ~ Donald Trump
Skepticism > Political Skeptic > Media-Military-Industrial Complex > Propaganda
|News||Neoliberal newspeak||Recommended Links||US and British media are servants of security apparatus||Tucker Carlson rejection of neoliberalism||Neoliberal war on reality||Demonization of Putin|
|NeoMcCartyism||Integrity Initiative||Journalists for Hire How the CIA Buys the News by Dr. Udo Ulfkotte||Luke Harding: a pathetic author of book that rehash Steele Dossier||Edward Lucas as agent provocateur||William Browder, economic rape of Russia and Magnitsky Act||Litvinenko poisoning|
|Charlie Hebdo - more questions then answers||Manchester attack vs Charlie Hebdo||Patterns of Propaganda||Who Shot down Malaysian flight MH17?||The Guardian Slips Beyond the Reach of Embarrassment||NYT degeneration into a deep state stooge||Pussy Riot Provocation -- the hand of MI6?|
|Neoliberal war on reality||Classic Hypocrisy of British Ruling Elite||Is national security state in the USA gone rogue ?||Steele dossier||The importance of controlling the narrative||MSM as attack dogs of color revolution||Anti Trump Hysteria|
|Corruption of the language||Doublespeak||Whataboutism as a thought crime||Media-Military-Industrial Complex||Freedom of speech played by Western MSM as three card monte||The Deep State||Special Prosecutor Mueller and his fishing expedition|
|Discrediting the opponent as favorite tactic of neoliberals||Purple revolution against Trump||Anti-Russian hysteria in connection emailgate and DNC leak||Deconstructing neoliberalism's definition of 'freedom'||Co-opting of the Human Rights to embarrass governments who oppose neoliberalism||Bullshit as MSM communication method||Manipulation of the term "freedom of press"|
|MSM Sochi Bashing Rampage||Cold War II||"Fuck the EU": State Department neocons show EU its real place||Michael Wolff's "Fire and fury" revelations and slander of Trump administration||Coordinated set of leaks as a color revolution tool||Neo-fascism||New American Militarism|
|Deception as an art form||Diplomacy by deception||Media as a weapon of mass deception||Inside "democracy promotion" hypocrisy fair||The attempt to secure global hegemony||Democracy as a universal opener for access to natural resources||Nation under attack meme|
|Lewis Powell Memo||Anatol Leiven on American Messianism||Neocolonialism as Financial Imperialism||What's the Matter with Kansas||Groupthink||Soft propaganda||Boeing 737 MAX fiasco|
|Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass||The Good Soldier Svejk||Nineteen Eighty-Four||Brave New World||Propaganda Quotes||Humor||Etc|
|"The truth is that the newspaper is not a place for information to be given,
rather it is just hollow content, or more than that, a provoker of content.
If it prints lies about atrocities, real atrocities are the result."
Karl Kraus, 1914
WAR IS PEACE. FREEDOM IS SLAVERY. IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH
We are the world, we are exceptional, we cannot fail. The elite will lie, and the people will pretend to believe them. Heck about 20 percent of the American public will believe almost anything if it is wrapped with the right prejudice and appeal to passion.
jessescrossroadscafe.blogspot.com, Feb 04, 2015
"The media's interest in the well-being of a foreign population is directly proportional to the West's interest in toppling its government, while editorial standards are inversely proportional to its enemy status." ~John McEvoyThe UK's propaganda machine rivals and even surpasses Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany.
~ Comment by Gravatomic , Apr 17, 2019 link
I think journalists today — elite journalists at least — absorb the biases of the ruling neoliberal oligarchy far more readily than they used to do. The media establishment is populated by yes-men. I do not understand how any skeptical person can, in good conscience, trust a western MSM description of foreign events. You need a second source to compare coverage. The mainstream media gives us no real news. Just the regurgitation of talking points they were given. Seeing how they treat the concept of truth these days, one might think that 1984 dystopia was an understatement.
Truth killing is a meta-issue ( nationalinterest.org (
The problem is fundamental, and relates to a broad spectrum of policy issues both foreign and domestic, because truth — factual reality — is a necessary foundation to consider and evaluate and debate policy on any subject.
Crushing the truth means not just our having to endure any one misdirected policy; it means losing the ability even to address policy intelligently.
To the extent that falsehood is successfully instilled in the minds of enough people, the political system loses what would otherwise be its ability to provide a check on policy that is bad policy because it is inconsistent with factual reality.
I think it is good that people question their lying politicians and these lying, corrupt partisans pretending to be MSM pundits. If that means that MSM try to slander the people as “conspiracy theorists” you should take it with a grain of salt. As Gore Vidal quipped they are actually "conspiracy analysts" not "conspiracy theorists". BTW the term was invented by CIA to crush alternative versions of JFK assassination. This label is a form of censorship, plain and simple.
I would rather be a conspiracy theorist than take anything CNN or FOX says as gospel. Or, God forbid, believe what US politicians say to justify their action or inaction. Skepticism is good. These people don’t automatically deserve our trust. As Reagan said (translating Russian proverb) "Trust but verify".
The angle under which this page views events and MSM can be called anti-neoliberal angle (please note that the term populism is the attempt to discredit any anti-neoliberal movement). Until recently such sites were a lone voice. In 2019 this changed. See Tucker Carlson rejection of neoliberalism
If you take in television news as truthful information, that's all a critically thinking person needs to know about you. In reality 99% of political coverage is neoliberal propaganda, sometimes refined, sometimes crude.
|Propaganda can be defined as a war on reality using fake news, disinformation, projection, witch-hunts (see neo_Mccarthhyism) and other methods. An attempt to create an artificial reality.|
Propaganda can be defined as a war on reality using fake news, disinformation, projection, witch-hunts (see neo_Mccarthhyism) and other methods. It is an attempt to create an artificial reality. The key here is controlling the narrative. For example, "fake news" hysteria is a perfect method of suppressing of dissent and questions about MSM ties to three-letter agencies ( see US and British media are servants of security apparatus )
Journalists manipulate us in the interest of the Powerful. Do you also have the feeling, that you are often manipulated by the media and lied to? Then you're like the majority of Germans. Previously it was considered as a "conspiracy theory". Now it revealed by an Insider, who tells us what is really happening under the hood.
The Journalist Udo Ulfkotte ashamed today that he spent 17 years in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. ...he reveals why opinion leaders produce tendentious reports and serve as the extended Arm of the NATO press office. ...the author also was admitted into the networks of American elite organizations, received in return for positive coverage in the US even a certificate of honorary citizenship.
In this book you will learn about industry lobby organisations. The author calls hundreds of names and looks behind the Scenes of those organizations, which exert bias into media, such as: Atlantic bridge, Trilateral Commission, the German Marshall Fund, American Council on Germany, American Academy, Aspen Institute, and the Institute for European politics. Also revealed are the intelligence backgrounds of those lobby groups, the methods and forms of propaganda and financing used, for example, by the US Embassy. Which funds projects for the targeted influencing of public opinion in Germany
...You realize how you are being manipulated - and you know from whom and why. At the end it becomes clear that diversity of opinion will now only be simulated. Because our "messages" are often pure brainwashing.
Gekaufte Journalisten - Medienwelt Enthüllungen Bücher - Kopp Verlag
Simplifying, the US MSM foreign events media coverage (and large part of domestic coverage related to the opposition to neoliberalism and neoliberal globalization, see Anti Trump Hysteria during elections and immediately after them ) has very little to do with the reality and is mostly a barometer of the paranoia of the US neoliberal elite. It is 100% propaganda, or as CBS like to call it "fake news".
How does Fake History and Fake News in the US MSM gradually superseded their reality-based version (which never was perfect, and often quite distorted) is a very interesting question but it is too big for this page. I would only say that this process is closely connected with the process of the neoliberalization of the US society which started in full force in late 70th (see also late Sheldon Wolin notion of Inverted Totalitarism) . We can take election of Reagan as a starting point although the process started immediately after WWII. From this point "fake news" were enforced on the US society as the only acceptable narrative? Which, is essence, is a neoliberal war on reality.
The process started with the creation of CIA. The key question that arise in this regard is whether representative democracy is compatible with the existence large all-powerful and largely uncontrollable and positioned "above the law" intelligence agencies.
|The key question that arise in this regard is whether representative democracy is compatible with the existence large all-powerful and largely uncontrollable and positioned "above the law" intelligence agencies.|
At some point any society with powerful intelligence agencies naturally arrive to the point when "the tail wags the dog." In other words they became political power and in institutional hierarchy are positioned above White House. In the USA this probably happened around 1963, with the JFK assassination. In a way the USSR via Truman enforced its model of governance on the USA ;-). Creation of intelligence agencies by Truman was actually the act of the creation of national security state. Which could be viewed as an official end of the US democracy with quick (less then two decades) rise to power of the Deep State (with the first major victory demonstrated to the US people in 1963).
With it the huge apparatus of state propaganda (and by extension means of suppressing of dissent) intelligence agencies, which gradually acquired political power including considerable (but not yet absolute, that will come much later, after 9/11) level of control of MSM (see Church Committee - Wikipedia ). Which is documented in the book by Dr. Udo Ulfkotte Journalists for Hire How the CIA Buys the News
After 1963, the level outrage in the society was such that there were some meek attempts to check this power, especially the power of intelligence agencies over the MSM (Church Committee - Wikipedia was probably the most well known) but they lead to nowhere. CIa and other inteeligence againces remain positioned above the White House.
Color revolution against Trump (aka Russiagate) launched by CIA and FBI after election has shown who is the real master of the USA. It was accompanied by unprecedented neo-McCarthism campaign in which neoliberal MSM lost any remnants of decency and objectivity.
The recent incident with CIA director Gina Haspel lying to President Trump to inflict severe sanctions on Russia is just a confirmation of the level of this influence. She will never be fired for her "transgressions"
Apr 17, 2019 | www.moonofalabama.org
William Gruff , Apr 16, 2019 4:41:41 PM | link
"If Trump were not in on the schemes he would just fire his underlings!"
This sentiment indicates a failure to understand the power dynamics at play here. Haspel is not the "underling" . Trump is the underling. Sure, being that he is also an oligarch makes Trump's role in the show complicated, but Presidents are installed in order to serve the oligarchy, and the CIA are top level strategists/enforcers for the oligarchy.
In the real organization chart for the empire the CIA is above the President. This has been the case in the US since Kennedy.
Trump cannot fire Haspel or Pompeo. They can fire him, though, and with a sniper's bullet if they want.
Unfortunately for the oligarchy, that would cause additional complications at a time when they have lots of tricky and inexplicably unstable (for them) operations ongoing, which is why they are just steering Trump around instead of replacing him. And Trump is willfully cooperating, even if they are not filling him in on the plans.
Trump will not fire Haspel. He can't. He's just an actor playing a role in a show, and Haspel is one of the producers/writers of that show. If she doesn't put firing in the script then Trump cannot say those lines. I doubt he really wants to anyway.
Principles are are well known since the WWI (Falsehood in War-Time):
1. We do not want war.
2. The opposite party alone is guilty of war.
3. The enemy is the face of the devil.
4. We defend a noble cause, not our own interest.
5. The enemy systematically commits cruelties; our mishaps are involuntary.
6. The enemy uses forbidden weapons.
7. We suffer small losses, those of the enemy are enormous.
8. Artists and intellectuals back our cause.
9. Our cause is sacred. "The ages-old 'God bless America' is playing once more."
10. All who doubt our propaganda, are traitors.
The blog empirestrikesblack cites Belgian investigative journalist Michel Collon who has outlined five principles driving war propaganda:
NeoMcCarthyism campaign which was launched around mid 2016 by Democratic Party operatives as tactical tool to distract attention from DNC corruption and illegal removal of Bernie Sanders from the Democratic ticket after lection of Trump turned into important component of color revolution against Trump. And was fueled not only by MSM but also powerful factions of neoliberals and neocons in US intelligence agencies concerted about their future and the level of financing of "national security parasites". They also have skeletons in the closet to hide (especially FBI and CIA) and did not prepare well to the Trump victory as this was a huge surprise for everybody including Trump himself. See Steele dossier and Strzok-gate
Please note that the original McCarthyism campaign lasted more then a decade. And McCarthyism was not exactly or only about Communist infiltration into the US government. It has elements of a more general framework of suppressing any "dissidents" who question "official narrative" and simultaneously served as the framework of brainwashing of population creating a stereotype of enemy, in best Bolsheviks, or, if you wish Nazi Germany, style. In other words, like in famous Orwell novel 1984, under McCarthyism questioning of official narrative has become a "though crime" (much like it was in the USSR, especially under Stalinism period). And repressions were real, although far less extensive and brutal, than in the USSR in 30th. Thousands of people lost jobs and were blacklisted. Many ostracized, especially from artistic circles, committed suicides.
While Senator McCartney has a certain gist for blackmailing people and, being an alcoholic, he probably would be a suitable candidate for high position in NKVD, he was not a pioneer. He was just a talented follower. This type of modern witch hunt was first implemented on large scale by Bolsheviks in Russia after 1917. Actually Bolsheviks originated many modern methods of brainwashing of the population. Which later were enhanced and further developed in Nazi Germany and than imported to the USA after WWII.
That all brings us to the concept of "deep state" and its control of MSM. The problem with the "deep state" approach to governance is that it replicates Bolshevism on a new, more polished, level, with high officials of intelligence agencies, Wall Street and military industrial complex as a new Politburo. Which is not elected but still controls that nations. So much for remnants of democracy in the USA. That does not mean that some deviations from the "Party line" are impossible: the election of Trump is one such event. But loop at the power of the reaction of the "deep state" on this event. Not that Trump (who can be viewed as some kind of Republican "Change we can believe in" Obama" ) was intended to follow his election promises in any case. The level of vetting of candidates is two party system probably is higher then many of us suspect.
As currently there is no alternative to neoliberalism, the current situation will continue to exist. Notwithstanding the fact that neoliberal ideology was discredited after 2008 financial crisis, much like Bolshevism in 60th. Bolshevism as a theocratic ideology was essentially dead after WWII (although it managed to kick the can down the road for another 45 years). After 60the Soviet people despite constant brainwashing started to have wide-ranging doubts about the communist state and communist ideology. Listening to state-sponsored propaganda radio-stations from the West such as BBC and Voice of America became national pasture of Soviet citizens, especially educated one. Despite all the jamming. Similar situation happened with the USA after 2008, when citizen suddenly start showing some level of interest RT broadcasts and views on internal situation in the USA ;-). And, of cause, all this needs to be stopped. In the name of the "health of the state", democracy be dumned (religious term which literally means "condemned to eternal punishment")
In this particular sense, imitating the enemy by the USA elite after WWII, which was done to fight communist threat (which was overblown) was a very dangerous course with far reaching consequences. The new level of this process of "imitating the enemy" now started with the USA -- the rise of alternative press (kind of Samizdat replica from Soviet past) and clumsy attempt of the deep state to suppress it claiming that they are propagator of "fake news" with the subtext that they are Russian agents (the campaign which spectacularly backfired: which the help of President Trump tweets this term now became the standard nickname of the "official" US MSM). That brings us directly to revising Stalin's "Show trials" and corresponding witch-hunt in the USSR. Appointing Muller to investigate Trump for "Russian connection" (so called "Russiagate") replays favorite theme of accusing enemies of Stalin of being British agents. On a new level incorporating set of political technologies of overthrowing the legitimate government commonly known as "color revolution" technologies. But in both cases it is all about eliminating political rivals.
In broader context the current practice of manipulating population is similar to "high demand cults" style practice -- Bolshevism actually can be best viewed as a religious cult merged with the political movement, much like political Islam today ( Belief-coercion in high demand cults ):
They use all of the techniques as "low demand" faith groups use: requiring members to accept a system of beliefs, conforming to certain behavioral norms; expecting them to involve themselves in the life of the congregation, etc. However, mind-control groups add many additional methods, and take them all to a much higher level. Some are:
- Members' access to outside information is severely restricted
- Their thoughts, beliefs and emotions are tightly controlled by:
- stress; e.g. long hours of work; little or no free time
- restricting sleep
- requiring endless repetition of prayers
- auto-hypnotic exercises
- generation of fear and paranoia; viewing the outside world as threatening
- restricting criticism of the leadership or group policies
- Their behavior may be controlled by:
- public shaming and humiliation
- requiring personal confessions
- isolation from outside contacts, including their family of origin
Members are not physically restrained from leaving the group. They are not held prisoner. They can walk away at any time. But there are strong pressures to remain. If they left, all social and emotional support would disappear; they will often be shunned. Some groups teach that God will abandon or punish them if they leave. They may be told that they will die in the imminent war of Armageddon if they leave the protection of the group.
The main methods here always was the generation and totalitarian control of "suitable" narrative (that's why Sheldon Wolin called neoliberal society "inverted totalitarism"):
"The primary aim of official propaganda is to generate an "official narrative" that can be mindlessly repeated by the ruling classes and those who support and identify with them. This official narrative does not have to make sense, or to stand up to any sort of serious scrutiny. Its factualness is not the point. The point is to draw a Maginot line, a defensive ideological boundary, between "the truth" as defined by the ruling classes and any other "truth" that contradicts their narrative. "
Gerald Celente coined the term "presstitutes", which is obviously politically incorrect, but still is a very precise term: presstitutes sell themselves to neoliberal establishment for access and governments to prosper financially and to keep their jobs. In the USSR journalist were called "soldiers of the Party" so in the less humiliating way we can call them "soldiers of neoliberal establishment" ;-).
Due to the size an introductory article was converted to a separate page Neoliberal Propaganda
For the list of top articles see Recommended Links section
"It tends to be all accurate, but not in an over-all context."
"Citizens must be alert to propaganda and
glittering generalities is a type of propaganda
which often uses words such as freedom and patriotism."
"Civics in Practice". Page 274
Jul 22, 2019 | jessescrossroadscafe.blogspot.com
"The press of the United States? It is a parasitic growth that battens on the capitalist class. Its function is to serve the established by moulding public opinion, and right well it serves it.
I know nothing that I may say can influence you. You have no souls to be influenced. You are spineless, flaccid things. You pompously call yourselves Republicans and Democrats. There is no Republican Party. There is no Democratic Party.
There are no Republicans nor Democrats in this House. You are lick-spittlers and panderers, the creatures of the Plutocracy.
You talk verbosely in antiquated terminology of your love of liberty, and all the while you wear the scarlet livery of the Iron Heel."
Jack London, The Iron Heel
Jul 22, 2019 | www.zerohedge.com
Former FBI Director James Comey has been under investigation for misleading President Trump - telling him in private that he wasn't the target of an ongoing FBI probe, while refusing to admit to this in public.
According to RealClearInvestigations ' Paul Sperry, "Justice Department Inspector General Michael Horowitz will file a report in September which contains evidence that Comey was misleading the president " while conducting an active investigation against him.
Even as he repeatedly assured Trump that he was not a target, the former director was secretly trying to build a conspiracy case against the president, while at times acting as an investigative agent . - RCI
According to two US officials familiar with Horowitz's upcoming report on FBI misconduct, Comey was essentially "running a covert operation" against Trump - which began with a private "defensive briefing" shortly after the inauguration. RCI 's sources say that Horowitz has pored over text messages between the FBI's former top-brass and other communications suggesting that Comey was in fact conducting a "counterintelligence assessment" of the president during their January 2017 meeting in New York.
What's more, Comey had an FBI agent in the White House who reported the activities of Trump and his aides, according to 'other officials familiar with the matter.'
The agent, Anthony Ferrante, who specialized in cyber crime, left the White House around the same time Comey was fired and soon joined a security consulting firm, where he contracted with BuzzFeed to lead the news site's efforts to verify the Steele dossier, in connection with a defamation lawsuit. -RCI
According to the report, Horowitz and his team have examined over 1 million documents and conducted over 100 interviews - including sit-downs with Comey and other current and former FBI and DOJ employees. "The period covering Comey's activities is believed to run from early January 2017 to early May 2017, when Comey was fired and his deputy Andrew McCabe, as the acting FBI director, formally opened full counterintelligence and obstruction investigations of the president."
McCabe's deputy, Lisa Page, appeared to dissemble last year when asked in closed-door testimony before the House Judiciary Committee if Comey and other FBI brass discussed opening an obstruction case against Trump prior to his firing in May 2017. Initially, she flatly denied it , swearing: "Obstruction of justice was not a topic of conversation during the time frame you have described." But then, after conferring with her FBI-assigned lawyer, she announced: " I need to take back my prior statement ." Page later conceded that there could have been at least "discussions about potential criminal activity" involving the president . -RCI
Sperry notes that Comey wasn't working in isolation on the Trump effort. In particular, Horowitz has looked at the January 6, 2017 briefing on the infamous 'Steele Dossier' - a meeting which was used by BuzzFeed, CNN and others to legitimize reporting on the dossier's salacious and unsubstantiated claims .
Comey's meeting with Trump took place one day after the FBI director met in the Oval Office with President Obama and Vice President Joe Biden to discuss how to brief Trump -- a meeting attended by National Security Adviser Susan Rice, Homeland Security Secretary Jeh Johnson, Deputy Attorney General Sally Yates and National Intelligence Director James Clapper, who would soon go to work for CNN. -RCI
While Comey claims in his book, "A Higher Loyalty" that he didn't have "a counterintelligence case file open on [Trump]," former federal prosecutor and National Review columnist Andrew McCarthy notes that just because Trump's name wasn't on a formal file or surveillance warrant doesn't mean that he wasn't under investigation.
"They were hoping to surveil him incidentally, and they were trying to make a case on him," said McCarthy. " The real reason Comey did not want to repeat publicly the assurances he made to Trump privately is that these assurances were misleading . The FBI strung Trump along, telling him he was not a suspect while structuring the investigation in accordance with the reality that Trump was the main subject ."
