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COVID-19 prevention measures

Beware fake cures: "for every complex problem there is an answer that is clear, simple, and wrong." ~H L Menken

For the latest list of snake oil type of recommendations and cures see The Coronavirus Collection Prevention and Treatments - Snopes.com

News COVID-19 Epidemic Recommended Links  COVID-19 epidemic handing in the USA The threat of "Coronavirus recession" COVID-19 hoarding epidemics COVID-19 as a bioweapon hypothisis
COVID-19 fearmongering COVID-19 epidemic as the second stage of the crisis of neoliberalism   Absurdity of bureaucracies US Presidential Elections of 2020 Trump's impulsivity and incompetence The Real War on Reality
Media as a weapon of mass deception  Stability is destabilizing: The idea of Minsky moment Manufactured consent Groupthink The importance of controlling the narrative Trumpcare scam Nation under attack meme
Soft propaganda Nineteen Eighty-Four Casino Capitalism   Propaganda Quotes Humor Etc

Despite the regime of self isolation, you need additional physical load to prepare for the infection. In this sense walking is less efficient then running, biking, paying tennis/badmin, or swimming for training your lungs and heart, but of course better then nothing.  At least, walking outside  increases the level of vitamin D due to expose to the sun. Which to a certain extent determines the efficiency of your immune response to the infection. which decline in winter months.

Also standard hygienic measures allow to lessen the virus load which acts somewhat similar to the the dose of radiation; the higher the load the more chances you have to develop pneumonia.

With respiratory diseases no matter what level of precautions you adopt the question for people who are susceptible is not if you get it, but when. You need either be vaccinated, or infected and recover from the virus.  If you are susceptible, you simply can't escape your fate "in a long run". But, first of all,  not all people are susceptible to this virus. Among passengers and crew of Diamond Princess only 20% were susceptible despite large virus load typical for ship environment.  Similar picture can be found on the other cruise ships and USS Theodor Roosevelt. 

Also self-isolation can postpone infection until better methods treating the disease are found. What we will probably get is the temporary decline of epidemic in a month or two and then possibly the second, less drastic, wave starting from November-December.  Look at  the Hispanic Flu propagation: it was in three waves with the second wave being the most devastating.  The most victims were young people. For COVID-19 the main category of victims are old and frail people (especially 70+). 

Along with the status of your immune system, the health and excess volume of your lungs are two factors that determine whether you will survive acute form of  pneumonia in case of infection (or whatever this condition is -- is not very clear what it is ). But again, most people just get acute bronchitis type of disease. In this sense swimmers, singers, runners and serious badminton/tennis or similar sports players have a distinct advantage.  

https://www.webmd.com/lung/what-does-covid-do-to-your-lungs#1

Other then known "generic" facts it is not clear why some people get severe cases  while other do not.  And that's the most important question to answer. Looks like in play are such factors as your  sex, age, medications you take, arterial pressure, blood group, and chronic conditions (especially cardiovascular, being overweight, and diabetis ), if any. Some like taking ACE medication for arterial pressure have significant influence on the outcome.  For obvious reasons cardiovascular diseases diminish your chances to survive as soon as you get pneumonia as this is a stress for the cardiovascular system.

Virus load definitely have a huge influence -- people with high virus load (medical workers) typically get more serious form of COVID-19.   People who take ACE inhibitors for arterial pressure might also be especially vulnerable and more often get severe forms.

It looks like younger people who do not smoke and exercise have some advantage (there are contradictory data that smokers are more affected but more rarely  get into severe levels of the disease) , although after 50-55  this advantage diminishes for men, as immune system became less and less efficient each year. Women of the same age are in better shape in this respect.   And generally constitute only around 33% of all patients. 

I hope that methods of treating this virus pneumonia will improve in a couple of months so winning the time before you get sick is very important.  In this sense, CDC is completely dysfunctional organization as it could get direct information from Korea autopsies and treatments. That was not done.

Add to this corruption and perverse incentives (hospitals get  more money putting you on ventilator, despite some evidence that it is not optimal way to treat COVID-19 and in most case oxygen is enough)

For example, there is some information that usage of ventilators actually worsen the prognosis for the severe cases of COVID-19 due to the additional damage to the lungs. It looks like oxygen-only treatment and less invasive methods are a better deal.