What's more, the FBI couldn't treat Trump as a suspect - formally, as they didn't have the legal grounds to do so according to former FBI counterintelligence lawyer Mark Wauck. " They had no probable cause against Trump himself for 'collusion' or espionage ," he said, adding "They were scrambling to come up with anything to hang a hat on, but had found nothing."
What remains unclear is why Comey would take such extraordinary steps against a sitting president . The Mueller report concluded there was no basis for the Trump-Russia collusion conspiracy theories. Comey himself was an early skeptic of the Steele dossier -- the opposition research memos paid for by Hillary Clinton's campaign that were the road map of collusion theories -- which he dismissed as "salacious and unverified." -RCI
According to House Intelligence Committee Vice Chairman Devin Nunes (R-CA), Comey and the rest of the FBI's top team (including Peter Strzok and Lisa Page) were attempting to "stop" Trump's presidency for political reasons.
"You have the culmination of the ultimate spying, where you have the FBI director spying on the president, taking notes [and] illegally leaking those notes of classified information" to the MSM, said Nunes in a recent interview.
Read the rest of Sperry's report here .
AI Agent , 4 minutes ago linkMoreFreedom , 8 minutes ago link
They will whitewash Comey. The deep state is alive and well, the DoJ and the FBI are as corrupt as they were the day before Trump took office.
Why do I say this? Well, the canary hasn't fallen off her perch yet. Hillary Clinton is still singing her song, and even making noises like she's going to run again, and she's not in prison. They have her solid on over a hundred felony counts of mishandling classified documents and they've not touched her. Proof of life that the Deep State is still in power.SgtShaftoe , 4 minutes ago link
So, was the Steele dossier the ex post facto excuse for illegally spying on Trump, or was it the ex post facto diversion for ALL of Obama's spying on politically powerful people, which we know included spying on the Senate Intelligence Committee, spying on reporters, and spying on Trump. I'll bet Obama hopes the investigation doesn't get into all of his spying activities, and I wouldn't be surprised government officials in charge of the spying equipment are keeping it covered up because they don't want to lose their jobs (for either allowing such to happen, or because they fear the spying apparatus will be eliminated).
Did Obama also spy on SCOTUS justices, Congressmen, other Senators and other rich and powerful people? I'll bet he did, because we haven't seen all the unmasking documentation, and Obama took it to his library so no one can see it (at least so he thinks). Further, look at the way Brennan, Clapper, Comey and Rice are disparaging Trump (they protest too much). And look at how all the allegations about Trump are blowing right back into the faces of the Democrats who've shown their MO is to accuse their political opponents, of the illegal activity in which the Democrats are engaged.
They need to go to jail, for a long time, if not be executed for treason.dcmbuffy , 10 minutes ago link
Did Obama spy on SCOTUS justices, et al? - Yes. Look up project HAMR or "Hammer". MI5/6 was spying on all Americans comms to circumvent legal frameworks (5 eyes). Google is now fully Chinese intelligence - TREASON. It's coming and it's gonna blow most people's minds.peippe , 9 minutes ago link
Just the minute the FBI begins making recommendations on what should be done with its information, it becomes a Gestapo.
J. Edgar Hoover
i at least agree with him on this one thought.Playtime's Over , 8 minutes ago link
you realize J.Edgar probably said the above with a smile on his face.radar99 , 13 minutes ago link
been going on for longer than Obongo, but he put an inner cooled turbo on it.SgtShaftoe , 8 minutes ago link
it all started with Obama. Time to investigate him and hang him for treasonIndelible Scars , 13 minutes ago link
It started a very long time ago. 1913 was a notable date, so was JFK's assassination. So was 9/11. So was Operation Paperclip. These monsters have been slithering around a while. Now it's time for them to go bye-bye. Dark to Light. Execute.JaxPavan , 14 minutes ago link
B-B-But Nadler said...JaxPavan , 13 minutes ago link
This goes back to Obama asking MI6 to surveil Trump and his campaign, and to continue it past the inauguration.JaxPavan , 6 minutes ago link
Comey is just the political class operative who they brought in to save Scooter Libby's butt in the Valerie Flame leak. Then he got a seven figure job as a reward at a hedge fund (with no prior experience in the financial industry). Then, they took him off the bench to be FBI director.
The larger problem is that the "five eyes" system is broken in favor of British surveillance and interference in our elections, and, the Patriot Act practice of "masking" is a complete violation of the fourth amendment and a fraud. From a fourth amendment analysis, it's like letting the police search everyone's house every day as long as they don't look at the name on the address.
That our broken secrecy system effectively legalized Watergate under Obama and the "five eyes" is the real problem that needs fixing.
Stainless Steel Rat , 1 hour ago linkStiffLittleFinger , 39 minutes ago link
Three Things We Know For Sure
1. Trump did not collude with Russia
2. Mueller was sent on a witch hunt
3. Somebody's going under the bus
If not Comey, then who?Equinox7 , 45 minutes ago link
“I executed the session exactly as planned,”* Comey reported back to his “sensitive matter team.”
*in the meeting with Obama the day beforevalerie24 , 21 minutes ago link
This investigation would explain why Comey, Brennan, and other members of Barry Obama's regime are very quiet, while Congressional Democrats are freaking out. The end of the Deep State is starting.carbonmutant , 1 hour ago link
Let’s hope so. The clock is ticking and this needs to happen by early 2020 or it won’t happen at all.punchasocialist , 43 minutes ago link
Are Comey's phones being bugged?
Does the DOJ investigate British agents? Serious question.
Jul 22, 2019 | www.theamericanconservative.com
Brabantian says: May 6, 2019 at 2:39 am
Another item here, is the file which the US Department of Justice Inspector General Michael Horowitz acknowledged receiving a few months back, a file detailing alleged criminal acts of Robert Mueller himself.
The file was referenced in President Trump's tweets, a photo meme of Mueller in jail, and the President saying, "Heroes will come of this, and it won't be Mueller"
File talks about Mueller indulging big crimes as FBI director, helping Mueller's own eventual law firm to defraud millions out of a Hillary donor, with bribery of two USA federal judges, & threats to kill an ex-DOJ employee, with Mueller getting a big payday after he indulged it all as FBI chief, Mueller getting funds channeled from a criminal outfit based in the UK.
'Report on evidence of felonies violating Civil Rights, and bribery by foreign agents, implicating United States Special Counsel Robert S Mueller III as a criminally-tainted agent of foreign & racketeering interests'
Jul 22, 2019 | www.moonofalabama.org
somebody , Jul 22 2019 9:16 utc | 114Malaysia explains why it has a different opinion on MH17
via John Helmer
MH17 as a pretext for NATO to "recover the plane and the victims" makes sense.
dh-mtl , Jul 22 2019 15:26 utc | 158somebody | Jul 22 2019 9:16 utc | 114
Thanks for the link to the John Helmer article.
If I understand this article correctly, MH17 was not just a Ukrainian operation, but a NATO operation, with the objective of using it as a false-flag operation to justify the launching a 9000 troop NATO invasion to capture the rebel-held territories and Crimea. This operation was averted at the last minute because the Malaysians got to the crash site first, and signed an agreement with the Donbass rebels to take the black-boxes and secure the site, thus removing the excuse for the invasion (protect the evidence from destruction), and because the Germans would not go along with a NATO invasion.
If this is true, it goes a long way to explain why the countries involved in the investigation have so vehemently been covering up for the Ukranian Nazis. Rather, they've been covering up their own tracks.
Jul 22, 2019 | www.moonofalabama.org
William Gruff , Jul 22 2019 14:14 utc | 148"...real fear or anguish..." in fact only exist in people's heads. Identity politics poisoned neolibs like to externalize these sensations as being tangible features of the physical (non-metaphysical and non-imaginary) world. They are not.
More topically, the corporate mass media excels at manufacturing "real fear or anguish" . The farce taking place in HK is a perfect example of this, but we can see similar examples elsewhere like Venezuela where well-fed upper middle class Venezuelans are convinced beyond reason that Venezuelans (others that they don't know) are starving, or like in Ukraine where western Ukrainians were certain in their anguish that eastern Ukrainians were being killed by Russians. Many Americans are still experiencing very "real fear or anguish" that Russians are wrecking their sham "Democracy™" . As real as this may seem to the delusional and hysterical, it is still delusion and hysteria.
The corporate mass media exists solely to manufacture megatrends in society. Whether that is to manufacture mass cravings for a particular color and artificial flavor of carbonated corn syrup water or to manufacture the "real fear or anguish" that we are threatened by scary "others" to get the herd to crowd around symbols of security, the overall purpose is the same: Serve the interests of the big business elites.
Jul 22, 2019 | www.theamericanconservative.com
Meet Ursula von der Leyen, the new president-elect of the European Commission, the executive branch of the European Union.
Like all those soon to occupy positions of power in the EU, von der Leyen did not run in the recent European elections for the position she is about to hold. She did not participate in the debates in front of various national electorates. But she was chosen -- after the elections -- by the political class in Brussels, ostensibly for her faith in and loyalty to the European superstate, and personally to the German chancellor Angela Merkel.
Since 2013, von der Leyen has been the German defense minister. During that time, a parliamentary report exposed German planes that can't fly and guns that don't shoot. Fewer than a fifth of Germany's helicopters are combat ready. Luftwaffe revealed that most of its 128 Typhoon jets were not ready to leave ground. All of Germany's six submarines were out of commission.
Another report by the Rand Corporation , a think tank, revealed that it would take Germany a month to mobilize in the case of a Russian invasion of the Baltic States. Von der Leyen is very unpopular in the German army , but very popular with the Eurocrats. She's a fervent supporter of a European army and a "United States of Europe" -- the ultimate qualification for being president of the European Commission.
But there is more to the von der Leyen story. As Politico recently reported , "an investigative committee of the German parliament -- the toughest instrument that lawmakers can use to probe government misdeeds -- is digging into how lucrative contracts from her ministry were awarded to outside consultants without proper oversight, and whether a network of informal personal connections facilitated those deals."
The scent of corruption is a common element among those who are to hold key positions in the European Union over the next few years. Josep Borrell, minister of foreign affairs for the socialist government of Spain, was fined 30,000 euros for insider trading. He is expected to hold the foreign policy post in the European Commission.
Christine Lagarde, most recently chief of the IMF, was involved in the case of an arbitration panel that awarded a massive payout to a French tycoon while she was the finance minister of France. A special court for ministerial misconduct found her guilty of "negligence" but "waived any punishment or criminal record, citing her 'international reputation' and role in dealing with 'the international financial crisis.'" A marvelously L'état, C'est Moi form of legal reasoning. Lagarde is expected to be the next president of the European Central Bank.
The common threads of corruption, incompetence, and lack of accountability are what unites a political class that has divorced itself from the concerns of the average European. In the last days before her confirmation, von der Leyen pursued a charm offensive that included a commitment to a "Green New Deal," a continuation of an open borders policy , and a further deepening and enlargement of the European superstate. This included the story of her having offered hospitality to a Syrian immigrant who "now speaks German fluently."Emmanuel Macron: Trade Wars for Me, But Not for Thee Voters in Europe Just Smashed the Mainstream Establishment
Obviously von der Leyen would never have won the May elections running on an agenda like that. But of course, she never had to run a campaign to win the votes of the peoples of Europe. The campaign that she did run was premised on her having built "an extensive international network in politics and business," as another Politico story put it .
Von der Leyen thrived in the networking atmosphere of World Economic Forum meetings, where she "serves on the organization's board of trustees," Politico noted, adding, "She's also forged close ties to powerful figures outside the world of politics, most notably Bertelsmann, Europe's largest media company, which owns RTL, the Continent's largest commercial broadcaster, book publisher Random House and a stable of magazines."
A senior Green quoted for the article said her fluency in French has helped her establish a rapport with the French political class that is unrivaled in Berlin.
It's clear that von der Leyen's domestic record appears to have had little effect on her election -- what matters is that she is universally liked by the who's who. "What matters most in these circles is the personal connection," said an adviser to the leader of one of the EU's smaller member states.
Those who count and those who are to be ruled are not the same group of people. That seems to be the essence of modern European politics: a political class and ideological cult that masquerades as a competent technocratic elite, despite its long and disastrous history. Von der Leyen's terrible record as defense minister meant nothing. Neither did Lagarde's record as head of the IMF, where, for instance, the Greek debt crisis was transformed into a social catastrophe. The deciding factor was their dedication to something that "those who count" are committed to. Elections are merely a necessary, archaic ritual of legitimization.
Napoleon Linarthatos is a writer based in New York.
Parrhesia • 10 hours agoOn Monday 22 July 1940, a major meeting was held at the Reich Economic Ministry in Berlin, under the chairmanship of Minister Walther Funk, to discuss a directive issued by Hermann Göring on 22 June, concerning the organization of a Greater European Economic Area under German leadership. The Germans were well advanced with their plans for a post-war settlement. One of the difficulties of planning lay in the fact that the Führer's aims and decisions were not yet known and the military measures against Britain were not yet concluded.Lars • 10 hours ago
Plus ça change........What? A techno-managerial clique ruling the rest of us Great Unwashed (see "Deplorables")? It couldn't happen here, could it? It's OK if they went to the right schools, isn't it?genocidal_maniac • 10 hours agoToo much use if the word disastrous. Disastrous is what Wilhelm II did to the German empire. This is not disastrous, but it is concerning like a rudderless ship.Salt Lick • 7 hours agoToday's Holy Roman Empire.Sid Finster • 7 hours ago
Voltaire's comment back then still rings true."It was neither Holy, Roman nor an Empire."Don't be asinine. Russia is not going to invade anything and has no claim on any part of western Europe. The only thing the German military is good for is for sucking up additional budgetary funds.SteveM • 6 hours agoAnother report by the Rand Corporation, a think tank, revealed that it would take Germany a month to mobilize in the case of a Russian invasion of the Baltic States.
For the sake of completeness, the Rand Corporation is actually a marketing arm of the Pentagon fully funded by the U.S. government.
That said, Germany's military readiness directly relates to the invasion threat from Russia Europe actually faces. I.e., ZERO. Washington should take note but of course it won't because there is no money in it for the American Merchants of Death. And the Generals inside the Pentagon just have too much fun fear-mongering about illusory existential enemies.
Of course that does not dismiss the charges of cronyism and corruption associated with Ursula von der Leyen. But re:But there is more to the von der Leyen story. As Politico recently reported, "an investigative committee of the German parliament -- the toughest instrument that lawmakers can use to probe government misdeeds -- is digging into how lucrative contracts from her ministry were awarded to outside consultants without proper oversight , and whether a network of informal personal connections facilitated those deals."
Yet another U.S. mirror image. Because that is exactly how inside baseball works in the Pentagon acquisition system. von der Leyen as a European Hack is no worse than the Washington / Pentagon Hacks on the other side of the Atlantic. Note, MIC lifer and Raytheon parasite Mark Esper currently sitting in the Big Seat in the Pentagon. You can be sure that DoD reform is way down on his bucket list.
The real story is that taxpayers on both NATO poles are played for chumps by the Power Elites.
Jul 22, 2019 | www.unz.com
Bardon Kaldian , says: July 16, 2019 at 7:07 pm GMTHolo-deniers are bonkers. There is not much to discuss here. They're like flat-earthers, just more amusing.
However, there are some things I see rarely mentioned
They, holo-deniers, are mostly from North America & Western Europe. They see all this warfare at the Eastern front as something exotic, strange, alien & incomprehensible. It seems they are incapable of comprehending reality of that part of war (which was the most savage war after Mongol invasions). Instead, they juggle with some half-truths & fictions, long since debunked as Soviet & American propaganda, for their own purposes. Yet- no serious man (or historian) thinks that extermination of European Jewry was a myth, a story invented for sinister Jewish purposes. For instance, I don't see a serious effort to debate numbers of Ukrainians, Russians, Poles, . who perished in that war (nor Germans or Japanese, for that matter). Simple demography refutes holo-deniers.
You won't find normal people in Central & Eastern who deny that Jews, their neighbors, had been exterminated, one way or another. Figures of victims vary, but not that much – perhaps 20%, not more. Then, it is extremely difficult to ascertain how many people, by nationality, perished in those vast swaths of earth from Poland to the Urals. Further east, when we come to Cambodia & China- it is next to impossible.
For Jews, a few things are evident: the shoah & Auschwitz are their central anti-corrosives in the modern world. Old faith has, except in pockets, all but vanished & most ethnic Jews in Western world don't believe in that set of tales. So, they're assimilating & the Auschwitz – as the state of mind – presents an emotional rallying point; a huge asset indeed. Just- it seems even that doesn't work in keeping them together: https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/israel-s-education-minister-says-intermarriage-is-like-a-second-holocaust-1.7486330
Last year, Agriculture Minister Uri Ariel, member of the National Union – one of the member parties to the Union of Right-Wing Parties, sent a letter to employees at his ministry discussing the "assimilation Holocaust." According to Ariel, "During the Holocaust, we've lost about six million Jews. Without at all comparing the two, we're losing a part of our people to assimilation."
Fellow National Union member Eli Ben Dahan said in 2014, while he was deputy minister for religious affairs, that intermarriage are "a silent Holocaust. We must remember that the Jewish people, unfortunately, has gone through a Holocaust. It has been diminishing over the past century In Europe we have as much as 80 percent intermarriages; in the United States it's 66 percent. It's horrible."
.... ... ...
Jul 22, 2019 | www.unz.com
S , says: July 16, 2019 at 3:33 pm GMT
..no one complains more often or at greater volume than American Jewish groups intent on preserving the benefits that are derived from always being able to claim their perpetual victimhood.
Utilizing accusations of faux guilt as both a shaming weapon towards other(s), and, more importantly for the accusers, a negative means of social control (via fear and terrorization) of one's own people, has happened before, as in the case of the United States and it's Civil War, fought 1861-1865.
And, too, when a cause is morally dubious, it is sometimes necessary to augment it with something anything.
The below excerpt was published in The Atlantic Monthly (now known simply as The Atlantic ) in October, 1870, in an article entitled 'Our Israelitish Brethren'. In more modern English the title would translate as 'Our Jewish Brothers'. 'Brethren', or brothers, is an apparent reference to the unfortunate belief by some Anglo-Saxons that they were of the 'Lost Tribes of Israel'.
The reference in the emboldened portion to 'huge Andersonville outrages' is to the South's Andersonville POW camp for captured Union soldiers. The accusations regarding planned systematic mass murder at Andersonville, surrounded with much talk about 'cattle cars', the manufacture of leather wallets from the human skin of 'murdered' Union prisoners, 'poisonous injections' disguised as health measures, the wanton shooting down of prisoners by the commanding officer, the setting upon prisoners of large and ferocious dogs for sport, all constituting 'crimes against humanity', for which the declared intention had been to execute, via hanging, the entirety of the upper echelons of the defeated South's political and military leadership.
Those plans ultimately fell through, and the accusations regarding Andersonville are now generally, albeit quietly, acknowledged not to have been true.
All too late, though, for the solitary and hapless Henry Wirz, the commanding officer at Andersonville, who would be hanged in 1865 as a scape goat for Union pique regarding it's huge war time losses in what was ultimately a largely morally dubious economic war, a war not in any way, shape, or form, in the interest of the vast majority of the public 'North' or 'South', ie the North's far more profitable wage slavery (so called 'cheap labor'/'mass immigration'), vs the South's far less profitable chattel slavery.
The hanging was 'botched', and as Wirz slowly strangled to death, the last words he would hear on this earth uttered by the mouths of hundreds of watching Union spectators, were the chants of 'Andersonville!', 'Andersonville!!', 'Andersonville!!!'
'Of the giant wrongs to which they [the Jewish people] have been subjected for the last ten centuries, -- the huge Andersonville outrages, -- few readers need to be reminded.'
The Atlantic Monthly (October, 1870) – Our Israelitish Brethren
Who can estimate the reparation which Christendom owes this interesting and unoffending people? How abundant, how untiring, should be our charity in judging the faults of character which our own superstition has created or developed!
Of the giant wrongs to which they [the Jewish people] have been subjected for the last ten centuries, -- the huge Andersonville outrages, -- few readers need to be reminded. In the slaughter of the Jews of Seville, in 1391, thirty-five hundred families were murdered. In 1492, under Ferdinand and Isabella, three hundred thousand heroic Israelites preferred exile to apostasy.
Many of them found a resting-place only in the grave or in the depths of the sea; for neither Portugal nor Italy nor Mohammedan Morocco would tolerate the presence of a people who would not comply with their superstitions, and who, by their frugality, continence, temperance, and industry, absorbed the wealth of every country in which they lived.
Jul 22, 2019 | www.unz.com
A friend of mine recently commented that if the current trend to reduce the study of history in schools to easily digestible politically correct soundbites that are being successfully pushed by social justice warriors continues, we will soon be limited to discussing how horrible slavery was, the Stonewall Inn riots and the so-called holocaust. Indeed, it seems that those who complain the loudest are the only ones listened to and no one complains more often or at greater volume than American Jewish groups intent on preserving the benefits that are derived from always being able to claim their perpetual victimhood.
Recent media accounts from Florida detail how low pandering to Israeli and Jewish interests can go. A high school principal identified as Dr. Willian Latson was removed from his position after he revealed to a parent that he considered the holocaust to be a belief and not a demonstrated fact. According to statement made by the school district, the action was taken "out of an abundance of concern" for students and staff after Latson had "made a grave error in judgment." It added that "In addition to being offensive, the principal's statement is not supported by either the School District Administration or the School Board."
The story took place in the School District of Palm Beach County. Latson, now the ex-principal of Spanish River High School in West Palm Beach, presided over his school in a heavily Jewish district that includes Boca Raton. Latson is currently being considered for reassignment by the school district though there are have also been recurring calls from county and state legislators to fire him, which will undoubtedly occur.