The disease is very nasty even in medium form. There are somewhat interesting interview with those those suffered from COVID-19 which gives you some clues what to expect:

One recent hypothesis that I have read is the virus among other thing attacks hemoglobin in blood (like malaria) and essentially  put you in conditions of high altitude living. If this is true, then NY Governor Cuomo quest for 40K ventilators is deeply misguided.  That's probably why anti-malarial drugs are somewhat effective  for treating COVID-19.  But this is still a pure speculation.

NOTE: In France, the sudden loss of smell is considered proof of Covid-19 infection, no further tests required

It is interesting how vulnerable modern interconnected society is to such viruses, despite all the progress in genomics. This virus actually in an extremely clever virus as it has long incubation period and hit hard only around 7% of infected. All others spread it while sick (around three weeks I think) but personally do not experience much inconvenience.  There are also rumors about the existence of a completely "asymptomatic" patients. But even if such exists they are a very small percentage of infected. Some (often minor) symptoms usually are present. Can asymptomatic patients transmit the virus is unclear and some researchers say that yes they can. If true this makes this epidemic almost impossible to contain. But I hope that this is false.

This infection is transmitted mostly from an infected person with symptoms like with cough of sneezing via aerosol with viruses and occurs in closed space (churches proved to be an idea place for spreading the infection), or at densely packed spaces outside (stadiums, lines, festivals, etc) over 80% of infected were infected in family settings. 

So wearing masks in public places is a necessary precaution. As here we are talking not about filtering of the viruses but about filtering of droplets. In this sense any mask is OK but of course it is not hermetic and decrease your chances to be infected five times or more. And if you are infected it prevent you from infecting many other people. 

For 93% of infected this is like a regular flu and does not have any adverse health consequences. Only around 7% get virus pneumonia detectable with X-rays. It usually develops one week or so from the onset of the disease.

All or most affected get some scarring of lungs (fibrosis) visible via X-ray. In severe cases (for example for people who were on ventilator) this is serious consequences that increase your chances dying later. But out of those unlucky 7%, only around 20% develop breathing problems. They are progressively worse for older population and, probably, smokers. Some tiny percent (do not remember exact percentage) need oxygen and in worst cases ventilator. Approximately half of those who need ventilator dies. Total mortality is probably around 0.2% (based of cruise ship data, where 100% of people were tested) despite the fact that often cited range is much higher (because total number of infected is probably much larger in countries affected than the number of tested positively.)

If you are less that 55 I would not worry too much. Your chances to get virus pneumonia are negligible, especially if  you are wearing a mask while shopping and in other public places, and take recommended hygienic measures. Viruses survive on phones and keyboards for a couple of days. So disinfection of such things on daily basis might be also a good precaution. On cardboard and clothing virus does not survive for long enough to represent a real danger outside of hospital setting or other settings with very high concentration of viruses.

There are half-dozen elementary measures that would lower your risk.  You might wish to watch WHO presentation Q&A on Coronavirus - COVID-19 with WHO's Dr Maria Van Kerkhove - YouTube

But the main factor -- your age and the state of your health can't be changed. And state of your immune system -- the main barrier for the virus can't be changed too.  Also spending more time on fresh air and under direct sun exposure might improve it a little bit.

Please avoid quackery and snake oil salesmen which now are propagating via Internet, especially Facebook. See A Doctor's Tips for Spotting Fake COVID-19 News

A good news is that judging from Diamond Princess cruise ship experience less then 20% of people are susceptible to the virus even if they are over 50.  For everybody else the immune system simply kills the virus and the person never becomes infected. Also a large number of people who are tested positive never develop any symptoms and might be false positives of the test. 

Like with everything luck depends on your lack.: contact with infected person often lead to infection. Especially in public transport where people are very close to each other.

Below are somewhat reworded CDC recommendations

Stop touching your face, especially eyes and nose!

The CDC also recommends that you avoid touching your face — specifically, your eyes, nose, and mouth, which are entry portals for coronavirus and other germs. If an infected person coughs or sneezes on a surface, and you touch that contaminated surface and then touch your facial mucous membranes — the eyes, nose, and mouth — you could become infected.

Wash your hands.