The tale is somewhat convoluted and there are some disagreements about what actually took place, but it goes basically like this: roughly one year ago a high school parent, unidentified but presumably Jewish, emailed Latson asking him to confirm that holocaust education was a top priority in Spanish River H.S. He responded by email that the school has a "variety of activities" for holocaust education but "Not everyone believes the Holocaust happened. And you have your thoughts, but we are a public school and not all of our parents have the same beliefs." He added that an educator has "the role to be politically neutral but support all groups in the school I can't say the Holocaust is a factual, historical event because I am not in a position to do so as a school district employee."
After the emails were revealed to school officials, presumably by the parent, a year-long investigation commenced in which Latson apologized for having caused offense, saying his emails "did not accurately reflect my professional and personal commitment to educating all students about the atrocities of the Holocaust." The school board initially ruled that he had not done anything meriting disciplinary action or a reprimand, but the story did not end there. Simultaneously, an online petition which eventually included 6,000 signatures was initiated demanding Latson's replacement and he was subsequently removed from his position. The school board officials justified their change of course by citing his apparent unwillingness to comply with instructions, stating that they previously had ordered him to "expand the Holocaust curriculum at Spanish River and ordered him to spend 'several days at the United States Holocaust Museum to increase his personal knowledge.'"
Latson responded that his emails and comments were not "accurately relayed" to the media: "I have been reassigned to the district office due to a statement that was not accurately relayed to the newspaper by one of our parents. It is unfortunate that someone can make a false statement and do so anonymously and it holds credibility but that is the world we live in."
His statement implicitly blaming a school parent generated new problems for Latson with two Palm Beach County state lawmakers and the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) calling for his firing because he had not groveled sufficiently. ADL stated that "ADL had hoped his apology was sincere and Latson could learn from his mistakes. Given that he cannot take responsibility for his actions, Latson should resign, and if not we believe the district should end his employment."
The two state officials, Senator Kevin Rader and Representative Tina Polsky issued a statement saying "By his latest email, Dr. Latson has shown no remorse for his actions and we call on the district to immediately terminate him."
The publication of Latson's comments also unleashed heavy criticism from a broad range of other Florida public officials. Governor Ron DeSantis, who calls himself the most pro-Israel governor in American, joined in with "Look, to act like the Holocaust is a matter of debate, I mean, is just absurd."
Senator Rick Scott called Latson's comments anti-Semitism and tweeted that the "fact that someone charged with educating children would be unable to speak unequivocally on the realities & horrors of the holocaust is incredibly concerning." Jewish State Representative Randy Fine, who recently introduced legislation officially banning "anti-Semitism" in Florida public schools, said "the law does not allow a Holocaust-denier to serve as a public school principal." In a publish statement he expanded on that point, writing that "anti-Semitism by public employees in our K-20 public education system must be treated the same as racism."
The controversy inadvertently revealed the extent to which state law now requires the holocaust to be taught in all Florida public schools. Ironically, Spanish River High has one of the country's most rigorous holocaust education programs with the subject being taught both in ninth- and 10th-grade English classes as well as a component of both U.S. and world history. There is also an elective course as well regular holocaust assemblies for the entire school featuring keynote speakers. After the Latson controversy started, the school district required all 10th graders to read "Night" by Elie Wiesel. There are now plans to add multiple annual assemblies for students in every grade in the school district this year.
So, if you go to school in Florida your English and history courses will be about the holocaust and you will have to attend holocaust assemblies just in case some alleged atrocity has not been described extensively enough in class. Well, when does it end? When does the almost incessant pandering to Zionists and Jewish groups become too much for the deliberately kept-in-ignorance American public to tolerate?
The so-called holocaust was an historical event that took place in Europe seventy-five years ago. It has an established but very debatable narrative that pretty much has been contrived over the past fifty years for political reasons, see Professor Norman Finkelstein's brilliant deconstruction of it in his book "The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering." Those inconsistencies in the holocaust story and its general lack of credibility may have been what Latson was referring to.
The imposed holocaust narrative is full of holes and contradictions in terms of who was killed and how, but it is impossible for genuine academics to critique it if they want to stay employed. Books like Wiesel's "Night" are largely works of fiction. The narrative exists to perpetuate the belief in Jewish suffering, which brings with it a number of practical advantages. First, it is regularly deployed to excuse the horrific treatment of the Palestinian people by Israel – Jewish suffering means that the creation of a homeland is a debt that all the world owes to the Jews without regard to what has been done to the area's other inhabitants. Second, guilt over the alleged holocaust means that reparations from countries involved must be continued indefinitely. Currently the Poles are resisting new Jewish claims while the Germans have been paying for years. It is now being asserted that the descendants of so-called holocaust survivors have been genetically psychologically damaged , in the womb as it were, so reparations will presumably continue forever.
Third, holocaust guilt is used in the United States to counter any criticism of what Israel and Jewish groups are up to, as they use their wealth and access to power to corrupt America's institutions and drive the country to needless wars. One might well ask, when confronted by the taxpayer funded holocaust museums that appear to spring up like mushrooms, why so much interest in a possible crime that has nothing to do with the United States? Where are the museums and courses in Florida schools discussing the mass killing that happened on our own shores, the genocide of the native Americans?
Lest we forget, the holocaust industry operates everywhere in America, particularly in the education system. Eight states already have laws mandating holocaust education (California, New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Florida, Illinois, Indiana and Michigan) and there is considerable pressure to make it universal in the United States. An alarmed World Jewish Congress (WJC) is urging required holocaust education for everyone everywhere "citing statistics from a 2018 poll revealing half of millennials can't name a single Nazi concentration camp."
A currently circulating WJC petition in Congress expresses concern over the rise in anti-Semitism, with a warning that "the horrors of the Holocaust are fading from our collective memory " A bill to brainwash students so they will not forget, 'The Never Again Education Act ', is currently making the rounds in the House of Representatives. It would make holocaust study mandatory in public schools and set up a Department of Education program that would train teachers to properly instruct students about the story of Jewish suffering.
Yes, the "Never Again Education Act" will soon be sucking up taxpayer money like an enormous vacuum cleaner and creating lots of new jobs for holocaust instructors, who will, of course, all be Jewish. Public schools will be teaching the next generation about what a great place Israel is and how the holocaust justifies vigilant groups like AIPAC and ADL, though it will not mention how they have corrupted the U.S. government and turned America's foreign policy into an Israeli wag-the-dog. But who's complaining? It's good for the Jews, isn't it?
So Dr. William Latson will be unemployed and possibly unemployable because he spoke the truth, a lesson to all of us that one must never cross the red lines established by the wielders of Jewish power in America. One might reasonably currently expect that serial pedophile Jeffrey Epstein will use the holocaust get-out-of-jail-free card in his defense, claiming that his recollection of the event has so traumatized him that he did bad things that he would not have otherwise considered. Poor Jeffrey. He has suffered so much.
Philip M. Giraldi, Ph.D., is Executive Director of the Council for the National Interest, a 501(c)3 tax deductible educational foundation (Federal ID Number #52-1739023) that seeks a more interests-based U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. Website is councilforthenationalinterest.org, address is P.O. Box 2157, Purcellville VA 20134 and its email is email@example.com
Anonymous  Disclaimer , says: July 16, 2019 at 4:23 am GMTA middle school teacher in our area, while teaching about the suffering of the Jews in America, told the class that in the south, where she was from, people use derogatory terms like "jewing" somebody down to describe driving a hard bargain. Next thing we knew, she was leaving the district at the end the year to return to Alabama to care for her aging parents, even though her husband had an excellent job with a local tech firm. A few parents suspected she had been asked to leave just from that one innocent comment and would never be able to get a job anywhere in Western WA.renfro , says: July 16, 2019 at 4:28 am GMT
E.A. Ross said in his book The Old World in The New that the Hebrews are consumed by over sensitivity, unscrupulousness and pleasure seeking . Couldn't have found three more accurate terms to describe this tribe, though one might also add narcissism and shamelessness . Ross said this way back in 1914. Things have only gotten worse since, much, much worse now that they are the ruling class.Nicolás Palacios Navarro , says: Website July 16, 2019 at 4:31 am GMT
no one complains more often or at greater volume than American Jewish groups intent on preserving the benefits that are derived from always being able to claim their perpetual victimhood
lol no one but a Jew can find victimhood in absolutely everything.
(((Michael Koplow)))Verified account @mkoplow
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Let's dispense with the fiction that everything Trump does is good for Israel. He cares for Israel only so far as his policies toward Israel further his political aims and benefit him, and right now that involves using Israel as a shield for his own racism."exiled off mainstreet , says: July 16, 2019 at 4:43 am GMT
The so-called holocaust was an historical event that took place in Europe seventy-five years ago. It has an established but very debatable narrative that pretty much has been contrived over the past fifty years for political reasons, see Professor Norman Finkelstein's brilliant deconstruction of it in his book " The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering ."
I came across Finkelstein's book purely by chance in the freebie pile of a local used bookstore about a decade ago, when in my mid 20s. It made me a skeptic of Israel, Zionism, and the Holocaust virtually overnight, not to mention drawing my attention to the fact that Jewish power is no tin hat conspiracy theory. In a just world, his book would be required reading for anybody 12 and over.
While I remain a believer that there was a mass murder of Jews perpetrated by Germans, my own belief is that the manner in which this event is commonly portrayed today to be a vast exaggeration. The "six million" figure does not really hold up under scrutiny; my personal guess is that the actual number is no more than one million, and likely closer to the tens of thousands rather than millions. Most of those were probably murdered for being communists or other such political undesirables, rather than for their ethnicity as such; another good amount simply died in the closing months of the war because of supply and food shortages, although I do not discount that a fair amount were targeted for their religion or race.
But even if that were the case, so what? They would not be the first to be targeted in that manner -- nor were they even the last. There is more actual documentation and proof of the Armenian Genocide, for example, as a deliberate race/religion-focused act than there is for the Holocaust. Yet comparatively few peoples or nations seem to care about that event, most tellingly Israel. Meanwhile, the US on a federal level denies or refuses to acknowledge the Armenian Genocide. Imagine if any American political figure ever publicly vacillated on the subject of the Holocaust?From my Ph. D. research and seeing survivors with tattoos I am convinced that the Nazi regime did engage in exterminations, but I know that Jewish people were not the only targets. The actual number exterminated is open to interpretation, but a great many were obviously exterminated. Proof that something happened can be seen in comparisons of the ethnic makeup of territories before and after Nazi occupation. Over 3 Million Soviet POW's were also liquidated in Nazi camps and hundreds of thousands of other non-Jewish people were also liquidated.Nicolás Palacios Navarro , says: Website July 16, 2019 at 5:07 am GMT
I agree with Dr. Giraldi that these historical incidents, factual or exaggerated, have been exploited to create "get out of jail free cards" for Israeli actions that too closely resemble proven Nazi crimes. Gaza is a sort of ghetto-concentration camp reminiscent of documented Nazi crimes in Poland and elsewhere. Whatever the extent the facts fully support the received view, I agree with the implication that feelings of guilt for Nazi excesses were central to the creation of Israel and think that the Finkelstein book mentioned is a valuable corrective.
I also find it outrageous that any sort of questioning or revisionism is considered taboo despite the traditional existence of constitutional guarantees of free speech, which have been seriously curtailed in recent years. I also deplore identity politics and forced political correctness, recalling George Carlin's view that political correctness was nothing more than polite fascism As for Dr. Latson, he obviously made a serious mistake in the present environment and in the context of events at his school, and I am sure he will be sacked. If traditional rule of law still obtained he would probably be able to continue on as a teacher, but, recalling my studies of the rise of fascism, a new version of it appears to have gradually developed in the "west" during the last 30 years or so.@Anonymous You got it wrong. Women -- affluent white women, specifically -- crowd the top of the totem pole of grievances along with the Jews. The casual reader of the major periodicals in English, Spanish, French, and German are lead to believe on a daily basis that no being suffers more on this miserable bitch of an Earth than women. Arguably, Latin American and European media are even more zealously fourth-wave feminist than many of the major Anglo-American outlets. And the contagion is quickly spreading to East Asia.Robert Dolan , says: July 16, 2019 at 5:16 am GMT
And here in the US, affluent white women have remarkably (and without any dissent) positioned themselves not only as the ne plus ultra of historical victimhood, but have effectively declared themselves honorary "POC", presenting themselves as the spokesfigures for the world's huddled masses of the dusky and "oppressed".@Nicolás Palacios Navarro Red Cross had boots on the ground, said 270K.The Germ Theory of Disease , says: July 16, 2019 at 5:23 am GMT
55 MILLION non-jews died in that war, and you never hear about that.
There was never any order given to kill jews. The jews that died mostly died from typhus and starvation.
The "holocaust" isn't mentioned in the jewish encyclopedia of the time. Also, none of the world leaders of that time period mention anything about a "holocaust" in any of their autobiographies.
Finkelstein says that "The Holocaust" was actually invented around 1967 to provide support for Israel in fighting its' Arab neighbors.
The "holocaust" is essentially a marketing tool to shield the jews and Israel, and to shame the dumb goyim into allowing themselves to be destroyed.The mass persecution of European Jews by the Nazi regime during the Second World War is an established historical fact. Its origins, its actual scope, extent, methods, parameters and motivating factors are all questions properly explored by scholars and historians, not by activists. Many of these issues have taken a plausibly reliable shape (e.g. historians are reliably certain that killer whales were not used to murder Jews), but some have not. History is a long and patient enterprise.Professional Stranger , says: July 16, 2019 at 5:28 am GMT
Proper, accurate historical scholarship on matters of this magnitude is never fully settled, and certainly not in the space of a single human lifetime; scholars to this day are still exploring new information regarding such distant events as the Thirty Years War and the Old Kingdom of pharaonic Egypt. To close the book permanently on the exploration of an event like the Jewish Persecution, and declare that "the history is settled" on a scale so recent that there are still living participants, is an act of scholarly abuse so egregious as to constitute a crime of omission against Truth itself.
The fact that it has become literally a crime in many countries to honestly explore these issues in a scholarly context is evidence of "mens rea", consciousness of guilt, on the part of those activists who seek to shut down good-faith discussion and exploit the event for personal and group gain. What do they fear will be discovered? What do they fear to lose by such discoveries?
Furthermore, labeling this Jewish Persecution Event with the mystical, quasi-religious grand title of "the Holocaust" (or, the "Shoah") is in fact a racist act of cultural appropriation, and a theft of historical place. It sacralizes and valorizes a single particular historical catastrophe, which took place among many, many such catastrophes, within the context of the largest war in human history, a war which involved participants on FOUR continents.
The label "Holocaust" is racist propaganda, designed to put the Jewish Persecution at the center of world history, to elevate a single grim historical tragedy well above many other such tragedies, equally deserving of historical attention, and many of them far more deserving. It strongly implies that the suffering of the Jewish people is somehow mystically more important than the suffering of other people's; it strongly evokes the notion that Jewish lives are somehow more valuable than the lives of other peoples.
Finally, this notion that Jewish lives are more valuable than the lives of non-Jews, is in fact a codified Jewish religious belief, well-attested in voluminous citations of Jewish scriptures and Jewish hermeneutical texts. It is not a uniform canonical belief, but it is so widespread among learned doctors of Jewish dogma that it can with confidence be considered a valid and well-known "Jewish religious belief".
Therefore, any law passed by Congress mandating special enforced education practices regarding the Holocaust as an event of somehow uniquely elevated importance would be a law expressing government preference in religious faith, and as such is null and void under the First Amendment."One third of the holocaust" by Jewish Historian David Cole. And excellent piece of research.Leslie , says: July 16, 2019 at 6:18 am GMT
This version seems to be fairly original (dated 2006). Beware! There is a new propaganda remake video circulating, nothing like the original.For those who are not Americans but who have a good grasp of history, this is an amusing point in history, watching the Israelis drawing the Americans into another Jewish disaster brought about by their ongoing arrogance.Biff , says: July 16, 2019 at 6:37 am GMTWhen I read the title the first person that popped into my head was Norman Finklestein, who rightly calls the holocaust an industry, not an official category of history, since the reason it is taught in schools has more of a monetary(think power) value than a historical one. "Industry"Hans Vogel , says: July 16, 2019 at 7:07 am GMT
At best it is a controversy, with non-verifible facts and events. It's probably closer to a religion than a game of football with a real score. But that's life – Bullshit still rules the field. How about some real Bullshit for your kid.@Anonymous Yes indeed, the victimhood totempole exists and I think you are right to point this out. However, there is more overlap than just Jews and homos: Jews and women (vociferous Jewesses are very numerous), homos and women, women and any of the other categories, illegals and any other category, and so on.Bardon Kaldian , says: July 16, 2019 at 7:17 am GMT
In the end, the totempole serves the interests of the state, since it keeps the population divided (divide and rule, remember) into mutually antagonistic groups. The state itself was the first to initiate this unfortunate categorization, requiring everyone when filling out official documents, to tick the appropriate category: White, African-American (or whatever the current politically correct term is), Hispanic, Hispanic non-white, Native American, Pacific islander, Aleut, Asian etc. I have always found this insulting, derogatory, humiliating and reminiscent of nazi-Germany.
Philip Giraldi's article and all other articles like it, indicate the US has gone full-blown nazi. By the way, this often occurs in history: in the end, the victor always adopts the ways and ideas of the vanquished. That is why it is so important to pick one's battles. That is also why the Chinese are so superior: they always try to avoid open conflict and in doing so have preserved their collective identity.The Alarmist , says: July 16, 2019 at 8:04 am GMT
It is now being asserted that the descendants of so-called holocaust survivors have been genetically psychologically damaged, in the womb as it were, so reparations will presumably continue forever.
Interesting. This is basically Lysenkoism, i.e. Lamarckism.Richard B , says: July 16, 2019 at 8:14 am GMT
A high school principal identified as Dr. Willian Latson was removed from his position after he revealed to a parent that he considered the holocaust to be a belief and not a demonstrated fact. According to statement made by the school district, the action was taken "out of an abundance of concern" for students and staff after Latson had "made a grave error in judgment." It added that "In addition to being offensive, the principal's statement is not supported by either the School District Administration or the School Board."
Exhibit 1 for the plaintiff in his suit for defamation and wrongful constructive termination."The ADL stated that "The ADL had hoped his apology was sincere and Latson could learn from his mistakes. Given that he cannot take responsibility for his actions, Latson should resign, and if not we believe the district should end his employment."Richard B , says: July 16, 2019 at 8:41 am GMT
When have jews ever apologized for anything?
When have jews ever taken responsibility for their actions?
"The two state officials, Senator Kevin Rader and Representative Tina Polsky issued a statement saying "By his latest email, Dr. Latson has shown no remorse for his actions and we call on the district to immediately terminate him.""
When have jews ever shown remose?
"The publication of Latson's comments also unleashed heavy criticism from a broad range of other Florida public officials. Governor Ron DeSantis, who calls himself the most pro-Israel governor in American, joined in with "Look, to act like the Holocaust is a matter of debate, I mean, is just absurd.""
The fact that they can not see that FORCING the study of an histoircal evidence is self-discrediting is yet more proof of how insane and dangerou they are to everyone they come into contact with.
Any country that bows before the alter of Jewish Supremacy Inc. is doomed.
So why do it?
The only answer is that such people have lost the will to live.
But not everyone has.@Anonymous Great comment. Sad story about the teacher.Anonymous  Disclaimer , says: July 16, 2019 at 8:52 am GMT
And to your list we could add the word Dostoyevsky used to describe them, "mericiless."
Around the time of Ross' book there was a study on criminal pathology conducted in the USA in 1911 and it discusses the jewish inclination toward just that, criminal pathology. I regret to say I don't recall the name of the study. I'm sure it was influential in the 1924 Immigration Act.
In any event, the rise of Jewish Supremacy Inc. is in direct proportion to the rise of psychopathy in the West.
For now, their insanity is in full display in demands to be
1. placed above criticism
2. loved unconditionally
3. blindly obeyed
The fact that they have the power to effecuate these insane demands makes one shudder for the future of our children.
I think JSI is about to find out that not everyone is keen on being their slaves or sacrifices.The Jews started all this stuff with the "Frankfurt School" (started 1923) crap. Every dirty rotten lousy thing going on today is tied to that stinking, "Jew Think Tank" – including the holocaust hoax.Greg Bacon , says: Website July 16, 2019 at 10:08 am GMTPalm Beach County is directly adjacent to Broward County, which has a large Borg infestation and never seems to run out of incidents that can be traced back to the Tribe.Jacques Sheete , says: July 16, 2019 at 10:12 am GMT
Maybe Americans should do a repeat of those Middle Ages types that went around, flagellating themselves on their backs with whips that contained rusty nails and broken pottery, trying to get the Black Death to vanish, but the modern day ones would be moaning about how bad the Jews have it and it's our fault that some died during WWII.
My guess is that even that wouldn't be enough, unless a check of at least 6 gorillion was included each year to Jews.@Nicolás Palacios NavarroHolocaustPropagandaSurvivor , says: July 16, 2019 at 10:17 am GMT
Most of those were probably murdered for being communists or other such political undesirables, rather than for their ethnicity as such; another good amount simply died in the closing months of the war because of supply and food shortages, although I do not discount that a fair amount were targeted for their religion or race.
Two out of three is not bad for a relatively young fellow, especially if you were raised in the the Brainwashed States of America, the Bullshit Capitol of the World. I hope you have sufficient time to follow your inquiries into the truth. Keep reading PG and RU, and you'll keep making excellent progress.