Washing your hands regularly is the best way to protect yourself from coronavirus — assuming you’re doing it correctly. The CDC recommends getting your hands wet with warm or cold water; lathering your entire hands, including under the nails, with soap; scrubbing your hands for 20 seconds; rinsing with clean water; and finally, either letting your hands air-dry or using a clean towel.

“Wash them especially well if you’re about to eat,” Aaron E. Carroll, a professor of pediatrics at Indiana University School of Medicine, wrote in the New York Times. “Wash them after you’ve blown your nose, coughed or sneezed. Make it routine that all members of the household wash their hands when they get home.”

It’s also not a bad idea to carry around a hand sanitizer for times when you’re not near a sink, though you should make sure it contains at least 60 percent alcohol. However, experts stress that washing your hands thoroughly — and frequently — is the best preventative measure.

If you have a chronic illness, are elderly, or have a compromised immune system …

While COVID-19 will cause mild symptoms in the majority of infected people, Jan Carette, associate professor at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford University’s School of Medicine, says that the elderly — especially those with chronic conditions, like hypertension or diabetes — are at greater risk for more severe disease. In this case, he recommends that those who are especially susceptible practice the above precautions as well as avoid people who display flulike symptoms.

If you’re traveling …

If you have upcoming travel plans, it’s a good idea to stay up-to-date on the CDC’s travel warnings for specific countries. In general, it’s safest to avoid nonessential travel to countries with a sustained COVID-19 presence; right now, this includes Iran, China, South Korea, and Italy. For individuals who are especially susceptible to viral infections, including the elderly and those with existing medical conditions, the CDC advises avoiding travel to Japan as well.

Currently, the CDC doesn’t have any additional recommendations for domestic travel, though this could change as the virus spreads further in the United States. But according to the CDC’s website, the risk of infection on an airplane is low. “Because of how air circulates and is filtered on airplanes, most viruses and other germs do not spread easily,” they write. However, they recommend that travelers wash their hands frequently and avoid contact with sick passengers.


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Old News ;-)

[May 24, 2020] 'How Could the CDC Make That Mistake?' The government's disease-fighting agency is conflating viral and antibody tests, compromising a few crucial metrics that governors depend on to reopen their economies. Pennsylvania, Georgia, Texas, and other states are doing the same.

Notable quotes:
"... "According to CDC, the disease of obesity affects about 78 million Americans 1 and the ASMBS estimates about 24 million have severe or morbid obesity." ..."
May 24, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Richard Steven Hack , May 24 2020 23:54 utc | 46

And the government botching of this crisis continues...

'How Could the CDC Make That Mistake?' The government's disease-fighting agency is conflating viral and antibody tests, compromising a few crucial metrics that governors depend on to reopen their economies. Pennsylvania, Georgia, Texas, and other states are doing the same.
https://tinyurl.com/y92ea59f

And overseas as well...

'Politicised nature' of lockdown debate delays Imperial report
https://tinyurl.com/y7csboom

And of course, the effect of that...

Nearly half of US states haven't contained their coronavirus outbreaks, a new study finds
https://tinyurl.com/yc72pd8t

And no, Sweden is not doing better...

Just 7.3% of Stockholm had Covid-19 antibodies by end of April, study shows
Official findings add to concerns about Sweden's laissez-faire strategy towards the pandemic
https://tinyurl.com/yahnmb3a

Finally, a large scale study on HCQ - 86,000 patients, with 15,000 receiving HCQ...

Trump drug hydroxychloroquine raises death risk in Covid patients, study says
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-52779309

The color of coronavirus:
COVID-19 deaths by race and ethnicity in the U.S.
https://www.apmresearchlab.org/covid/deaths-by-race

Blacks are *twice* as likely to get it as whites and Latinos. American Indians are *five times* more likely to get it. They conclude the best indicator is poverty.

From The Lancet, a study of New York patients... Epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of critically ill adults with COVID-19 in New York City: a prospective cohort study https://tinyurl.com/yblmszsx

Between March 2 and April 1, 2020, 1150 adults were admitted to both hospitals with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, of which 257 (22%) were critically ill.

The median age of patients was 62 years (IQR 51–72), 171 (67%) were men. 212 (82%) patients had at least one chronic illness, the most common of which were hypertension (162 [63%]) and diabetes (92 [36%]).