In the case of "the Jewish persecution" in Germany I found that impartial presentation of the facts gradually gave way to so partisan a depictment that the truth was lost. This transformation was effected in three subtle stages. First the persecution of "political opponents and Jews" was reported; then this was imperceptibly amended to "Jews and political opponents"; and at the end the press in general spoke only of "the persecution of Jews". By this means a false image was projected on to the public mind and the plight of the overwhelming majority of the victims, by this fixing of the spotlight on one group, was lost to sight. The result showed in 1945, when, on the one hand, the persecution of Jews was made the subject of a formal indictment at Nuremberg, and on the other hand half of Europe and all the people in it were abandoned to the selfsame persecution, in which the Jews had shared in their small proportion to populations everywhere.
-Douglas Reed, The Controversy of Zion, page 214-5
I used to have a link to the book, but now all I get is a 404 message."When does the almost incessant pandering to Zionists and Jewish groups become too much for the deliberately kept-in-ignorance American public to tolerate?"Greg Bacon , says: July 16, 2019 at 10:22 am GMT
It became too much decades ago.
I haven't seen a more succinct, articulate description of American life under Jewish occupation. Giraldi hits the nail on the head every time.Here's what the Holocaust Industry is so desperate to cover up, the sickening treatment of the indigenous Palestinians by the Israelis–that claim to be Jews–that have invaded Palestine and turned it into a much more deadlier version of Apartheid South Africa:Stephen Paul Foster , says: Website July 16, 2019 at 10:35 am GMT
Poof! One day in occupation causes young Jews on Zionist tour to question Zionism -- 'NYT' reports
We are as critical of the New York Times as anyone, but we need to salute the superb report in the newspaper by David Halbfinger on a liberal Zionist trip for American Jews to see the occupation. Titled, "Touring the Israeli Occupation: Young U.S. Jews Get an Unflinching View," the July 10 article offered horrifying glimpses of Palestinian conditions in Susiya and Hebron that left the young Jews staggered.
Since they toured part of Occupied Hebron, wonder if they visited those streets that have wire and steel barricades over the sidewalks, necessitated by Israelis, living above those streets, that dump chunks of concrete down on the Palestinians passing by?
But that doesn't stop the buckets of human waste the kindly Israelis also dump on the Palestinians.
But hey, to think about that is anti-Semitic. That time should be spent worshiping the most Holy Holocaust, Goyim!The refusal to bow at the altar of Jewish "victimhood" will soon to be completely criminalized here in the U.S. See:Counterinsurgency , says: July 16, 2019 at 10:45 am GMT
http://fosterspeak.blogspot.com/2018/10/my-victimhood-is-bigger-than-yours-or.html@Richard B The Jewish establishment and the various foreigners aren't really the problem. WW I and WW II stunned the Europeans an European descendants, who have had a sort of PTSD for a three generations now. _That's_ the problem.onebornfree , says: Website July 16, 2019 at 10:52 am GMT
R. Unz's article  shows that, had solidly Republican California simply arrested a few people (and continued to arrest their replacements) it could have saved itself. The people were not arrested because nobody cared. Politics had already become a game, played by professionals, of being elected rather than a constant and precarious effort to keep civilization (or at least Republican California) alive. The civil population at the time had no interest in politics and was badly frightened by the prospect of yet another central war, this time fought with nuclear weapons. 
The fourth generation seems to be recovering enough to defend itself, if only because the choice is that or life on gradually diminishing welfare.
1] R. Unz
"American Pravda: The Power of Organized Crime".
First posted 2019/07/15.
2] Although i seem to remember, from _Only yesterday_, that in the 1920s the frequent moving from one neighborhood to another made neighborhoods hard for anybody "organize" politically, and that the California populace could be lured to vote by presenting political contests as a horse race (X lead's by a nose! Now Y is moving up in the final stretch! And .. . . It's Seabiscuit!". Watching a human horesrace is not the same as protecting your civilization, as the Californians (and now the Americans) have found out.P. Giraldi says: "Well, when does it end? When does the almost incessant pandering to Zionists and Jewish groups become too much for the deliberately kept-in-ignorance American public to tolerate?"Zumbuddi , says: July 16, 2019 at 11:17 am GMT
It's not going to end as long as the current, enforced at-the-point-of-a-gun government run "educational" system exists.@exiled off mainstreet The PhD has to be in something rigorous, like gender studies.Digital Samizdat , says: July 16, 2019 at 11:46 am GMT
If an aeronautics engineer said "from seeing survivor tattoos I am convinced the Nazi regime did engage in exterminations, " he/she would be disqualified from folding paper airplanes.
. . and the repeated use of "exterminations" -- why that word? Did Germans seek out 3 m. Soviet soldiers as if they were the Terminex man fumigating a rat-infested slum? Or did Stalin send ill-equiped, untrained & poorly fed troops who surrendered in such large numbers that there was no way to cope with them?
Didn't read past the 3rd "exterminate."@The Germ Theory of Diseasedimples , says: July 16, 2019 at 12:03 pm GMT
Furthermore, labeling this Jewish Persecution Event with the mystical, quasi-religious grand title of "the Holocaust" (or, the "Shoah") is in fact a racist act of cultural appropriation, and a theft of historical place.
I'll say! Did you know that the very word 'holocaust' was first coined in 1944 to describe the effects of the incendiary bombs that the allies dropped on the Germans during the war? That's right: 'holocaust' originally referred to a war crime committed against the Germans, not by them. Even well into the 60s, when the word was used, it was usually used with reference the ever-present threat of nuclear war–the so-called nuclear holocaust. It wasn't really until the 70s–a full generation after the war–that the word acquired its present meaning, completely displacing the older ones.@Bardon Kaldian Yes the inheritance of acquired characteristics is considered to be a massive scientific heresy. If the experiment is repeatable it would blow modern genetics wide open. If the Krauts have any brains they'd be asking for a lot more more evidence before paying out on that one.Miggle , says: July 16, 2019 at 12:11 pm GMTThe state of affairs that provided cover for the "Holocaust" was a wonderful gift the Nazis gave. It allowed the truth at last to be told about the Chmielnitsy rebellion. It was time to admit, for Jews to admit, that the number of Jews killed was less than a tenth of the number previously said to have been killed. And further, when a town with a 99 percent Jewish population was overrun by the Cossacks and the peasants, the Jews were left unharmed because they were simply merchants, had not been involved in the oppression of the peasants. Jewish towns overrun and left unharmed. This truth could be told now because there was a more delicious story to tell. Chmielnitsy was rendered obsolete by its successor, the "Holocaust".Cleburne , says: July 16, 2019 at 12:43 pm GMT@Achilles WannabeSaggy , says: Website July 16, 2019 at 12:47 pm GMT
But I get a sense that the Tribe may be going over the top. They appear to be desperate to ram this Holocaust narrative down our collective throats.
I believe you're on to something here. there is a Holocaust museum in a large Southern city near me. Recently there's been a blitz, so to speak, of billboards and teevee ads encouraging all and sundry to attend to learn about the baleful consequences of 'hate."
Why now? Because their POC pets are turning on (((them)))? because they have internal polling showing people are noticing epstein/weinstein/et cetera? resistance to the Iran war noises? It's all very odd.This video .Hans , says: July 16, 2019 at 12:59 pm GMT
The holocaust is a preposterous hoax that is unsupported by any physical evidence. It is made up of literally millions of lies, but it all rests on one 'big lie'.
The hoax has three main components –
1. The Nazis planned to exterminate the Jews.
2. The Nazis built gas chambers to exterminate the Jews and disguised them as shower rooms.
3. The Nazis killed six million Jews.
Each component of the hoax is categorically false and completely without evidence.
1. There was no Nazi plan to exterminate the Jews or anyone else, and no evidence of one has ever been found.
2. The gas chambers disguised as shower rooms are pure phantasmagoria, and there is not a shred of physical evidence for them.
3. The number of Jews killed in the camps for being Jews is zero, and it is well documented that the Nazis aggressively investigate any crime in the camps.
That is the hoax, and the reality
The big lie is the photos and film footage that are shown of Jewish prisoners who had been gassed by the Nazis. The truth is that all the photos and film were taken after the war by British and US soldiers, and showed prisoners of all nationalities and religions who had died of tyhpus at the very last weeks of the war, primarily at Belsen where 35,000 died, 10,000 after the camp had been liberated by the British. Further, the Nazis had done everything in their power to combat the epidemic.
The video documents all the above. To understand the holohoax you must study it.@Jacques Sheete It's available here, Jacques – https://www.controversyofzion.info/Controversybook/reeedcontrov.pdfNancy Pelosi's Latina Maid , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:05 pm GMT
One of the great books.
This is a good one and a good template for any of the other Tribe-driven issues tearing down the West:@exiled off mainstreetHonesty , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:05 pm GMT
From my Ph. D. research and seeing survivors with tattoos I am convinced that the Nazi regime did engage in exterminations
So encountering an old woman with a number tattoo proves Nazis exterminated Jews? Not that there were prisoners of war, but that Jews were systematically slaughtered?
Wow, there's a logical leap of faith
As far as Ph.D. research, I'm not sure it has the cachet you think it does.@giraldiJake , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:06 pm GMT
Sir, foxnews is reporting that the fake passport recovered in Epstein's locker places him as a resident of Saudi Arabia – and that is from the 80's. What is going on here? This is so weird (and scary). How much of penetration we have from foreign groups in USA, for how long, and why are our politicians not being safeguarded from their influence? Are our intelligence agencies trying to stop that influence? I think this new revelation deserves another article from you. Thank you.Judaizing heresy not identified and refuted and stopped, rejected thoroughly, leads directly to a world like this one.JohnnyD , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:14 pm GMT
Anglo-Saxon Puritanism was a Judaizing heresy. WASP culture is the product of a Judaizing heresy. The British Empire took the secularist form of that Judaizing heresy and planted ir across the globe.
Anglo-Zionist Empire – your Big BrotherWith all due respect, I think Norman Finkelstein's.views are being distorted in this article. Finkelstein never questions whether or not the Holocaust occurred. Indeed, he promotes the work of Raul Hillberg, who Finkelstein views as a serious scholar. Also, he always states that the suffering of his parents in the Holocaust is what motivates him to defend the rights of Palestinians. Finkelstein does indeed go after Jewish groups and the State of Israel for using the Holocaust as an idelogical weapon, and he does attack Ellie Weisel as a fraud and hyoprite, but he has never questioned the standard narrative that a systematic extermination of European Jewry occurred during World War II.Hippopotamusdrome , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:14 pm GMTYet another controversy, and this will spur yet more fruitless debate. It's endless.Robjil , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:18 pm GMT
I'm really starting to wish the Holocaust never happened."The Never Again Education Act" is the exact same thing as a "The Santa Claus Education Act". One only has only to believe, no inquiry allowed.John Regan , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:19 pm GMT
" The Again and Again Wars for Jewish Zionist Advisor Act" has been put in action endlessly in the past hundred years. The earth is crying out in pain from from this world wide destruction.
" Seven Nations to destroy" is the latest war plan for the most persecuted people on planet earth.
" The Never Again promotion of Wars by Jewish/Zionist Advisors Act" is what the world needs.
WWI was for the Balfour. Zionist Jewish Advisors were at the top of both the British and American governments promoting WWI.
WWII was for Israel. Zionist Jewish Advisors were at the top of both the British and American governments promoting WWII.
Jewish Zionist Oligarchs world wide promoted the Bolshevik take over Russia.
If anything like the big 6 happened, the blame should go at the Jewish/Zionist Advisors that created the conditions for it by promoting two massive world wars.
Will "The Never Again promotion of War by Jewish/Zionist Advisors Act" ever be passed? Now that is a bill that should be passed. Climate Change is peanuts compared to war promotion by Jewish/Zionist Advisors.@exiled off mainstreetDESERT FOX , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:24 pm GMT
Over 3 Million Soviet POW's were also liquidated in Nazi camps and hundreds of thousands of other non-Jewish people were also liquidated.
Only if by "liquidated" you mean died of starvation and disease because food and medical care were inadequate. German logistics in the winter of 1941 were famously a nightmare: if the Wehrmacht couldn't even supply their own troops with adequate winter gear, it's no surprise EPWs fared worse. Though the number of victims you cite is too high. It comes ultimately from the book Keine Kameraden by one Christian Streit, who is often quoted uncritically by mainstream historians who won't (or can't, if they don't read German) check how he actually derived his figures. In fact, he inflates them quite a bit.
Even so, many hundreds of thousands did die. And this, of course, is still a real tragedy. But it was not an intentional genocide, any more than the starvation of even more millions of Germans and Japanese by the Allies after the war. And the Allies didn't have the excuse that they were fighting history's biggest land war while their victims starved in peacetime. See the convincing studies by Alfred De Zayas, most of which have been translated to English, and Stalin's War of Annihilation by Joachim Hoffmann, which our host Ron Unz mentions in his American Pravda series.The nazis killed millions of not only Jews but Christians and political opponents and in regards to the Jews , the elite Jews helped the nazis kill the Jews to further their goal of a zionist homeland and a case in point is George Soros , who at the age of 14 lived with the nazi commander of Budapest who was in charge of rounding up Jews to be shipped to the death camps, and Soros went with the nazis and pointed out the Jews for the nazis, this is a fact.Nancy Pelosi's Latina Maid , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:26 pm GMT@Hans VogelWally , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:27 pm GMT
I have always found this [demographic categorization] insulting, derogatory, humiliating and reminiscent of nazi-Germany.
YMMV, but I personally think we should drill down even deeper, e.g. how many Jews? That'd drive 'em nuts, since it's literally against their religion to count a Jew. And it would finally put to bed this 2% nonsense.
Not to mention the current census controversy over how many illegals constitute congressional redistricting.
the US has gone full-blown nazi
For more than a few of us, that's our prayer.@Fiendly Neighbourhood Terrorist Nope.Yapius the 2nd , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:32 pm GMT
In spite of bans on free speech, which proves that the story is a fraud, rational, scientific Revisionist research has demolished the claims. I mean, that fact IS the reason that free speech on the subject is banned. The absurd narrative does not hold up.
Try me & see.
Also see my comment #10.
Thanks.Can you say dumb? I have beliefs similar to most of the people in this forum, but I would know better than to allow them to appear under my real name, let alone in professional correspondence! You could also be jailed in much of Europe based on such information. Probably also banned from the schengen zone.Hippopotamusdrome , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:32 pm GMT
There are other pieces of forbidden thought and discussion, such as race and IQ. I bet Mr Latson would support those orthodoxies.@exiled off mainstreetSaggy , says: Website July 16, 2019 at 1:39 pm GMT
From my Ph. D. research and seeing survivors with tattoos I am convinced that the Nazi regime did engage in exterminations
Seeing survivors is evidence of extermination. Maybe we have different definitions of the words "survive" and "exterminate".@JohnnyD Finklestein's story is one of the most remarkable .. from this video .Hippopotamusdrome , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:39 pm GMT
Norm Finkelstein, at U of Waterloo
My father was in Auschwitz
My mother was in Majdanek
Every single member of my family, on my father's side and on my mother's side, was exterminated.
Why is the story remarkable? Finklestein was born in 1953 !@The Germ Theory of DiseaseWally , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:41 pm GMT
historians are reliably certain that killer whales were not used to murder Jews
I would advise people not to publicly say this. Just in case it could get them in trouble. You never know.@Genrick Yagoda Indeed.Jacques Sheete , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:42 pm GMT
It's claimed that millions upon millions of human remain exists in allegedly known locations , yet those remain are not there.
Remember, the claim is "6,000,000 Jews & 5,000,000 others". That alleged 11,000,000 is equal to the city of London.
The "Holocau$t Industry" in court:
'Please your honor, there really are remains of millions upon millions buried in huge mass graves, we know where the mass graves are, but, but, well, umm, we can't show the court the human remains. You must trust us, we're Zionists.'
The Rudolf Report / Expert Report on Chemical and Technical Aspects of the 'Gas Chambers' of Auschwitz
http://vho.org/GB/Books/trr/index.html@ZumbuddiJoaoAlfaiate , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:44 pm GMT
If an aeronautics engineer said "from seeing survivor tattoos I am convinced the Nazi regime did engage in exterminations, " he/she would be disqualified from folding paper airplanes.
That piece of "logic" really got my attention as well. I'll be shaking my head over that for quite a while.
PhD my tusch. Heaven help us!" if the current trend to reduce the study of history in schools to easily digestible politically correct soundbites that are being successfully pushed by social justice warriors continues, we will soon be limited to discussing how horrible slavery was, the Stonewall Inn riots and the so-called holocaust. "Jacques Sheete , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:46 pm GMT
You forgot Rosa Parks.@John Regan I guess the "PhD" never knew about the Brit starvation blockades that continued for some time after the fighting stopped, but with the logic displayed above, I doubt even knowing the facts would lead to valid conclusions.Truth3 , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:50 pm GMT
And here we are, with nearly a century of hindsight available!@exiled off mainstreet What an idiot.Jacques Sheete , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:51 pm GMT
Tattoos are not placed on people for any other reason than to identify them, if they are incarcerated. You don't tattoo them if you intend to kill them.
The only ones that "exterminated" Soviet POW's were the Jewish NKVD when they returned home.
The so-called HC can't withstand scientific or logical scrutiny, so these things are criminalized.@Hans Thanks, Hans.Jacques Sheete , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:53 pm GMT
I wonder how long it'll take for that link to get fried!
Filthy sob's!@HolocaustPropagandaSurvivorJacques Sheete , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:58 pm GMT
Giraldi hits the nail on the head every time.
True, and I'm grateful for his persistent hammering. Great stuff.@onebornfreeSparkon , says: July 16, 2019 at 2:00 pm GMT
It's not going to end as long as the current, enforced at-the-point-of-a-gun government run "educational" system exists.
It's worse than that. It won't end until people understand that government is not the messiah, but that will never end because, well, "muh roads !"
Few stop to think beyond dem roadz; my response to "who'll bild dem roadz?" is to ask who'll bomb the children?@Fiendly Neighbourhood TerroristRobert Dolan , says: July 16, 2019 at 2:02 pm GMT
claims on all sides.
I t is the responsibility of the party making the claim to provide the proof.
Nobody can prove a negative.
Show us the bones.The "Never Again" program means that whitey will never again have any power whatsoever, and that jews will rule over humanity forever.Richard B , says: July 16, 2019 at 2:04 pm GMT
That is the jewish final solution to white people.
The nose is destroying all of Christendom to render the world "holocaust-proof" and user friendly for the jewish tribe.
Yes, it's insane.
They are batshit crazy for sure.
To make matters even worse, they fancy that GOD wants them to do this.
It's a bad horror film that we live in.@Counterinsurgency "The Jewish establishment and the various foreigners aren't really the problem. "JayJonahJameson , says: July 16, 2019 at 2:04 pm GMT
Once again, we have the attempt to place Jewish Supremacy Inc. above criticism.
"WW I and WW II stunned the Europeans an European descendants, who have had a sort of PTSD for a three generations now. _That's_ the problem."
It's no coincidence that the denial in the first sentence is followed by an impossible to prove statement in the second sentence.@Nicolás Palacios Navarro My belief is that 2.5 million Jews were killed by the Nazis, whatever the cause. This could still be described as a holocaust. Also, I do agree that there are some issues with the capital "H" Holocaust. Still, there is entirely too much time and energy spent on the subject. There are far more pressing issues these days .Ilya G Poimandres , says: July 16, 2019 at 10:38 pm GMT@Bardon Kaldian Here is the problem:Bardon Kaldian , says: July 16, 2019 at 11:17 pm GMT
Those that do not intentionally peddle lies (they may be wrong, but that is a different issue) discuss things along this line, only dealing with the story:
The intentional deceiver attack along the line:
Who? (within the story)
Who? (with respect to their debating opposite)
Why? (with respect to their debating opposite)
(usually it doesn't get beyond this because the truth seekers debate 'what', don't engage the ad hominem speculation, and one hissy fit return serve later, they are out, but..)
Your whole point is on 'who', there is no counterpoint to Eisenhower's, Churchill's, De-Gaulle's silence on the issue – even though they should have had the info. No discounting the coke shipment statistics for the crematoria, no discussion of ground water levels and the impossibility of burials (or even discarding of bones), no explanation why Germans neither recorded their acts in documentary fashion, or didn't just throw the helpless 6 million off a cliff (the Mongols, Chinese, Turks would have certainly found a cheaper way to kill 6 million), etc, etc.
We, the revisionists, discuss 'what' first, and 'who' somewhere down the line.
Anyone that pokes the speaker first, fears the words of the speaker. Simple. An intelligent person does not fear false information – it is false.@John Regan Sorry,but I've already wasted too much time on this irrelevant issue. 1-2 reposts.Robjil , says: July 17, 2019 at 12:59 am GMT
I do get Jews' obsession with shoah, but I hardly get "denialists'"" stance: this did happen, but is, due to Jewish media influence in Western societies, overblown out of proportion. No one with sane mind in Poland, Hungary, Greece, Ukraine or Russia will deny that many or most Jews were systematically murdered. This is not even the topic. What they would, reasonably, argue with that Jewish nationalists' constant drumming on the theme & emotional blackmail in trying to extort as much money as possible and advance their tribalist interests at the expense of the natives' is simply unacceptable.@Bardon Kaldian All of Central and Eastern Europe was a wreck after WWII. There was mass movements of people of all ethnic groups. The largest mass movement after the war was the German one. It was the largest one in human history. Looking at who was in each nation before the war does not prove any genocide. The Jewish H was a mass movement too.Anon  Disclaimer , says: July 17, 2019 at 1:03 am GMT
14 million Germans were forced to leave their ancestral homes.