119 (46%) patients had obesity.

As of April 28, 2020, 101 (39%) patients had died and 94 (37%) remained hospitalised.

203 (79%) patients received invasive mechanical ventilation for a median of 18 days (IQR 9–28), 170 (66%) of 257 patients received vasopressors and 79 (31%) received renal replacement therapy.

The median time to in-hospital deterioration was 3 days (IQR 1–6).

In the multivariable Cox model, older age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1·31 [1·09–1·57] per 10-year increase), chronic cardiac disease (aHR 1·76 [1·08–2·86]), chronic pulmonary disease (aHR 2·94 [1·48–5·84]), higher concentrations of interleukin-6 (aHR 1·11 [95%CI 1·02–1·20] per decile increase), and higher concentrations of D-dimer (aHR 1·10 [1·01–1·19] per decile increase) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality.

Note: 36% had diabetes; 46% were fat. Like I've said before, "diabetes" is a code word for "fat." And how many people in the US are fat and thus at risk? "According to CDC, the disease of obesity affects about 78 million Americans 1 and the ASMBS estimates about 24 million have severe or morbid obesity."

So much for "let's just isolate the elderly"...so we can attend our baseball games this summer and stuff ourselves with crap food...

[May 24, 2020] Lung volume as an important factor in coronavirus progrnnsys

May 24, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Jen , May 24 2020 23:13 utc | 41

I think lung volume is indirect indicator of how well trained the person is. Coach potatoes have low lung volume. Most sportsmen -- a high or even very high.

From WSJ article "The Healing Power of Proper Breathing" https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-healing-power-of-proper-breathing-11590098696

In the 1980s, researchers with the Framingham Study, a 70-year research program focused on heart disease, gathered two decades of data from 5,200 subjects, crunched the numbers and discovered that the greatest indicator of life span wasn't genetics, diet or the amount of daily exercise, as many had suspected. It was lung capacity. Larger lungs equaled longer lives. Because big lungs allow us to get more air in with fewer breaths. They save the body from a lot of unnecessary wear and tear.

Also a sedentary way of life with not enough movement during the day, especially during childhood and adolescence, along with poor sitting and standing postures can encourage shallow breathing instead of breathing with the whole body.

[May 23, 2020] Hydroxychloroquine After Action Report

May 23, 2020 | angrybearblog.com

Robert Waldmann | May 23, 2020 10:52 am

Healthcare Hot Topics I was a vehement advocate of prescribing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) off label while waiting for the results of clinical trials. I wasn't all that much embarrassed to agree with Donald Trump for once. Now I feel obliged to note that my guess was totally wrong. I thought that the (uncertain) expected benefits were greater than the (relatively well known) costs.

The cost is that HCQ affects the heart beat prolonging the QT period (from when the atrium begins to contract to when the ventrical repolarizes and is read to go again). This can cause arrhythmia especially in people who already have heart problems. I understood that one might argue that all people with Covid 19 have heart problems but didn't consider that argument decisive (I probably should have).

The positive expected value of the uncertain benefits was based on strong in vitro evidence that HCQ blocks SARS Cov2 infection of human cells in culture. (this is a publication in the world's top general science journal).

Already in early May, there was evidence that any effect of HCQ on the rate of elimination of the virus must be small. In this controlled trial conducted in China , the null of no effect is not rejected. Much more importantly, the point estimates of the effects over time are all almost exactly zero. I considered the matter settled (although the painfully disappointed authors tried to argue for HCQ and that their study was not conclusive).

There are now four large retrospective studies all of which suggest no benefit from HCQ and two of which suggest it causes increased risk of death. I am going to discuss the two studies most recently reported.

One is a very large study (fairly big data goes to the hospital) published yesterday in The Lancet. In this study patients who received HCQ had a significantly higher death rate with a hazard of dying 1.335 times as high. The estimate comes from a proportional hazard model with a non parametric baseline probability and takes into account many risk factors including crucially initial disease severity. It is also important that only patients who were treated within 48 hours of diagnosis were considered.