Orwell greatly underestimated both the determination and the ambition of the Allied leaders' plans. What neither he nor anybody else knew was that in addition to the displacement of the 7-8 million Germans of the East, Churchill, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin had already agreed to a similar "orderly and humane" deportation of the more than 3 million German-speakers -- the "Sudeten Germans" -- from their homelands in Czechoslovakia. They would soon add the half-million ethnic Germans of Hungary to the list.
Although the governments of Yugoslavia and Romania were never given permission by the Big Three to deport their German minorities, both would take advantage of the situation to drive them out also.
By mid-1945, not merely the largest forced migration but probably the largest single movement of population in human history was under way, an operation that continued for the next five years. Between 12 and 14 million civilians, the overwhelming majority of them women, children and the elderly, were driven out of their homes or, if they had already fled the advancing Red Army in the last days of the war, forcibly prevented from returning to them.
German refugees were put in camps.
From the beginning, this mass displacement was accomplished largely by state-sponsored violence and terror. In Poland and Czechoslovakia, hundreds of thousands of detainees were herded into camps -- often, like Auschwitz I or Theresienstadt, former Nazi concentration camps kept in operation for years after the war and put to a new purpose.
The regime for prisoners in many of these facilities was brutal, as Red Cross officials recorded, with beatings, rapes of female inmates, gruelling forced labour and starvation diets of 500-800 calories the order of the day. In violation of rarely-applied rules exempting the young from detention, children routinely were incarcerated, either alongside their parents or in designated children's camps. As the British Embassy in Belgrade reported in 1946, conditions for Germans "seem well down to Dachau standards."
Death rates were very high for these German refugees in the camps.
Though the death rates in the camps were often frighteningly high -- 2,227 inmates of the Mysłowice facility in southern Poland alone perished in the last ten months of 1945 -- most of the mortality associated with the expulsions occurred outside them.
No trains or cars were used to get these refugees to rump Germany.
Forced marches in which inhabitants of entire villages were cleared at fifteen minutes' notice and driven at rifle-point to the nearest border, accounted for many losses. So did train transports that sometimes took weeks to reach their destination, with up to 80 expellees crammed into each cattle car without adequate (or, occasionally, any) food, water or heating.
No help from Allies even in rump Germany.
The deaths continued on arrival in Germany itself. Declared ineligible by the Allied authorities to receive any form of international relief and lacking accommodation in a country devastated by bombing, expellees in many cases spent their first months or years living rough in fields, goods wagons or railway platforms.
No one knows how many died in these long forced marches.
Malnutrition, hypothermia and disease took their toll, especially among the very old and very young. Although more research is needed to establish the total number of deaths, conservative estimates suggest that some 500,000 people lost their lives as a result of the operation.
Ironically the Nuremberg trials was going on while this happened.
Not only was the treatment of the expellees in defiance of the principles for which the Second World War had professedly been fought, it created numerous and persistent legal complications. At the Nuremberg trials, for example, the Allies were trying the surviving Nazi leaders on charges of carrying out "deportation and other inhumane acts" against civilian populations at the same moment as, less than a hundred miles away, they were engaging in large-scale forced removals of their own.I remember reading that after "Perestroika" the Russian wartime records were released, which showed that more Christians than Jews died at the wartime labour complex that was Austwich.Igor Bundy , says: July 17, 2019 at 7:58 am GMT
(Sorry! I comment so rarely that I forget what name I've commented under in the past. There are so many excellent articals and so many very well informed readers on this site, that I'm honestly a little bit intimidated. I don't have that problem with the Spectator, Telegraph etc. Thank You.teaching non existent history as factual is what made me disbelieve everything I am taught or most things I read. How can I believe anything these days when anything I look deeper into is found to be a fabrication. Instead of the actual victims being helped a few in the minority uses the falsehood to enrich themselves all the while to oppress others and gain an unwarranted leverage against others. This is inequality in the extreme. Punishing the victims and creating new victims all so a few can live a life of luxury and do what they think is their right to be above others.Commentator Mike , says: July 17, 2019 at 10:16 am GMT@Wally Here start with this:Ilyana_Rozumova , says: July 17, 2019 at 11:15 am GMT
"The Ruins of the Gas Chambers: A Forensic Investigation of Crematoriums at Auschwitz I and Auschwitz-Birkenau" by Daniel Keren, Harry W. Mazal and Jamie McCarthy in Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Oxford University Press, Volume 18, Number 1, Spring 2004, pages 68-103.
"A Study of the Cyanide Compounds Content In The Walls Of The Gas Chambers in the Former Auschwitz and Birkenau Concentration Camps" by Jan Markiewicz, Wojciech Gubala, Jerzy Labedz, Z Zagadnien Sqdowych z. XXX, 1994, 17-27.
"Kalkulierte Morde. Die deutsche Wirtschafts-und Vernichtungspolitik in Weissrussland 1941 bis 1944", Gerlach, Christian,Hamburger Edition, HIS Verlag, 1998.
"Besatzungspolitik und Massenmord. Die Einsatzgruppe D in der sudlichen Sowjetunion 1941-1943". Angrick, Andrej, Zeitschrift fur Geschichtswissenschaft, 2004, Jahr 52 Heft 6, pages 576-577. (Occupation Policy and Mass Murder: Einsatzgruppe D in the Southern Soviet Union 1941-1943. Journal of History, Vol. 52 No. 6.)
"Völkerverschiebung und der Mord an den europäischen Juden", Aly, Götz, Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 1998
"Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps", Arad, Yitzhak, Belzec, Sobibor, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1999
"AUSCHWITZ: Technique and operation of the gas chambers", Jean-Claude Pressac, The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1989
"The Struthof-Natzweiler Camp" by Miloslav Bilik
"The Dachau Gas Chambers" by Harry W. Mazal OBE
My Response to Carlo Mattogno, By John C. Zimmerman
Photographs Documenting the Holocaust in Hungary by László Karsai Ph.D https://phdn.org/archives/holocaust-history.org/hungarian-photos/index.htmlTBCMoi , says: July 17, 2019 at 11:22 am GMT
Nobody did mention tuberculosis so I have to do it.
Grim reaper actually during and after war was working mostly with tuberculosis.
There were no X-ray machines in concentration camps, and cibazol did not cure the tuberculosis.
Kafka himself did die of tuberculosis so most probably his two sisters died of it also,
Strangely enough females died of tuberculosis far quicker than males, and also were more susceptible to catch it.@Anthony Aaron True, but PG is wasting his time because the fact is America loves being Jews' bitch.Jacques Sheete , says: July 17, 2019 at 11:22 am GMT@Fran Taubman Shit also happens when you decide you don't want to be subject to International Communism and when your enemies are the largest empires the world had ever seen.Richard B , says: July 17, 2019 at 11:27 am GMT
Also, have a look at Robjil's comment #274.:
In 1933 , when Germany refused to surrender to the world conference of Jews in Amsterdam
Stuff also happens when you attempt to control the world too. (That's a hint.) Now, go read the Protocols.@Counterinsurgency A long-winded, boring and pretentious answer that only goes to further prove my point.Jacques Sheete , says: July 17, 2019 at 12:01 pm GMT@SkeptikalTruth3 , says: July 17, 2019 at 12:12 pm GMT
The genocide of Jews did occur.
Absolute bullshit. Self-serving bullshit in most cases as well. You ought to consider being a little more skeptical.@Fran Taubman Don't these stinking shit Jooz get nasty when they are 'found out'.Truth3 , says: July 17, 2019 at 12:26 pm GMT@Robjil Disgusting that there are so few American Citizens aware of the Jews' malicious nature and overwhelming control of our Country.Patrikios Stetsonis , says: July 17, 2019 at 12:34 pm GMT@renfro In the mid-time in the northen "israeli" city of Afula parks signs have a clear message:Commentator Mike , says: July 17, 2019 at 12:47 pm GMT
"DOGS AND NON- ISRAELIS KEEP OUT"
https://www.rt.com/news/464148-israel-lifts-park-ban-arabs/@Ilya G Poimandres Why, why, why? Why did the Russians allow any Germans to live after what they had done to them? Why do Americans send drones to kill terrorists in Yemen who may or may not have killed US citizens but have not bothered to bring to justice those who attacked USS Liberty? Why didn't the West back the Soviets against Muslims in Afghanistan when now they have to fight those same Muslims there? That kind of reasoning gets you nowhere.Expletive Deleted , says: July 17, 2019 at 1:02 pm GMT@SolontoCroesus The soap fable was merely a retread of WWI British Intelligence atrocity propaganda, disseminated through the Daily Mail , The Times and the like. Beat you to it!Commentator Mike , says: July 17, 2019 at 1:13 pm GMT
"The story described how corpses arrived by rail at the factory, which was placed "deep in forest country" and surrounded by an electrified fence, and how they were rendered for their fats which were then further processed into stearin (a form of tallow). It went on to claim that this was then used to make soap, or refined into an oil "of yellowish brown colour". – 17 April 1917″
Although this was purportedly the beastly Hun rendering his own deceased kameraden into materiel
Anytime a tale like this is put about, guaranteed it's fake and gay.
If desperate, you can make soap out of a number of native European wild plants and shrubs right out of the box, for instance the .. Soapwort. Or even bracken roots, which aren't exactly in short supply. They could have farmed the stuff if they felt like it. Kelp is another, less effective bodywash source.@Bardon Kaldian Holocaust deniers on UR are the funniest people ever. They spend half their time trying to prove that the Jews deserved to be holocausted and the other half denying that Hitler and his Nazis tried to holocaust them. They have no balls to say they deserved it and they got it. So what good was their idol Hitler they praise to high heaven if he couldn't do the main job he claimed he would do? They want a second coming of Hitler to rid us of the Jews when even the first one couldn't do it. How can anyone take them seriously? Good for a laugh and that's about it.Genrick Yagoda , says: July 17, 2019 at 2:29 pm GMT@turtle Many people do not know that at the Irving V Lipstadt trial David Irving produced the records of the Degesh Corporation regarding shipments of Zyklon B. The amount of Zyklon B shipped to Bullschwitz was exactly the same as the non "death camp" of Oranienburg.Fran Taubman , [AKA "Linda"] says: July 17, 2019 at 2:46 pm GMT
In other words, exactly as much as was required for routine fumigation. No where near enough to snuff 4 garillion Jews with bug spray.anon  Disclaimer , says: July 17, 2019 at 2:48 pm GMT
The principal issue that deniers have disputed is the reason the Bauleitung began to build so many new ovens. Historians have long recognized that the extensive building campaign was because the authorities were committing mass murder and wanted an efficient means of disposing of the bodies as well as structures which could be used to gas prisoners. At the time the building began there were two structures in Birkenau which were used for gassing. They were located in the wooded area behind the camp. There was also a gas chamber in the crematorium located in the main camp which housed the six ovens.  Forensic tests done by the Institute For Forensic Research in Cracow, Poland in 1994 found traces of the poisonous hydrocyanic acid in all five crematoria,  consistent with a great deal of eyewitness testimony and other documents from Auschwitz which show that these structures were used as gas chambers.  The two structures in the wooded area were completely destroyed by the Germans and no trace remains. However, as will be seen later on, there is photographic evidence of one of these structures.
Deniers claim that there were no gassings at Auschwitz. They attribute the principal reason for building so many ovens to other factors. In 1977 Arthur Butz, the best known of American deniers, hinted that typhus was a principal reason for building so many new ovens. However, this hint became explicit, and by 1992 he was attributing the typhus epidemic which swept the camp in the summer of 1942 as the reason for the building campaign.  Carlo Mattogno attributes the building campaign to the typhus epidemic and a decision by the camp authorities to greatly expand the population of the camp. 
One of the reasons deniers need to make this argument is that they must find a justification for building so many ovens. This argument also involves the amount of bodies these new ovens could dispose of in a 24 hour period. A report from the Bauleitung in June 1943, after all of the new ovens became operational for at least some period, placed the cremation capacity of all 52 ovens at 4756 per day.  Deniers have not totally agreed among themselves on this issue, but Butz and Mattogno place the cremation capacity at about 1000 per day, or 30,000 per month.  Mattogno claimed the maximum cremation capacity of the six original ovens was 120 per day,  even though he was familiar with evidence from another concentration camp that showed a Topf double muffle oven could burn 52 per day or 26 per muffle. @Nicolás Palacios Navarro "There is more actual documentation and proof of the Armenian Genocide, for example, as a deliberate race/religion-focused act than there is for the Holocaust. "Historicus , says: July 17, 2019 at 5:02 pm GMT
Philip Jenkins, in his book "The Lost History of Christianity: The Thousand-Year Golden Age of the Church in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia–and How It Died," says:
Some months afterward, Polish Jewish lawyer Raphael Lemkin used the cases of the Assyrians, and the Christian Armenians before them, to argue for a new legal category to be called crimes of barbarity, primarily "acts of extermination directed against the ethnic, religious or social collectivities whatever the motive (political, religious, etc.)." Lemkin developed this theme over the following years, and in 1943 he coined a new word for this atrocious behavior – namely, genocide. The modern concept of genocide as a uniquely horrible act demanding international sanctions has its roots in the thoroughly successful movements to eradicate Middle Eastern Christians. Lemkin recognized acutely that such acts might provide an awful precedent for later regimes: as Hitler asked in 1939, "Who, after all, speaks to-day of the annihilation of the Armenians?"@Digital Samizdat "Holocaust" is derived from the Greek word meaning an offering that is entirely consumed by fire. It entered the English language in the 1582 Douay Bible, the first English translation of the New Testament by and for Roman Catholics. The scholars who worked on this groundbreaking work were noted for transliterating into English terms found in the original Latin and Greek texts. Other words first used in our language in this Bible include gratis, victim, and, ironically, that most Protestant of words, evangelize.Rich , says: July 17, 2019 at 8:12 pm GMT@Fran Taubman It's very difficult to face facts that contradict sincerely held beliefs. But you can't argue the physics of the matter. The nazis didn't have the infrastructure to cremate, or gas, that many people. It would be an impossible project. You must also understand that many Germans, Poles, Russians and others lost their whole families, too, don't you? Such is the terrible cost of war. No one is saying many Jews didn't die in WW2, it's just that the holocaust narrative doesn't stand up to vigorous investigation. That's why some countries have passed laws forbidding research into the issue. There would be no reason to forbid research if the truth landed everyone at the accepted narrative.Franklin Ryckaert , says: July 17, 2019 at 8:37 pm GMT@Germanicus Indeed, the burden of the proof is on the accuser. When investigated, the story of the gas chambers, cremations or burnings doesn't stand up. However, millions of Jews were abducted by train and locked up in concentration camps, and did not return . If they were not murdered, then what happened to them? Revisionists have no answer to this legitimate question, and in this case the burden of providing an answer is on them. 100,000 Jews from Holland were abducted, hardly any returned. 400,000 Jews from Hungary were abducted, hardly any returned. If they were not murdered, what became of them?Fran Taubman , [AKA "Linda"] says: July 17, 2019 at 8:50 pm GMT@RichNicolás Palacios Navarro , says: Website July 17, 2019 at 9:01 pm GMT
However, even more incredible was the actions taken by the Nazis between August 19 and September 28 last. Vilkis said that in the middle of August the SS mobilized a party of 100 Russian war prisoners, who were taken to the ravines. On August 19 these men were ordered to disinter all the bodies in the ravine. The Germans meanwhile took a party to a nearby Jewish cemetery whence marble headstones were brought to Babii Yar [sic] to form the foundation of a huge funeral pyre. Atop the stones were piled a layer of wood and then a layer of bodies, and so on until the pyre was as high as a two-story house. Vilkis said that approximately 1,500 bodies were burned in each operation of the furnace and each funeral pyre took two nights and one day to burn completely. The cremation went on for 40 days, and then the prisoners, who by this time included 341 men, were ordered to build another furnace. Since this was the last furnace and there were no more bodies, the prisoners decided it was for them. They made a break but only a dozen out of more than 200 survived the bullets of the Nazi machine guns.
People saw there families disappear before their eyes. Who says that Germany could not perform mass extermination you. If you go on line you can find photos of the outdoor pits with bodies all around. There is a done of evidence. It is not like loosing someone on a fighting front. These people exited a train as a family unit, some walked towards a building with a smoke stack and never came out. Piles of clothes not people. You have to look at this like a human story. Imagine your father disappears at a restaurant. You look and he is no wear to be found. 5 million Jews are missing that is an incontrovertible fact. There are birth certificates and no people.@Fran Taubman So where is the conclusive, definitive, unquestionable truth about this missing "5 million"? Actually, was it not "6 million"? And why is denial of the Holocaust a criminal offense in various Western jurisdictions, but not of the Armenian Genocide, which was perpetrated against a Christian nation and was far better documented?Rich , says: July 17, 2019 at 10:25 pm GMT@Fran Taubman I understand that belief in the holocaust is on par with religious belief, and difficult to question, but do you know how many Russians died in WW2? 27,000,000. That's a lot, no? 9.000.000 Germans died and 6,000,000 Poles. All the people of Central Europe suffered horribly in an unnecessary war. Imagine the poor German child, his father killed at Dresden, the Polish kid who lost his Dad at Katyn, the Russian lad, left fatherless after Stalingrad. All European people suffered from the war. Your people are no different, or more special, than these others. Sorry.turtle , says: July 17, 2019 at 10:34 pm GMT@Germanicus The Israelis prattle on about "terrorists."turtle , says: July 18, 2019 at 12:37 am GMT
They do know about terrorists, alright, since the State of Israel was founded by terrorists and mass murderers, and they have repeatedly elected such to lead their government over the years.
Pot, meet kettle.anonymous  Disclaimer , says: July 18, 2019 at 12:53 am GMT
The allies took away a lot of the files and made use of the results.
Particularly the freezing experiments, as I understand it.
USAF couldn't perform those experiments themselves (not officially, anyway) but were happy to get the data intended for the Luftwaffe.
So what if a few Russian POWs froze to death.
Hell, the evil Commies were our mortal enemies by then, anyhow ('cause We Said So, and Don't You Question It). Strange, how a Valuable and Trusted Ally can turn into Satan Incarnate almost overnight. Devilish, that.@Germanicus How about The Israeli Holocaust Against the PalestiniansFran Taubman , [AKA "Linda Rice"] says: July 18, 2019 at 1:01 am GMT
The criminal zionist jews want this word be used ONLY for the chosen people. Use of this word for others, they think, diminishes their unique case.
Well, many people use this word when they want to expose the zionists' hypocracy.
https://www.timesofisrael.com/before-the-holocaust-ottoman-jews-supported-the-armenian-genocides-architect/@Theodore I tried to find that article in the Jerusalem Post. I saw the book, but could not find the article.mark green , says: July 18, 2019 at 3:55 am GMT
I have listened to a lot of testimony sounds pretty reasonable to me. The way the transports worked the separations at the train station. The building with the somoke stack. The SS telling the people going to the gas building to take off their clothes and that jobs would await for them after showers, and that the people never came out.
Same story over and over almost repetitive. In many different languages.
Claude Lanzman in his movie ShoA did secret recordings where Germans talked about the trains and transports, and knowing what was going on. Also the gassing vans at Chelmmo.
There is a vast amount of information from Jews and Germans. The Nuremberg trials.
You cannot possible deny this part of history and be normal. Most survivors did not witness the actual gassing and crematorium they were sent to the work barracks.
The Sonderkommando the workers have testified. Filip Muller. These people are not lying. They are not. They talk about the back up of the crematoriums
As early as June 13, 1943, all was not well with the new installation. Eventually the ovens seemed to fall apart. Crematorium Four failed completely after a short time and Crematoria Five had to be shut down repeatedly. (TWC, V:624) (Between 1945 and 1962 Polish officials found five manuscripts written by Sonderkommando members before their deaths. The published manuscripts and documents relate to the specific process of extermination at Birkenau, and provide detailed descriptions of the crematoria and gas chambers.)@Hippopotamusdrome Yes, the Nazis killed commies and visa versa. I was referring however to the justice and punishment that was meted out mercilessly after WWII (upon Germany) as well as the stigma, reparations, and shame that is still raining down exclusively on Nazis and their descendents today.Fran Macadam , says: July 18, 2019 at 7:39 am GMT
Ex-commies on the other hand suffer no similar opprobrium and face no financial responsibility for their murderous past.Holocaust denial is intellectually unserious. You might as well try to argue Hitler and the Nazis as a positive good as they unleashed death and destruction on neighboring countries and peoples out of a pagan self worship personified in the Fuhrer's own murderous megalomania. He didn't love Jews, he hated them like some reincarnation of Haman who sought their destruction. And not just the big criminals who incidentally were Jewish, but millions of innocents who weren't the Rothchilds in any way whatsoever.Fran Taubman , [AKA "Linda"] says: July 18, 2019 at 7:40 pm GMT
Now it is true that today some people who weren't among the six million Jewish victims of the Nazis, or among the other gentile six million liquidated by them, either, or even alive at the time, use this abysmal episode in human inhumanity to claim immunity for their own current crimes and to claim profitable victimhood by proxy. Or to claim those who challenge their political agenda are Jew haters and Nazis, a phoney but still somewhat useful libel.
And it's true, as Nicholson Baker's Human Smoke reveals, that there were no clean hands among any nations in the events that triggered the path to World War II, including the rise to power of the duplicitous Nazis.@Mulegino1stone cold , says: July 18, 2019 at 8:50 pm GMT
All Yids[a] of the city of Kiev and its vicinity must appear on Monday, September 29, by 8 o'clock in the morning at the corner of Mel'nikova and Dokterivskaya streets (near the Viis'kove cemetery). Bring documents, money and valuables, and also warm clothing, linen, etc. Any Yids[a] who do not follow this order and are found elsewhere will be shot. Any civilians who enter the dwellings left by Yids[a] and appropriate the things in them will be shot.
-- Order posted in Kiev in Russian, Ukrainian, and German on or around 26 September 1941.