I am, of course, dismayed by this result. I am also puzzled, because it is quite different from the result obtained in a smaller retrospective study published in JAMA

I think the practical lessons are that it seems unwise to give Covid 19 patients HCQ. Also maybe Robert Waldmann should be more humble. After the jump, I will discuss the two studies in some detail and propose an explanation of the difference in results.

[May 23, 2020] The more you know Over a third of Americans apprehensive about Covid-19 vaccine, citing rushed development trust issues -- RT

May 23, 2020 | www.rt.com

The more you know? Over a third of Americans apprehensive about Covid-19 vaccine, citing rushed development & trust issues 21 May, 2020 21:37 Get short URL The more you know? Over a third of Americans apprehensive about Covid-19 vaccine, citing rushed development & trust issues © Global Look Press / Fotostand / K. Schmitt Follow RT on RT As the Trump administration pushes for Covid-19 vaccine development on an ever-shrinking timetable and companies report lackluster early trials, 35 percent of Americans are less than thrilled about getting the shot. Operation Warp Speed, the Trump administration's unprecedented drive to create and roll out a vaccine for the coronavirus pandemic by the end of the year, may be doing more harm than good, at least where Americans' trust is concerned. Between the shockingly abbreviated timetable and the lack of long-term safety testing, almost one in four Americans (24 percent) said they were not interested in the shot, according to a Reuters poll published Thursday. An additional 11 percent were unsure about it.

Also on rt.com Study Trump cited in his latest attack on WHO does NOT EXIST, says editor-in-chief of prestigious medical journal

Compounding the distrust is the polarizing figure of President Donald Trump himself, who proudly announced the shortened timetable for vaccine development last week. Thirty-six percent of those polled by Reuters said they would be less likely to take a potential Covid-19 vaccine if it came recommended by Trump, while just 14 percent thought the president's seal of approval was a positive.

Trump's narrative flip-flops haven't helped his credibility on the vaccine front. From his early reassurances that the virus would vanish in weeks, to his public conflicts with his own health advisers over locking down and reopening the country, it's not hard to see why Americans are hesitant to fall in line behind him on this. But the problem isn't necessarily political. Nearly half of those uninterested in taking the vaccine said the speed of its development worried them, while over 40 percent said the vaccine would be riskier than actually contracting Covid-19 itself.

Read more Trump's WARP SPEED vaccine czar oversaw an infamously BOTCHED vaccination. Wonder why a THIRD of Americans want to dodge this one? Trump's WARP SPEED vaccine czar oversaw an infamously BOTCHED vaccination. Wonder why a THIRD of Americans want to dodge this one?

However, even 29 percent of those who said they were " not very interested " in the vaccine allowed they'd be willing to change their mind if the shot was approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The full approval process for vaccines usually takes over a decade, and even the most optimistic experts – including Dr. Anthony Fauci, who has become the public face of the US' Covid-19 policy – believe a shot won't be ready for another year to 18 months. Rushing a vaccine to market in the middle of a pandemic means sacrificing comprehensive safety checks for efficiency – a tradeoff that can be disastrous, as in the case of the 2009 swine flu shot Pandemrix, which caused permanent brain damage in over 1,000 British patients.

The parallels between Covid-19 and that epidemic are ominous – wildly inflated death predictions had spooked the UK government into approving Pandemrix without sufficient safety data – and it surely won't help Americans' trust in this vaccine that Trump's " vaccine czar " Moncef Slaoui ran GlaxoSmithKline's vaccine division during the swine flu debacle. Nor has it been especially heartening to discover Slaoui's extensive investments in not just Glaxo but many other drug companies working on potential vaccines.

Slaoui earned $3 million on Monday alone from Moderna, which is still considered the leading candidate in the vaccine race, even though the drug company has never brought a vaccine to market. After hyping up what were essentially meaningless preliminary results, Moderna's stock shot up 25 percent, bringing his holdings to over $10 million. He pledged to donate those earnings to " cancer research " after demands for him to divest reached a fever pitch. A vaccine produced at Oxford University hasn't fared much better, with all six rhesus monkeys who received the shot becoming infected anyway – despite a preliminary report that tried to spin the failure as representing " some " success.