I watched what happened when the Jews -- men, women and children -- arrived. The Ukrainians[b] led them past a number of different places where one after the other they had to give up their luggage, then their coats, shoes and over-garments and also underwear. They also had to leave their valuables in a designated place. There was a special pile for each article of clothing. It all happened very quickly and anyone who hesitated was kicked or pushed by the Ukrainians [sic][b] to keep them moving.
-- Michael Berenbaum: "Statement of Truck-Driver Hofer describing the murder of Jews at Babi Yar"@Fiendly Neighbourhood Terrorist Good 'ol post-modernism creeping into our discussion. There is such a thing as truth as is there the opposite called a lie. Denigrating many fine authors on their Shoah works is certainly not the answer to the eternal question.Commentator Mike , says: July 18, 2019 at 9:28 pm GMT@Jacques Sheete OK, Jaques,FB , says: Website July 19, 2019 at 12:05 am GMT
Here's a brand new science paper, hot off the presses so to speak, for you and Wally to ponder. I haven't read it yet in detail but it must have passed peer review by referees and all that. The paper even presents time series data of the kills. RU may want to look at this paper too as he's got this high regard for high quality academic works . The references at the bottom of the paper may also be useful to those interested in the research, as well as those mentioned in the right hand side bar.
Quantifying the Holocaust: Hyperintense kill rates during the Nazi genocide, Lewi Stone, Sci Adv. 2019 Jan; 5(1)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6314819/@Commentator MikeCommentator Mike , says: July 19, 2019 at 12:22 am GMT
the words of Savitri Davi, a convicted post-war Nazi sympathiser, who in her book "Defiance" mentions that she met a convicted Nazi woman, a former lay Christian sister, in jail who told her that she murdered a whole bunch of children born to compulsory foreign labourers that she was charged to look after in a children's home established on the factory premises of the motor car Volkswagen Werke company.
Thanks for that story and some of the many other very good materials you have presented
To murder a child never mind a bunch of children, is simply pure evil these kinds of deranged and sadistic episodes played out many thousands of times during the reign of terror of the Nazi scum@Robjil You find the dates during 1942 when US and UK were bombing railway lines in Eastern Europe and report them. Yes there was some bombing of Germany but not much further. Most of the heavy bombing campaign came later and mainly targeted the oil facilities in Ploiesti, Romania. As you can see the graph claims most of the Holocaust killings were done during 1942.
Jul 22, 2019 | www.moonofalabama.org
bevin , Jul 22 2019 12:41 utc | 132Russ,
1/Only last week the House of Representatives passed a motion calling on the Federal Government to investigate the possibility that Lyme Disease arose after a biowarfare experiment led to the accidental release of infected ticks into the wild.
2/ Re the mural. Someone very kindly posted a link to an article in a San Fran newspaper which reveals the astonishing stupidity of the campaign against the mural which, of course, has nothing, really to do with artistic merit and is all about preserving hypocrisies.
The notion that First Nations descendants ought to be protected from depictions of the genocide practised against their race is American Hypocrisy of the first water. Ditto the idea that Black people should not be made to endure reminders that their ancestors (or those who did not rape slaves) were kidnapped and enslaved.
It is amazing that those insisting that the murals have the merit of depicting historical realities, too often swept under carpets, are elderly white bigots is idiotic.
On the subject of American Culture see 2 above- from those pretending that Epstein's involvement in prostitution is inexplicable, to those arguing that Venezuela is being attacked and an attempt to install a white dictatorship mounted in order to bring democracy to the country's poor people, to the ID politicos in San Fran who have been responsible, through the politicians they have supported for racist incarceration policies, decades of bloody war and the lowering of living standards and life expectancy throughout the USA-all is Hypocrisy, lies socially imposed.
Jul 22, 2019 | www.moonofalabama.org
William Gruff , Jul 22 2019 11:23 utc | 122Russ @107
Of course America has nothing that could be compared with culture in many other parts of the world. Anything that could provide the present with historical context is erased, bulldozed, or painted over. Even the remaking of "classic" movies is done in part to separate people's sense of the present from America's past. What America has in place of culture is an eternal now , with the past being ephemeral and contingent upon the needs of the narratives of the moment. Iconic American food culture is just ground and pureed mystery protein and carbonated corn syrup water. The consumer doesn't want to know where those come from, and ten minutes after consuming them they have largely forgotten the experience.
Since the Apollo missions are in the news lately I will point out that we should expect an effort in the not too distant future similar to what we are seeing in San Francisco to erase the reality of that part of America's history. After all, the Apollo astronauts were all white men, and that is traumatizing for the feeble-minded neolibs.
But you know, it isn't a bad thing to want to try to develop genuine and historically anchored culture.
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John Andris • 2 hours ago ,commentwars • 7 hours ago ,
Fukuyama a "great scholar"? BahahahahahaBinaj • 2 days ago ,
After the cold war ended in the 1990s the US quickly became the worlds leading police state with mass incarceration, more of its own people in jail and prison then any nation in the history of mankind. Who are we now to preach about freedom to the world ?redeemed626 • 2 days ago ,
When dollar and yanks are gone,peace and prosperity will comeMel Profit • 2 days ago ,
The primary weaknesses of liberal democracy and the capitalist order come from the decisions made by voters and captains of industry. When political and economic freedom create impoverishment, income disparity, racial strife, and nationalist xenophobia, the fruits of a free society die on the vine. I see the Yahoo News elderly guys and the Russian trolls are mystified by this obvious state of world affairs.toucheamigos • 2 days ago • edited ,
One of the silliest pieces TNI has ever published.Znaika toucheamigos • 15 hours ago ,Through our words and deeds, America demonstrates a positive alternative to political and religious despotism
A negative alternative.toucheamigos • 2 days ago ,
The problem is that for many decades american "words" contradict american "deeds", and the whole world can easily see american double standards. That's why american "alternative" is negative, not positive. As an example (one of 100s) we can remember that famous 1939 phrase "Somoza may be a son of a b.., but he's our son of a b..."Gary Sellars toucheamigos • 2 days ago • edited ,
This article shows why America will lose eventually. It sill believes that ideals of human rights and democracy are good.
They are not. As a matter of fact they are source of most evil in this world. America creates its own enemies, so they will never end.Cool2HatE • 2 days ago ,
Institutionalized group-think is the Great Enemy of any Empire. It leads to complacency and a refusal to see the world as it really it, and to view oneself as uniquely gifted and therefore exceptional and eternal.
Eventually this will become the prevailing wisdom in post-hegemony US just as it became so in post-Empire Britain or post-Soviet Russia.Yuki • 3 days ago ,
Lets see, mistakes:
Iraq war, Kosovo war, NATO enlargement, let Russia economy crushed at 90's. Let Libya completely, Syria partially destroyed. Become arrogent see non-western nations low. Etc. etc.
We can tell post cold-war is about "end of freedom commercial" and get real "wild capitalism." China was mis-calculation. They decided to use it as cheap workforce and a not-formal colony which ended surprisingly otherwise.
All above talk is a naive try to turn back "freedom commercial" days. Best thing USA can teach now, how to kill people in every imaginable way.Gary Sellars Yuki • 2 days ago ,
The post Cold War worst mistake of US was the EU enlargement, Russia could have become less paranoid and nationalist and perhaps a more solid democratic culture would have been establishedYuki Gary Sellars • a day ago ,
"Democracy" is simply the rule of a small elite minority of organised people over a much greater majority of disorganised people. Russian "democracy" delivers what its people want to the same degree as US "democracy". In fact, judging by Putins much higher domestic approval numbers that the Trumpster, I'd say it delivers more...toucheamigos Yuki • 2 days ago ,
Democracy" is simply the rule of a small elite minority of organised people over a much greater majority of disorganised people. This is "oligarchy", not "democracy", the regime that is running in Russia,China,NK and similar heavens of dictators.Yuki toucheamigos • a day ago ,
We will never have a democratic culture. We despise that system too much.Gary Sellars • 3 days ago ,
Oh well, no problem if you not like democracy. you can live everyday with police that can arrest you at midnight, like in old Soviet times.Donald Smith Gary Sellars • 3 days ago ,
"The result was an economic boom, a wave of democratization, and victory in an existential struggle against Communism without yet another great-power global war. "
Victory? I assume you guys are aware that the Chinese are Communists?
Surely you didn't think that global completion over ideology and nationhood was resolved in the Cold War? That was just a single geopolitical skirmish, one game in a whole season. It ain't over till it over.... and its ain't done by a long shot.Gary Sellars Donald Smith • 2 days ago • edited ,
"...are Communists?" Labels don't mean anything. They're huge, getting richer, have an historically motivated chip on their shoulder and want to assume the place in the world, particularly Asia, they feel is their due. They are sensitive to their public's opinion That we have a buffoon in charge is certainly an impediment; we're still involved in 'unforced error' wars the last appointed, incurious executive began asWalter Tseng • 3 days ago ,
China is hard to classify in the traditional sense. Its government is what we would call "Communist", but its ruling ethos is essentially Confucianist , its social ideology is Socialist, but it uses market economics, mercantilism and Capitalism to generate wealth and pay for it all.
The Chinese are not fools. They have taken the best aspects of many ideologies and wielded them into a system that seems to work well for them. What Americans might feel about it is utterly superfluous.Begemot • 3 days ago ,
Whether realizing or not, the author, quoting the National Security Strategy report of 2018, ironically described the US to a T when they wrote "For today, the dictator (the US) may be your friend, but tomorrow he will need you as an enemy (China)". & "... (the US) seek lifetime tenure (hegemony), expanding territories (bases) total authority (MAGA) & obedient subjects"!
The philanthropic & much admired champion has grown into an ugly dictator, bending the world to its will through soft & strong power. The global revulsion towards the misuse of hegemonic muscle is what caused the US to lose its place in the Global Order! Simple as that!
To this panglossian peaen to the American imperial system and its promotion of democracy, human freedom and all other nice things against the dark forces represented by those other guys like Russia and China, let us consider a reality of American foreign policy that belies this tripe: US support of Saudi Arabia from 1945 to the present moment. I suggest that if any of what this writer proposes we believe is true about the motives underlying US foreign policy, then the theocratic and medieval regime Saudi Arabia would no longer exist. Yet it continues to exist and is a valued partner of America.
Jul 22, 2019 | www.unz.com
John Regan , says: July 16, 2019 at 3:41 pm GMT@Hippopotamusdrome The Germans themselves estimated that roughly 600,000 Soviet POWs had died as of late February 1942. Here's a link to a document that was translated for the Nuremberg Trials, but apparently wasn't entered into the evidence:Germanicus , says: July 16, 2019 at 10:09 pm GMT
In this document, General von Gravenitz (chief of the Wehrmacht supply services) described the causes of the high mortality like so to Reich Minister Dr. Goebbels:
Furthermore, the OKW counts 1,900,000 Soviet Prisoners of War in the zones of interior and in other occupied areas. As of 1 February 1942, the OKW, according to their tabulation, had available 685,000 Soviet Prisoners of war, and of those 323,000 were present in the Reich. He gave the following reasons for the high mortality: In the great "Kessel" (kettle) battles, the Soviets were contained up to 22 days without any supplies whatsoever. The German armies stormed forward, covering incredibly large distances. The German supply services could bring up to the front only the most necessary ammunitions and living necessities of the fighting troops. Thus, it would have been necessary to feed the Soviet Prisoners of War from supplies of the countryside . However, these supplies had been totally destroyed by the Soviets during their flight-like retreats. The early and abnormal winter did the rest.
In other words, the Soviet scorched earth tactics destroyed the food supplies the Germans had planned to feed the Soviet prisoners with. So then they starved. No genocidal intent was needed. In fact, later in the same document it says:
He [still General Gravenitz] quoted the order of the Fuehrer of September 1941 to the effect that Soviet Prisoners of War should be kept in condition to enable them to work .
Hitler, who according to the politically correct among our historians wanted to have a genocide of all Russians, just because he was a horrible racist, actually ordered his army that they should be fed adequately. Unless this top ranking German general was lying to Goebbels in their top secret conference.
So in the end, as I already wrote, it's still true that great numbers of Soviet POWs did die in the winter of 1941/42, and that IS and remains a great tragedy. But again, hundreds of thousands of Axis soldiers on the Eastern Front also died in this same period, and even modern politically correct historians don't claim that Hitler made his own soldiers a target of genocide. They died because adequate food, fuel, housing and medical care simply wasn't available when the German logistics system had almost collapsed under the impact of the Russian winter.@Truth3 I would encourage to research the Polish Typhus epidemic of 1916-1919.
It gives more context, because typhus had occurred in eastern Europe way before WWII, the Soviet "revolution" was the starting point of this epidemic.
In this context, the Patton diary also sheds some light on the hygiene of the eastern European jews from the Shtetls. And yeah, its embarrassing for the Jews, but they have not changed much in that regard. Ie jewish females are forbidden to clean themselves during menstruation period in some of the jewish circles.
A little research on Ellis Island and its function as decontamination island before entering NY is also highly informative. They used Zyklon B as well to disinfect clothes and people. There is even film footage of Ellis Island on the internet, showing immigrants getting fumigated with Zyklon.
Furthermore, the US also operated gas tunnels to disinfect trains.
The sad truth is, Zyklon B was used to save lives.
If Germany wanted to kill all the inmates of the camps, they would have just locked the camps up and had them die of Typhus.
Btw, Auschwitz had only ~40% jewish inmates, the Auschwitz death records revealed it after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It also revealed births in the camps.
Zyklon was used to fight the Typhus epidemic, which could otherwise spread uncontrolled.
Typhus carrying lice do not care what belief a human has before biting and infecting the human. These lice travel far with animals and humans.
Typhus is a danger to ground water and everything, ie you cannot bury typhus infected corpses near settlements, it would contaminate the water supply, hence cremation.
Jul 22, 2019 | www.unz.com
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Myth and the Russian Pogroms Part One: Russia's Jewish Question Part Two: The Jewish Narrative The 'Atrocities' Part Three: Anti-Jewish Riots in the Russian Empire Before 1880 NotesList of Bookmarks
The anti-Jewish riots, or "pogroms" of late 19th-century Russia represent one of the most decisive periods in modern Jewish, if not world, history. Most obviously, the riots had demographic implications for western countries – around 80% of today's western Diaspora Jews are descendants of those Jews who left Russia and its environs during the period 1880–1910. But perhaps the most lasting legacy of the period was the enhancement of Jewish "national self-awareness," and the accelerated development of "modern, international Jewish politics." [A1] John Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011) p.xiii.
The pogroms themselves have consistently been portrayed by (mainly Jewish) historians as "irrational manifestations of hatred against Jews," [A2] Jack Glazier, Dispersing the Ghetto: The Relocation of Jewish Immigrants Across America (New York: Cornell University Press, 1998) p.9. where peasant mobs were the unwitting dupes of malevolent Russian officials. Other explanations are so lacking in evidence, and so devoid of logic that they stretch credulity to breaking point. For example, University of British Columbia Professor, Donald G. Dutton has asserted that the mobs were not motivated by "the sudden rapid increase of the Jewish urban population, the extraordinary economic success of Russian Jews, or the involvement of Jews in Russian revolutionary politics" but rather by the "blood libel." [A3] Donald Dutton, The Psychology of Genocide, Massacres and Extreme Violence (New York: Prager, 2007 ) p.40
Little or no historiography has been dedicated to peeling back the layers of "refugee" stories to uncover what really happened in the Russian Empire in the years before and during the riots. This lack of historical enquiry can be attributed at least in part to a great reluctance on the part of Jewish historians to investigate the pogroms in any manner beyond the merely superficial. In addition, historical enquiry by non-Jewish historians into the subject has been openly discouraged. For example, when Ukrainian historians discovered evidence proving that contemporary media reports of Jewish casualties in that nation were exaggerated, the Jewish genealogy website 'JewishGen,' responded by stating: "We believe that [these facts] are more than irrelevant because it redirects public attention from the major topic: the genocidal essence of pogroms."
It should suffice to state here that this response contravenes the very essence of historical enquiry – to uncover history as it actually happened, irrespective of the uncomfortable truths which may lie therein. The statement could be translated as "Let's not let the facts get in the way of a good story." Also, as this paper will show, the tendency to portray the riots as "genocidal" is completely lacking in foundation. University of California Los Angeles Professor of Sociology, Michael Mann, has provided substantial evidence indicating that "most perpetrators did not conceive of removing Jews altogether." [A4] Michael Mann, The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005) p.142.
JewishGen's allusion to genocide should also be seen as part of a broader problem in modern Jewish historiography. Rather than seeing the pogroms as products of specific local circumstances, in which Jews would play at least an implicit role, there has been a tendency to use them for comparative purposes. John Klier states that when used in a comparative sense, "examples are drawn almost exclusively from the 20th century, and these events are then read back into the earlier period of 1881–2," making any objective historical enquiry difficult, and implying the presence of some non-existent 'pan-European' malaise in anti-Jewish actions.
Nonetheless, this series of essays will seek to peel back the myths, to tease a few threads of truth from the veil which covers these events. Encouragingly, some work has already begun in this respect. I.M. Aronson's assertion that the pogroms were "planned or encouraged to one degree or another, by elements within the government itself," [A5] I.M. Aronson, 'Geographical and Socioeconomic factors in the 1881 Anti-Jewish Pogroms in Russia,' Russian Review , Vol.39, No.1 (Jan. 1980) p.18. has been dealt a death blow in recent years through the concerted work of a small number of non-Jewish historians, mostly notably, University College London's Professor of Hebrew and Jewish Studies, John Doyle Klier. In his 2005 work, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881–2 , Klier asserts that "contemporary research has dispelled the myth that Russian officials were responsible for instigating, permitting, or approving the pogroms." [A6] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.xiv.
This series of essays will attempt to move further, adhering to the belief that the facts of the events remain paramount to historical enquiry rather than being a 'distracting' irrelevance. The series will begin with an explanation of the origins of Russia's "Jewish Question." Subsequent articles will concern the pogroms themselves and how myth and exaggeration have plagued our conception of them. Finally, I will examine why these myths were developed, and the broader implications of the prevalence of myth in Jewish 'history.'Part One: Russia's Jewish Question
In 1772 the Russian Empire orchestrated the first partition of Poland, "erasing from the geopolitical map of Europe a large kingdom, which in the seventeenth century had extended over broad areas between Prussia and southern Ukraine." [A7] Israel Bartal, The Jews of Eastern Europe: 1772-1881 , (Tel Aviv, Ministry of Defence, 2005) p.23. Significantly, in doing so, the Russian Empire also oversaw "the dissolution of the largest Jewish collective in the world." [A8] Ibid, p.24.
(Israel Bartal, The Jews of Eastern Europe: 1772-1881 , (Tel Aviv, Ministry of Defence, 2005) p.23.) Polish Jewry was divided into three parts – those in Posen came under the sovereignty of Prussia, those in Galicia came under the sovereignty of Austria, and those in Poland proper came under the sovereignty of the Russian Empire. [A9] Israel Friedlander, The Jews of Russia and Poland , (New York: G.P. Putnam, 1915), p.84. In Poland proper, the Polish public turned in on itself, searching frantically for the reasons for the ruin of the nation, and in doing so, states Israel Friedlander, "the Jewish problem could not but force itself on its attention." [A10] Ibid.
(Israel Friedlander, The Jews of Russia and Poland , (New York: G.P. Putnam, 1915), p.84.)
Investigations carried out by special committees discovered that in the decades prior to partition, Polish Jewry had enjoyed a demographic explosion, with Jews now representing almost 20% of the entire population. In addition, it was discovered that Jews controlled a full 75% of Polish exports, and that many were now spilling out of over-populated urban centres into the countryside, making a living by monopolising the sale of liquor to peasants. [A11] Ibid, p.85.
(Israel Friedlander, The Jews of Russia and Poland , (New York: G.P. Putnam, 1915), p.84.) By 1774, complaints were reaching Russian officials from non-Jewish merchants who argued that Jewish ethnic networking was propping up the monopoly of exports, and that this monopoly would shortly have dire implications for the consumer. [A12] Simon Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland , (Bergenfield: Avontayu, 2000), p.173 These revelations were the key motivating factors in the decision to expel Warsaw's Jews in 1775, and until the early 19 th century there was a kind of stand-off between Poles and Jews. [A13] Ibid.
(Simon Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland , (Bergenfield: Avontayu, 2000), p.173) Napoleon's establishment of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807 did little to alter the situation, as Napoleon acceded to local sentiment which held that Jews should not feel the benefit of the new constitution until they had "eradicated their peculiar characteristics." [A14] Ibid, p.87.
(Simon Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland , (Bergenfield: Avontayu, 2000), p.173) In 1813, the government of the Duchy moved to break the Jewish monopoly on liquor, banning all Jews from selling alcohol in the villages, bringing an end to the activity of "tens of thousands" of Jewish liquor merchants in the provinces. Not surprisingly, when the Duchy was dissolved in 1815 following Napoleon's failed attempt to invade Russia, Polish Jewry shed no tears.
In late 1815, the Congress of Vienna was held. The aim of the congress was to give its assent to the formation of a new autonomous Polish kingdom under the sovereignty of Russia. Although the bulk of Polish Jewry remained within the newly established kingdom, tens of thousands also poured forth into other areas of the Russian Empire, ushering in an uncomfortable age of fraught Russian-Jewish relations. The immediate reaction of the Russian government to the acquisition of such large, and unwanted, Jewish populations was to prevent the penetration of these populations from intrusion into the old Russian territories, and the solution reached was one of containment. A new kind of settlement was created in provinces along the western frontier, and it became known as the "Pale of Settlement." Although a large amount of negative connotations have been attributed to the Pale, it was not an impermeable fortress. Certain Jews were permitted to reside outside these provinces, they could visit trade fairs, and Jews were even permitted to study at Russian universities provided they did not exceed quotas. By 1860, more than half of world Jewry resided in the Pale.
Following the Congress of Vienna, wherever Jews resided in the Russian Empire, they overwhelmingly "served in a variety of middleman roles." In some cities, "the Jewish mercantile element was numerically superior to the Christian," and there was a gradual move towards the reacquisition of the liquor trade. [A15] Simon Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland , (Bergenfield: Avontayu, 2000), p.173 According to Klier, by 1830 Belorussian Jews were found to be "totally dominating trade" in that country. [A16] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) p.4. It was largely Klier's work in the late 1980s which began to truly shed light on the origins of Russian-Jewish relations prior to 1914. Klier, born into a Catholic family in Kansas, "rejected what might be called the Fiddler on the Roof pieties and simplifications. In book after book, he emphasised that what the tsars and their ministers wanted, above all else, was for the Jewish settlements to be orderly and productive." [A17] http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2007/oct/26/guardian...uaries Klier further stressed that the much-maligned Pale of Settlement was simply the only response that the Russian administration could come up with, faced as they were with the "baffling question" of how to deal with the "fanaticism of ultra-Orthodox Jewry" which was thoroughly "unassimilable to official purposes." [A18] http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2007/oct/26/guardian...uaries
In 1841, investigations were carried out into Russia's Jewish communities, and the subsequent reports pointed to three significant problems. The first was persistent Jewish difference in dress, language, and religious and communal organization. The idea underpinning this aloofness from non-Jewish society, the 'Chosen' status of the Jews and an accompanying ethnic chauvinism, was said to be particularly harmful to Jewish-Gentile relations, particularly when it was reinforced through "a system of male education that was thought to inculcate anti-Christian interpretations of the Talmud." [A19] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.3. The second, related, problem was that Jewish economic practices were also rooted in this aloofness. The Talmud "encouraged and justified unreserved economic exploitation based on cheating and exploiting the non-Jews," [A20] Ibid.
(Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.3.) in a validation of Max Weber's theory of 'internal' and 'external' ethics, whereby "members of a cohesive social unit observe different moral standards among themselves compared with those observed in relation to strangers." [A21] Jacob Katz, Exclusiveness and Tolerance: Jewish-Gentile Relations in Medieval and Modern Times (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962) p.56. The third aspect of the Russian 'Jewish Question,' was the issue of Jewish loyalty. The Jews of the Russian Empire had evidently retained the kahal of pre-partition Polish Jewry. The kahal was a formal system of Jewish communal leadership and government, entirely separate from the Russian state. Although tacitly tolerated by the state for its tax collection capabilities, Jewish loyalty to the kahal was absolute, going beyond the merely fiscal. Almost all Jews continued to resort to Jewish courts.
John Klier states that following these revelations, "state and society shared a consensus that Jews could be – and must be – reformed and transformed into good subjects of the realm." [A22] Ibid.
(Jacob Katz, Exclusiveness and Tolerance: Jewish-Gentile Relations in Medieval and Modern Times (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962) p.56.) Under Emperor Alexander I (1801–25) there had been attempts to encourage Jews to pursue more productive economic activities. Generous concessions were made to Jews in the hope that they would abandon their middleman roles, as well as the distilleries and taverns of the provinces, and take up work in agricultural colonies. Klier states that the "embeddedness of the Jews in the economic and social life of the imperial borderlands ensured that despite legislative initiatives, Jewish economic life remained largely unchanged." [A23] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.4
In 1844, under Nicholas I, the Russian government began a program of reforms and legislation designed to break down Jewish exclusivity and incorporate the nation's Jews more fully into Russian society. Not surprisingly, the government first took aim at the kahal , banning it as "an illegal underground structure." [A24] Ibid.
(Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.4) The significance of the banning of the kahal went beyond tackling the issue of Jewish loyalty. The mutual assistance offered by the kahal was felt to have had economic implications – "it was the mutual support provided by the kahal that ensured that Jews were more than a match for any competitor, even the arch-exploiter of the Russian village, the kulak." [A25] Ibid.
(Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.4) The civil rights of any "Jews who were perceived to be engaged in productive undertakings" were extended, though there were few takers. Nicholas I even conceived of, and supported, the establishment of state-financed Jewish schools, in the hope that such establishments would lead to the development of a more progressive and integrative Russian Jewry. Unfortunately for Nicholas, what his system produced was a cadre of Jewish intellectuals profoundly hostile to the state.
Emperor Alexander II continued the efforts of Mother Russia to gather in her Jews. He abolished serfdom in 1861. He relaxed efforts to change the economic profile of Russian Jewry, extending the rights of educated Jews and large-scale merchants. His was a program aimed at reconciliation, an abandonment of the stick in favour of the carrot. Education was made fully open to Jews, and Jews could sit on the juries of Russian courts. Conditions on settlement and mobility in the Pale were relaxed further. Klier states that "Jews even became the subject of sympathetic concern for the leaders of public opinion. Proposals for the complete emancipation of the Jews were widely mooted in the press." [A26] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.5
These measures, however, were also accompanied by a growing uneasiness with the way the Jews of Russia took advantage of them. There was little in the way of gratitude, and the measures did not bring about the great changes that had been hoped for. The nationalist revolt of the Poles in 1863, and the fact that a large number of wealthy Jews were found to have funded some of the rebels cast new doubts on Jewish loyalty. Having emancipated the peasantry and adopted a paternalistic concern for the former serfs, the government also viewed with alarm the rapidity with which the "Jews were exploiting the unsophisticated and ignorant rural inhabitants, reducing them to a Jewish serfdom." [A27] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.5 It also quickly became apparent that despite new military legislation, Jews were noticeable in their overwhelming avoidance of military service. In retaliation, the government clamped down on rural tavern ownership, and introduced more stringent recruitment procedures specifically for Jews. It has been claimed that Jews were also banned from land ownership at this time, but Klier provides evidence that Jews were still able to buy any peasant properties sold at auction for tax arrears, as well as any property within the Pale not owned by Russian gentry. [A28] Ibid.
(Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.5)
By the end of Alexander II's reign, disillusionment with the government's policy at handling the Jewish Question was widespread. The vast majority of Jews had stubbornly persisted in the unproductive trades, continued in their antipathy to Russian culture, and refused to make any meaningful contribution to Russian society. An air of resignation swept the country. Some newspapers even advocated abolishing the Pale, if only to alleviate that region from bearing the burden of the Jews alone. Other papers opposed this "fearing for the welfare of the peasantry at a time when the cultural level of the peasantry made them an easy target for exploitation." [A29] Ibid, p.6
(Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.5) Meanwhile Jews were beginning to swamp higher education establishments. In Odessa, there were reports that in school after school, Jews were "driving Christians from the school benches," and "filling up the schools." [A30] Ibid.
(Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.5)
On the eve of the assassination of Alexander II, Russia's Jewish Question remained unanswered. Decades of legislation had done little to change the nature of Russian Jewry, which remained ethnically, politically, and culturally homogenous. The new Jewish intelligentsia had turned on the hand that fed it, failing to encourage the adaptation of their fellow Jews, moving instead to defend them and advocate for their interests. In terms of educational and social opportunities, Jews had been given an inch and taken a mile. They had swamped the schools, and added to a group of emergent Jewish capitalists. In 1879 Russian authorities were being lobbied by a Rabbinic Commission for full emancipation, an ominous prospect for those concerned about the well-being of Russian peasantry.
The breaking point, when it came, did not emerge from the ether, but from this historical background. In part two we will examine the more immediate origins of the anti-Jewish riots and how the riots proceeded. We will do away with petty distractions, dispelling myths with facts; and as we venture into the Pale, we now do so with a more complete view of the Jew we find there.Part Two: The Jewish Narrative
Having grounded ourselves in the history of Russia's Jewish Question, it is now time for us to turn our attention to the anti-Jewish riots of the 1880s. The following essay will first provide the reader with the standard narrative of these events advanced by Jewish contemporaries and the majority of Jewish historians -- a narrative which has overwhelmingly prevailed in the public consciousness. The latter half of the essay will be devoted to dissecting one aspect of the Jewish narrative, and explaining how events really transpired. Other aspects of the Jewish narrative will be examined in later entries in this series. While a work like this can come in for heavy criticism from certain sections of the population who may denounce it as 'revisionist,' I can only say that 'revisionism' should be at the heart of every historical work. If we blindly accept the stories that are passed down to us, we are liable to fall victim to what amounts to little more than a glorified game of Chinese whispers. And, if we taboo the right of the historian to reinterpret history in light of new research and new discoveries, then we have become far removed from anything resembling true scholarship.
In 1881 the 'Russo-Jewish Committee,' (RJC) an arm of Britain's Jewish elite, mass-produced a pamphlet entitled "The Persecution of the Jews in Russia," and began disseminating it through the press, the churches, and numerous other channels. By 1899, it was embellished and published as a short book, and today digitized copies are freely available online. [B1] http://archive.org/stream/persecutionofjew00russ By the early 20th century, the pamphlet had even spawned a four-page journal called Darkest Russia – A Weekly Record of the Struggle for Freedom , ensuring that the average British citizen did not go long without being reminded of the 'horrors' facing Russian Jews. [B2] Max Beloff, The Intellectual in Politics: And other essays , (London: Taylor and Francis, 1970) p.135 The fact that these publications were mass produced should provide an indication as to their purpose: It is clear that these publications represented one of the most ambitious propaganda campaign in Jewish history, and combined with similar efforts in the United States, they were aimed at gaining the attention of, and 'educating,' the Western nations and ensuring the primacy of the 'Jewish side of the story.' Implicit in this was not only a desire to provoke anti-Russian attitudes, but also copious amounts of sympathy for the victimized Jews -- sympathy necessary to ensure that mass Jewish chain migration to the West went on untroubled and unhindered by nativists. After all, wasn't the bigoted nativist just a step removed from the rampaging Cossack?
The first element of the narrative advanced by the RJC is essentially a manipulation of the history of Russian-Jewish relations. It holds that the Jews of Eastern Europe have been oppressed for centuries, their whole lives "hampered, from cradle to grave, by restrictive laws." [B3] The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.3. It was claimed that the Russians had an unwritten law: "That no Russian Jew shall earn a living." [B4] Ibid, p.4
( The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.3.) Russian Jews, according to the Russo-Jewish Committee, have wanted nothing more than to participate in Russian society, but have been rebuffed time and again as "heretics and aliens." The Pale is an impenetrable fortress, where every Jew "must live and die." Implicit in this interpretation of the history of Russian-Jewish relations in the belief that "the fount and origin of all the ills that assail Russian Jewry" has nothing to do with the Jews themselves, but everything to do with the Church, the State, and the Pale. In essence, the plight of the Jews was the result of nothing more than irrational hatred. Jews adopt a meek and passive role in this narrative, having committed no wrong-doing other than being Jews. They are also presented as the only victims of Russian violence. There is no acknowledgement of failed Russian efforts to break down the Jewish walls of exclusivity and claim the Jews as brothers. In fact, there is no reference at all to the walls of exclusivity. The pogroms themselves, according to the Jewish narrative, broke out following the assassination of Alexander II, when shock, anger and a desire for revenge brought this irrational, rootless hatred to the surface.
The second element of the Jewish narrative is that the government and petty officialdom had some role to play in organizing and directing the pogroms. Much disdain is heaped on the government, and petty officialdom, which was said to have been afflicted with "a chronic anti-Semitic outlook." It was claimed that when the riots began, the government was "not altogether sorry to let the excitement of the people vent itself on the Jews." [B5] The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.5 In reference to the restrictive May Laws, the authors were forced to concede they had never really been enforced, but maintained that "whether moderately or rigorously applied, the May Laws still remained on the Russian Statute Book." [B6] Ibid, p.8
( The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.5)
The third element of the Jewish narrative is that the pogroms were genocidal, and that they had been organized and perpetrated by groups seeking the extermination of the Jews. The 1899 edition of "The Persecution of the Jews in Russia" included a copy of a lengthy letter written to the London Times by Nathan Joseph, Secretary of the RJC, dated November 5th, 1890. In the letter, Joseph claimed that in the present circumstances "hundreds of thousands could be exterminated," [B7] Ibid, p.36
( The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.5) and that Russian legislation in relation to Jews represented "an instrument of torture and persecution." In sum, the Jews of Russia were claimed to be living under "a sentence of death," and it was further claimed that "the executions are proceeding." The letter ends with an appeal to "Civilized Europe" to intervene, chastise Russia, and aid the victimized Jews. [B8] Ibid, p.38.
( The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.5)
The fourth key element of the Jewish narrative is that the pogroms were extremely violent in nature. Contemporary media reports especially were the source of most of the atrocity stories, reportedly gleaned from newly-arrived 'refugees' who had given statements to the Russo-Jewish Committee about the pogroms they had fled. In these reports, which were carried very regularly by both the New York Times and the London Times , Russians were charged with having committed the most fiendish atrocities on the most enormous scale. Every Jew in the Russian Empire was under threat. Men had been ruthlessly murdered, tender infants had been dashed on the stones or roasted alive in their own homes. During a British parliamentary consultation on the pogroms in 1905, a Rabbi Michelson claimed that "the atrocities had been so fiendish that they could find no parallel even in the most barbarous annals of the most barbarous peoples." [B9] Anthony Heywood, The Russian Revolution of 1905: Centenary Perspectives (New York: Routledge, 2005) p.266. The New York Times reported that during the 1903 Kishinev pogrom "babes were literally torn to pieces by the frenzied and bloodthirsty mob." [B10] "Jewish Massacre Denounced," New York Times , April 28, 1903, p.6
A common theme in most contemporary atrocity stories was the brutal rape of Jewish women, with most reports including mention of breasts being hacked off. There are literally thousands of carbon-copy reports in which it is claimed that mothers were raped alongside their daughters. There is simply not enough space to cite extensively from these articles, but they number in their thousands and are available to anyone with access to the digitized archives of any major newspaper, or the microfilm facilities at major libraries. In addition, these articles claim that whole streets inhabited by Jews had been razed, and the Jewish quarters of towns had been systematically fired.
The 'atrocity' aspect of the narrative has continued to be advanced by Jewish historians. For example Anita Shapira, in her Stanford-published, Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948 , claims that "each series of new riots was worse than the one preceding, as if every bloodbath provided a permit for an even worse massacre." [B11] Anita Shapira, Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999), p.35 Shapira further hints that the murder of Jewish babies was common during the pogroms, stating that a common worry of Russian Jews was "Will they take pity on the small babies, who do not even know yet that they are Jews?" [B12] Ibid, p.34.
(Anita Shapira, Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999), p.35) She concludes one particular section on pogrom violence by stating, without referencing any evidence, that there were "numerous acts of rape," and that "many were massacred -- men, women, and children. The cruelty that marked these killings added a special dimension to the feeling of terror and shock that spread in their wake." [B13] Ibid.
(Anita Shapira, Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999), p.35) Joseph Brandes, in his 2009 Immigrants to Freedom alleges, without citing evidence, that mobs "threw women and children out of the windows" of their homes, and that "heads were battered with hammers, nails were driven into bodies, eyes were gouged out and petroleum was poured over the sick found hiding in cellars and they were burned to death." [B14] Joseph Brandes, Immigrants to Freedom , (New York: Xlibris, 2009) p.171
Another crucial element to the Jewish narrative is that Russia is barbaric, ignorant, and uncivilized compared to the Jewish citizens of the country. Russia is said to be lingering in the "medieval stage of development," [B15] The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.4 and in comparison to the "ignorant and superstitious peasantry," [B16] The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.30 Russia's Jews are presented as an outpost of Western civilization -- they are urban, and "intellectual." The RJC publication argued that university quotas allowing 5% of the student body to be made up of Jews were insufficient for "an intellectual race." Astonishingly, it is claimed that "the root of the whole matter is racial arrogance," [B17] Ibid.
( The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.30) though this arrogance of course is said to emanate from the Russians.
The RJC charged the government with criminal sympathy, the local authorities generally with criminal inaction, and some of the troops with active participation. The situation, they argued, was simply so hopeless and the possibility of extermination was so great, that the only way out was for the civilized nations of the West to throw open their doors and let in these poor 'Hebrews'.
And to a great extent this is exactly what the churches, the politicians, and the media agreed to. This capitulation to manipulated conscience ushered in the greatest migration in Jewish history, with profound consequences for us all. But there was just one small problem -- the vast majority of this narrative was a calculated, designed, and expertly promoted fraud, furthered by the willing participation of Russian-Jewish emigrants who wished to ease their own access to the West and obtain "relief money from Western Europe and America." [B18] Albert Lindemann, Esau's Tears: Modern Anti-Semitism and the Rise of the Jews (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997) p.291.The 'Atrocities'
Let us first turn our attention to the atrocity stories. Prior to any major reports of violence, the British public was already being primed to hate the Russian government and accept the Jewish narrative. John Doyle Klier points out that the Daily Telegraph was at that time Jewish-owned, and was particularly "severe" in its reports on Russian treatment of Jews prior to 1881. [B19] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.399 In the pages of this publication, it was stated that "these Russian atrocities are only the beginning. [T]he Russian officials themselves countenance these barbarities." [B20] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.399) Around this time in Continental Europe, Prussian Rabbi Yizhak Rülf established himself as an "intermediary" between Eastern Jewry and the West, and, according to Klier, one of his specialities was the spreading of "sensationalized accounts of mass rape." [B21] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.399)
Other major sources of pogrom atrocity stories were the New York Times , the London Times , and the Jewish World . It would be the Jewish World which furnished the majority of these tales, having sent a reporter "to visit areas that had suffered pogroms." [B22] Ibid, p.400
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.399) Most of the other papers simply reprinted what the Jewish World reporter sent them. The atrocity stories carried by these newspapers provoked global outrage. There were large-scale public protests against Russia in Paris, Brussels, London, Vienna, and even in Melbourne, Australia. However, "it was in the United States that public indignation reached its height." Historian Edward Judge states that the American public was spurred on by reports of "brutal beatings, multiple rapes, dismemberment of corpses, senseless slaughter, painful suffering and unbearable grief." [B23] Edward Judge, Easter in Kishinev: Anatomy of a Pogrom (New York: New York University Press, 1993) p.89.
However, as John Klier states, the reports of the Jewish World 's "Special Correspondent," "raise intriguing problems for the historian." [B24] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400 While his itinerary of travel is described as "plausible," most of his accounts are "flatly contradicted by the archival record." [B25] Ibid, p.401
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400) His claim that twenty rioters were killed during a pogrom in Kishinev in 1881 has been proven to be a fabrication by records which show that in that city, at that time, "there were no significant pogroms and no fatalities." [B26] Ibid
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400) Other claims that he witnessed shootings of peasants on his travels have been entirely discredited due to the vast number of minor inaccuracies in those accounts.
Furthermore, Klier states that the atrocity stories compiled by the Jewish World correspondent, which went on to be so influential in manipulating Western perceptions of the events, must be treated with "extreme caution." [B27] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400) The reporter "portrayed the pogroms dramatically, as great in scale and inhuman in their brutality. He reported numerous accounts where Jews were burned alive in their homes while the authorities looked on." [B28] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400) There are hundreds of instances where he references the murder of children, the mutilation of women, and the biting off of fingers.
Klier states that "the author's most influential accounts, given their effect on world opinion, were his accounts of the rape and torture of girls as young as ten or twelve." [B29] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400) In 1881 he reported 25 rapes in Kiev, of which five were said to have resulted in fatalities, in Odessa he claimed 11, and in Elizavetgrad he claimed 30. [B30] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400) Rape featured prominently in the reports, not because rapes were common, but because rape "even more than murder and looting" was known to "generate particular outrage abroad." Klier states that "Jewish intermediaries who were channelling pogrom reports abroad were well aware of the impact of reports of rape, and it featured prominently in their accounts." [B31] Ibid, p.12
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400) The two most dramatic and gruesome accounts came from Berezovka and Borispol. In fact, as the year neared its end, the reports became more and more gruesome and brutal in the details they conveyed.
There is, of course, a reason for this. As the non-Jewish public began to tire of the reports and switched their minds to the coming Christmas festivities, Klier states that records show the RJC made a conscious and calculated decision to "keep Russian Jewry before the eyes of the public." [B32] Ibid, p.404
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400) A key component of this strategy was to take the accounts of the Special Correspondent and publish them in a more widely circulated and respected newspaper. They settled on the London Times , which was already predisposed to "critical editorial faulting of the Russian government." Klier further states that these evidently false reports "garnished with the prestige of The Times and devoid of any attribution, subsequently published as a separate pamphlet, and translated into a variety of European languages became the definitive Western version of the pogroms." [B33] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400)
As increasingly lurid atrocity tales again captured the attention of the Gentile public, the British Government found itself under pressure to intervene. The British Government, however, adopted a more cautious approach and undertook its own independent investigations into events in the Russian Empire. Its findings, published as a "Blue Book," "presented an account of events at great variance with that offered by The Times ." [B34] Ibid, p.405. ( Correspondence Respecting the Treatment of Jews in Russia, Nos. 1 and 2, 1882, 1883)
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400) The most notable aspect of the independent inquiry is the outright denial of mass rape. In January 1882, Consul-General Stanley objected to all of the details contained within reports published by The Times , mentioning in particular the unfounded "accounts of the violation of women." [B35] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405 He further stated that his own investigations revealed that there had been no incidences of rape during the Berezovka pogrom, that violence was rare, and that much of the disturbance was restricted to property damage. In relation to property damage in Odessa, Stanley estimated it to be around 20,000 rubles, and rejected outright the Jewish claim that damage amounted to over one million rubles.
Vice-Consul Law, another independent investigator, reported that he had visited Kiev and Odessa, and could only conclude that "I should be disinclined to believe in any stories of women having been outraged in those towns." [B36] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405) Another investigator, Colonel Francis Maude, visited Warsaw and said that he could "not attach any importance" to atrocity reports emanating from that city. [B37] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405) At Elizavetgrad, instead of whole streets being razed to the ground, it was discovered that a small hut had lost its roof. It was further discovered that very few Jews, if any, had been intentionally killed, though some died of injuries received in the riots. These were mainly the result of conflicts between groups of Jews who defended their taverns and rioters seeking alcohol. The small number of Jews who had been intentionally killed had fallen victim to unstable individuals who had been drunk on Jewish liquor -- accusations of murderous intent among the masses were simply unfounded and unsubstantiated by the evidence.
When these reports were made public, states Klier, they represented "a serious setback for the protest and aid activities of the RJC." [B38] Ibid, p.405.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405) The Times was forced to backtrack, but responded spitefully (and bizarrely) by stating that the indignation of the country was still justified even if the atrocities were "the creations of popular fancy." [B39] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405) (Reminiscent of the JewishGen response to Ukrainian discoveries mentioned in Part 1 of this series?!)
The revelations came at a bad time for the RJC, which was at that time attempting to move the British Government to "act in some way on behalf of persecuted Russian Jewry." [B40] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405) It resorted to republishing (in the Times ) its pamphlet on persecution in Russia twice in one month, presumably in the belief that blunt repetition would suffice to overcome tangible evidence. Klier states that the pieces were examples of "masterful" propaganda, as they attempted to undermine the credibility of the Government consuls, while sycophantically appealing to "the wise and noble people of England," who "will know what weight should be attached to such denials and refutations." [B41] Ibid, p.406.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405) The RJC offered its own "corroborative evidence of the most undeniable kind," though of course the exact source of this evidence was not specified beyond "persons occupying high official positions in the Jewish community" and "Jewish refugees."
In essence, the people of western nations were being asked to trust an anonymous Rabbi on the other side of the world rather than identifiable representatives of their own government. The pieces, states Klier, "painted the familiar picture of murder and rape," and despite the debunking statements of the consuls, "a number of mother/daughter rapes, which had already done so much to outrage British public opinion, were again repeated." [B42] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405) Although the move for British government intervention failed, in the battle for public opinion "the RJC clearly won the day," and the Times and the RJC remained good bedfellows.
The Consuls were outraged. Stanley reiterated the fact that his intensive investigations, which he carried out at great personal cost with a serious leg injury, illustrated that " The Times' accounts of what took place at each of those places contains the greatest exaggerations, and that the account of what took place at some of those places is absolutely untrue." [B43] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.407. He related the fact that a Rabbi in Odessa had "not heard of any outrages on women there," and that the object of almost every pogrom he had investigated was simple "plunder." [B44] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.408. Enraged by the lies circulating in Britain and America, Stanley "went right to the top," interviewing state rabbis and asking for evidence and touring pogrom sites. In Odessa, where a wealth of atrocity stories had originated, he was able to confirm "one death, but no looting of synagogues or victims set alight." There was no evidence that a single rape had taken place. One state Rabbi admitted that he had not heard of any outrages of women in Berezovka and further assured Stanley that he "could with a clear conscience positively deny that any deaths or any violations had occurred there during the disturbances of last year." [B45] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.408.) He again sent this report to his superior in London, with a note saying "This is in accordance with all the information I have received and forwarded to your Lordship, and which I think more credible than anonymous letters in The Times ." [B46] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.408.)
Despite Stanley's best efforts the Jewish narrative advanced by the RJC, imbued with atrocity tales, has remained unalterably attached in Western perceptions of the pogroms. The Blue Book was smothered by the more visible, and oft-repeated, tales of the RJC and organisations like it around the globe. Only with the decade-long research of John Klier has some revision of this narrative, grounded in scholarship and archival evidence, been possible. In light of this evidence, one can only conclude that stories of rape, murder and mutilation were "more legendary than factual." [B47] Ibid, p. 13.Part Three: Anti-Jewish Riots in the Russian Empire Before 1880
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.408.) However, the task remains to further dismantle and analyse other aspects of the Jewish narrative, and to seek the true motives behind its creation.
We continue our series of essays examining the Russian Pogroms with this essay on the part played by Jews in provoking the disturbances. As stated in Part Two, one of the key problems with existing historiography on the pogroms (and 'anti-Semitism' generally) is that these narratives invariably argue that the plight of the Jews was the result of nothing more than irrational hatred. Jews adopt a meek and passive role in this narrative, having committed no wrong-doing other than being Jews. There is no sense of Jewish agency, and one is left with the impression that Jews historically have lacked the capacity to act in the world. In almost every single academic and popular history of the pogroms, the author blindly accepts, or willfully perpetuates, the basic premise that Jews had been hated in the Russian Empire for centuries, that this hatred was irrational and rootless, and that the outbreak of anti-Jewish riots late in the 19 th century was a 'knee-jerk' emotional response to the assassination of the Tsar and some blood libel accusations.
This is of course far from the truth, but the prevalence of this 'victim paradigm' plays two significant roles. Firstly, Jewish historiography is saturated with allusions to the "unique" status of Jews, who have suffered a "unique" hatred at the hands of successive generations of Europeans. In essence, it is the notion that Jews stand alone in the world as the quintessential "blameless victim." To allow for any sense of Jewish agency -- any argument that Jews may have in some way contributed to anti-Jewish sentiment -- is to harm the perpetuation of this paradigm. In this sense, the 'victim paradigm' also contributes heavily to the claim for Jewish uniqueness and, as Norman Finkelstein has pointed out, one can clearly see in many examples of Jewish historiography the tendency to focus not so much on the "suffering of Jews" but rather on the simple fact that "Jews suffered." [C1] Norman Finkelstein, 'The Holocaust Industry,' Index on Censorship , 29:2, 120-130, p.124 As a result, the paradigm offers no place to non-Jewish suffering. Simply put, the 'victim paradigm' is a form of secular "chosenness." This aspect of the narrative is seen, quite rightly, as a useful tool in the here and now. There is perhaps no race on earth which uses its history to justify its actions in the present quite like the Jewish people. From seeking reparations to establishing nation states, Jewish history is one of the foundation stones propping up Jewish international politics in the present. As such, Jewish history is carefully constructed and fiercely defended. The interplay between Jewish history and contemporary Jewish politics is plain to see -- I need only make reference to the terms "revisionist" and "denier" to conjure up images of puppet trials and prison cells.
Secondly, the omission of the Jewish contribution to the development of anti-Semitism (be it in a village setting or a national setting), leaves the spotlight burning all the more ferociously on the 'aggressor.' Within this context, the blameless victim is free to make the most ghastly accusations, basking in the assurance that his own role, and by extension his own character, is unimpeachable. The word of this untainted, unique, blameless victim is taken as fact -- to doubt his account is to be in league with the 'aggressor.' In Part Two we explored the manner in which the RJC took full advantage of this construct to purvey appalling, and unfounded, atrocity stories. More generally, exaggerated tales of brutality by non-Jews are commonplace in Jewish literature and historiography, and go hand in hand with images of dove-like Jews. For example, Finkelstein has pointed to Jerzy Kosinski's The Painted Bird , a work now widely acknowledged as "the first major Holocaust hoax," as an example of this "pornography of violence." [C2] Ibid.
(Norman Finkelstein, 'The Holocaust Industry,' Index on Censorship , 29:2, 120-130, p.124) The twin concepts of Jewish blamelessness and extreme Gentile brutality are inextricably bound up together, and supporters of one strand of the 'victim paradigm' are invariably supporters of the other. Take for example that high priest of Jewish chosenness, Elie Wiesel, who praised Kosinki's pastiche of sadomasochistic fantasies as "written with deep sincerity and sensitivity." [C3] Ibid, p.125.
(Norman Finkelstein, 'The Holocaust Industry,' Index on Censorship , 29:2, 120-130, p.124)
Having clarified this theoretical framework, we now turn our attention to deconstructing the second strand of the pogrom 'victim paradigm.' To deal most effectively with the question of Jewish culpability in the souring of relations between Jews and non-Jews, we will need to probe deeper, and with more focus, than we endeavored to do in Part One. This essay will focus on specific examples of anti-Jewish disturbance in the Russian Empire prior to 1880, with a particular focus on Jewish economic practices preceding these events.
For the reasons discussed above, the majority of Jewish historians have long displayed an aversion to the idea that Jewish economic practices have played a significant role historically in provoking anti-Semitism. For example, Leon Poliakov in The History of anti-Semitism: From Voltaire to Wagner , argues that the idea of economic anti-Semitism is "devoid of real explanatory value." [C4] Leon Poliakov The History of anti-Semitism: From Voltaire to Wagner (Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003) p.viii Similarly, Jonathan Freedman has stated that, in explaining anti-Jewish attitudes, economic anti-Semitism should play only a very "small explanatory role." [C5] Jonathan Freedman, The Temple of Culture: Assimilation and Anti-Semitism in Literary Anglo-America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002) p.60. Both of these historians posit that theology, and by extension Christianity (and therefore Western culture) is the fount and origin of anti-Semitism. Robert Weinberg, in his 1998 article on Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History , explains anti-Semitic outbreaks of violence in Eastern Europe by stating that they were the product of "the frustrations of Russian and Ukrainian peasants, workers and town dwellers who, for the most part, spontaneously took out their frustrations on a time-honored scapegoat, the Jews." [C6] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.72 Weinberg refrains from stating where precisely these 'frustrations' emerge from, but note again the extremely passive Jewish role in his analysis.
Conversely, those historians who have accepted that economic issues have played a role in provoking anti-Semitism fail to engage in actual case studies of economically provoked anti-Jewish actions, preferring instead to probe "images" or stereotypes which allegedly infuse the consciousness of non-Jews. For example Professor of Israel Studies at Oxford University, Derek J. Penslar, has stated that economic anti-Semitism is nothing more than "a double helix of intersecting paradigms, the first associating the Jew with paupers and savages and the second conceiving of Jews as conspirators, leaders of a financial cabal seeking global domination." [C7] Derek J. Penslar, Shylock's Children: Economics and Jewish Identity in Modern Europe, (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001) p.13. By choosing to discuss "images" and concepts rather than say, an actual incident such as the Limerick Anti-Jewish Riots, Penslar engages in a practice equally duplicitous to that engaged in by Poliakov and Freedman. Penslar's thesis only superficially acknowledges the economic role, while really lending more weight to the argument that European society has suffered some kind of neurosis in relation to its Jews. Penslar deftly offers us an argument in which Jews and economics play a role in the development of an anti-Semitic "image," without placing the Jew in anything but a passive role. Penslar's "images" are also devoid of gradation -- Europeans, if they hold to economically motivated anti-Semitism, either view Jews as pauper savages or global financiers. This despite the case that most European peasants simply didn't need to have these extreme conceptions of Jews, and probably didn't. Exploitative economic practices by local Jewish capitalists, the existence of local Jewish monopolies on such items as alcohol, and the Jewish practice of in-group/out-group ethics would be more than sufficient to provoke anti-Jewish resentment.
But references to this motivation for anti-Jewish action is entirely absent from Jewish historiography on the causes of anti-Semitism, most likely because it comes extremely close to demolishing the 'victim paradigm.' This essay, which focuses on actual case studies (in particular the city of Odessa), will argue that the anti-Jewish riots of the 1880s, like many riots before them, were motivated by economic anti-Semitism, and that this economic anti-Semitism had its origins not in the European psyche, but in the day to day economic interactions of Jews had with the non-Jews of Odessa. It attempts to rediscover the Jewish role, and to place it front and centre.
The first disturbance involving Jews to occur in the Russian Empire, and which left sufficient documentation, was the 1821 Odessa pogrom. Weinberg has painted a picture of Odessa as being some kind of multicultural heaven at this time. He states that the city "benefited from the presence of German, Italian, French, Greek, and English residents whose cultural and intellectual tastes influenced local life." [C8] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.73 By the 1820s street signs were written in Russian and Italian, the city's first newspaper appeared in French. Odessa, according to Weinberg, had a thriving art scene, particularly in relation to theatre, music, and opera.
However, Klier paints a radically different picture of the city, stressing in particular the ethnic tension created by increasing Jewish settlement in the city. Klier states that by 1821, Odessa was "a hotbed of ethnic, religious, and economic rivalries" and was, quite significantly, "a distinctly non-Russian city." [C9] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) p.15 Weinberg explains that "the number of Jews arriving from other parts of the Russian Empire and Galicia in the Austrian Empire skyrocketed." In Odessa, Jews were entirely free from "legal burdens and residency restrictions." [C10] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.73
Violence erupted in 1821 when, during the Greek War of Independence, a group of Muslims and Jews murdered and then mutilated Gregory V, the Greek Orthodox Patriarch in Istanbul. In the aftermath, many Greeks fled with Gregory's remains from Istanbul to Odessa, where his funeral procession was held. Surviving documents suggest that violence broke out when a large contingent of Odessa's Jewish population showed open disrespect for the procession. [C11] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p.16.
In describing this and subsequent outbreaks of violence in Odessa, I must urge readers to divest themselves of the preconception that the Jewish contingent of the city was a tiny minority. Jewish historians are often quick to allude to minority status without providing definitive numbers. John Doyle Klier, however, informs us that by the middle of the nineteenth century Jews constituted "almost one-third of the total population" in Odessa. [C12] Ibid.
(John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p.16.) Given the huge population of Greeks and other nationalities, it was the Russians who composed the "tiny minority." Economic supremacy in the city until the middle of the nineteenth century was the preserve of the Greek population, which had fended off the attempts of numerous other ethnic groups to "secure or maintain a favored economic position." [C13] Ibid, p.15
(John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p.16.)
When a huge influx of Jews occurred in the 1850s, the struggle for economic supremacy between Jew and Greek, added to historical religiopolitical grievances, contributed to increased inter-ethnic tension in the city. Greek historian Evridiki Sifneos informs us that earlier co-existence had "not been based on mutual toleration. On the contrary, economic recession in the second half of the nineteenth century accelerated ethnic distinctions, and resentment was provoked by the ascension of social or ethnic groups [primarily Jewish], which led to the redistribution of resources." [C14] Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.191 Until the mid-1850s, the Greeks had control of grain exports, but with the disruption of trade routes as a result of the Crimean War, some local Greek business owners were forced into bankruptcy. The city's Jews, who had earlier occupied mainly middleman roles, pooled resources and eagerly bought up these businesses at extremely low prices. A letter from one Greek contemporary reads: "When I first came to Odessa in 1864, I became a purchaser of grain on behalf of our house, 14 at Moldovanka. The majority were Greeks, with a few Russian middlemen. Now there are no Russians, and as for the Greeks they are counted on the fingers of one hand. Jews are the ones who have taken over the market." [C15] Ibid, p.195
(Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.191) According to Sifneos, Jews took advantage of the placement of their taverns in the villages to establish themselves as middlemen in the collection of grain from the surrounding countryside, and in addition "they worked more tightly within their ethnic network." [C16] Ibid, p.196
(Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.191)
Weinberg further states that when "Jewish employers followed the practice of only hiring their own, many Greek dockworkers now found themselves in the ranks of the unemployed." [C17] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.75. When it became apparent that Jews had wrested economic supremacy from the Greeks in 1858, incidences of inter-ethnic violence began to escalate in frequency. In 1858 there were attacks on Greek and Jewish property, and numerous "Greek-Jewish brawls" in the city, and in 1859 a quarrel between Greek and Jewish children again escalated into full-scale inter-ethnic conflict. Violence was ended thanks only to the intervention of Russian police and Cossacks. [C18] Ibid, p.18
(Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.75.) A major bout of Greek-Jewish violence occurred again in 1869.
How do we describe such events? In light of the context of these disturbances, does the term "pogrom" or "anti-Jewish riot" withstand scrutiny? Certainly not. Note my use of the terms "inter-ethnic violence" and "disturbance involving Jews." These terms do not feature in Jewish historiography on these events. "Anti-Jewish riot" or "pogrom" is merely part of the lexicon of the 'victim paradigm,' bequeathing passive status even through word use. To express it flippantly, when Tom and Bill have a fight in the street, one does not describe it as "anti-Tom violence." This automatically imparts passive, victim status to Tom, despite the fact that he may have started the fight, and certainly threw as many punches. Weinberg, for example, describes the 1859 disturbance as "anti-Jewish activity," but states that both "Jewish and gentile youths engaged in bloody brawls." [C19] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.74 This is an obvious contradiction in terms.
It is only in 1871, during a particularly severe bout of disturbances, that we see the first Russian involvement in Odessa's inter-ethnic violence. The late John Doyle Klier, formerly Professor of Hebrew and Jewish Studies at Oxford University, informs us categorically that Russian involvement in the 1871 Odessa ethnic conflict had its roots in real, tangible economic grievances. Klier states that Russian participation was the result of "bitterness born of the exploitation of their work by Jews and the ability of the latter to enrich themselves and manipulate all manner of trade and commercial activity." [C20] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) p.21 Similarly, Weinberg concedes that by 1871, there were "many others besides Greeks who perceived Jews as an economic threat." [C21] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.75.
The roots of the 1871 disturbance are quite tangible, and there is a tremendous amount of evidence suggesting it was the result of real socio-economic grievances, rather than "images," "stereotypes," or any of the other usual suspects wheeled out in Jewish historiography. Brian Horowitz, Chair of Jewish Studies at Tulane University argues that by 1870 Jewish economic and social cohesiveness had been further enhanced in Odessa by founding of a branch of the Society for the Promotion of Enlightenment, an organization dedicated to in-group philanthropy as well as "alternative politics" whereby members "did not contact the government as an intercessor." [C22] Brian Horowitz, How Jewish was Odessa ? : http://www.wilsoncenter.net/sites/default/files/OP3...age=17 In this respect, it was the kahal -lite, and it had a significant positive impact on the wealth of Odessa Jewry. Klier states that under this organisation, the Jewish grip on the economic life of the city grew stronger, and that Russian government reports from 1871 attribute the disturbance above all to the fact that "the economic domination of the Jews in the area produced abnormal relations between Christians and Jews." [C23] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) p.22 By 1871, Jewish economic domination had moved beyond grain exports. A US consular report from that year reveals the extent of Jewish control over Odessa's economic life. It reports that Jews in the city "occupy themselves with trade and favoring their own class or sect, that is that their combinations, in a great many instances, amount almost to monopolies. The common remark, therefore, is that 'everything is in the hands of the Jews.' To sell or buy a house, a horse, a carriage, to rent a lodging or contract for a loan, to engage a governess, and sometimes even to marry a wife the Jew gets his percent as a "go between." The poor laborer, the hungry soldier, the land proprietor, the money capitalist, and in fact every producer and every consumer is obliged in one way or another to pay tribute to the Jew." [C24] Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.198
Impoverished Greeks, Russians and Ukrainians looked on at increasingly ostentatious displays of Jewish wealth. In fact, Sifneos states that contemporary correspondence reveals that during the disturbances, many of Odessa's Jews attributed the trouble "to the widespread resentment against the growing prosperity of their community." [C25] Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.193 Sifneos also informs us that demographic shifts in the city were of extreme importance in creating unease among non-Jewish populations. In line with increasing wealth, the 1897 census revealed that during the preceding two decades Odessa Jewry was undergoing an extremely rapid demographic explosion, and that Odessa was "rapidly becoming a predominantly Jewish city." [C26] Ibid.
(Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.193) To put this into some kind of perspective, the 1897 Odessa census reveals that by that date there were 5,086 Greek speakers, 10,248 German speakers, 1,137 French speakers, and 124,520 Yiddish speakers. The census further revealed that while almost all of the Greek and French speakers were predominantly residing in the inner city slum areas, a huge 54% of Odessa's Jews were living in the middle-class suburbs of Petropavlovsky, Mikhailovsky, and Peresipsky. [C27] Ibid.
(Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.193)
To conclude, when inter-ethnic violence broke out in 1871, it was not rooted in irrationality, but was quite obviously, as Sifneos argues, a desperate attempt to "weaken the economic power of the Jews." [C28] Ibid.Notes
(Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.193) In this context, we see the Jews of Odessa emerge from their passive role in the shadows of Jewish historiography, and how they truly appear in the cold light of day.
[A1] John Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011) p.xiii.
[A2] Jack Glazier, Dispersing the Ghetto: The Relocation of Jewish Immigrants Across America (New York: Cornell University Press, 1998) p.9.
[A3] Donald Dutton, The Psychology of Genocide, Massacres and Extreme Violence (New York: Prager, 2007 ) p.40
[A4] Michael Mann, The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005) p.142.
[A5] I.M. Aronson, 'Geographical and Socioeconomic factors in the 1881 Anti-Jewish Pogroms in Russia,' Russian Review , Vol.39, No.1 (Jan. 1980) p.18.
[A6] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.xiv.
[A7] Israel Bartal, The Jews of Eastern Europe: 1772-1881 , (Tel Aviv, Ministry of Defence, 2005) p.23.
[A8] Ibid, p.24.
[A9] Israel Friedlander, The Jews of Russia and Poland , (New York: G.P. Putnam, 1915), p.84.
[A11] Ibid, p.85.
[A12] Simon Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland , (Bergenfield: Avontayu, 2000), p.173
[A14] Ibid, p.87.
[A15] Simon Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland , (Bergenfield: Avontayu, 2000), p.173
[A16] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) p.4.
[A19] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.3.
[A21] Jacob Katz, Exclusiveness and Tolerance: Jewish-Gentile Relations in Medieval and Modern Times (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962) p.56.
[A23] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.4
[A26] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.5
[A27] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.5
[A29] Ibid, p.6
[B2] Max Beloff, The Intellectual in Politics: And other essays , (London: Taylor and Francis, 1970) p.135