Also on rt.com Define 'distribute'! Trump mobilizing MILITARY to deliver Covid-19 vaccine 'assuming we get it,' sparks conspiracy frenzy

Threats of mandatory vaccination have unsurprisingly not helped to soothe Americans' worries over a potentially unsafe vaccine. Fauci and other health officials have repeatedly warned the public that there will be no return to " normal " without a vaccine, even as lockdown restrictions are slowly lifted – a statement some have interpreted as a threat that the unvaccinated will be barred from crowded public places or travel. Harvard Law Professor Alan Dershowitz went further, declaring the government has " police power " to mandate Americans take a vaccine and claiming such power is " not debatable " constitutionally. And other experts downplayed the very real concerns voiced by poll respondents in favor of blaming the " very aggressive anti-vaccine movement ."

All this is bad news for the health experts Reuters cites, who say 70 percent of Americans would have to be immune in order to achieve " herd immunity " and stop the virus from spreading through the US, where upwards of 90,000 people have died since the pandemic began.

[May 22, 2020] The Remdesivir Study Is Finally Out Drug Only Helped Those On Oxygen, Finds Mortality Too High For Standalone Treatment Zero

May 22, 2020 | www.zerohedge.com

Remember when the market soared on several days in April on the Facui-touted Remdesivir study which, according to StatNews and various other unofficial sources of rumors, was a smashing success only for the optimism to fizzle as many questions emerged , and as the Gilead drug quietly faded from the public's consciousness and was replaced by various coronavirus vaccine candidates such as those made by the greatly hyped Moderna ( whose insiders just can't stop selling company stock ).

Meanwhile, those who were waiting for the official version of Remdesivir's effectiveness had to do so until 6pm on a Friday before a long holiday, and for good reason...

Friday 6 pm. Fking ridiculous. https://t.co/6Ze38BfVgN

-- Adam Feuerstein (@adamfeuerstein) May 22, 2020

... According to a pivotal study published in the New England Journal of Medicine late on Friday, Remdesivir, which was authorized to treat Covid-19 in a group of 1063 adults and children (split into two groups, one receiving placebo instead of remdesivir) who need i) supplemental oxygen, ii) a ventilator or iii) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), only significantly helped those on supplemental oxygen.

Meanwhile, and explaining the 6pm release on a Friday, the study also found no marked benefit from remdesivir for those who were healthier and didn't need oxygen or those who were sicker, requiring a ventilator or a heart-lung bypass machine.

The NEJM, almost apologetically, stated that "the lack of benefit seen in the other groups might have stemmed from a smaller number of patients in each group."

Still, as a result of the partial benefit for patients in the supplemental oxygen group, the study from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases was evaluated early and led to the authorization of remdesivir before the full trial was completed.

Our findings highlight the need to identify Covid-19 cases and start antiviral treatment before the pulmonary disease progresses to require mechanical ventilation.

Some more details on the study, which was a "rank test of the time to recovery with remdesivir as compared with placebo, with stratification by disease severity":

The primary outcome measure was the time to recovery, defined as the first day, during the 28 days after enrollment, on which a patient satisfied categories 1, 2, or 3 on the eight-category ordinal scale. The categories are as follows:

  1. not hospitalized, no limitations of activities;
  2. not hospitalized, limitation of activities, home oxygen requirement, or both;
  3. hospitalized, not requiring supplemental oxygen and no longer requiring ongoing medical care (used if hospitalization was extended for infection-control reasons);
  4. hospitalized, not requiring supplemental oxygen but requiring ongoing medical care (Covid-19–related or other medical conditions);
  5. 5, hospitalized, requiring any supplemental oxygen;
  6. hospitalized, requiring noninvasive ventilation or use of high-flow oxygen devices;
  7. hospitalized, receiving invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); and
  8. death.

The results are summarized below, highlighting the only group that showed a statistically significant improvement in outcomes as a result of taking the drug vs placebo.

A visual representation of the outcomes is below; it shows that whereas there was a modest benefit only to patients who were receiving oxygen, the results were statistically insignificant vs placebo for patients not receiving oxygen, while in a surprising twist patients on high-flow oxygen or mechanical ventilator/ECMO did modestly better in the placebo group than those taking remdesivir. Also, the overall results showed a very modest, but not statistically significant improvement in the remdesivir group vs placebo (box A).

Another disappointment: the study found that overall "mortality was numerically lower in the remdesivir group than in the placebo group, but the difference was not significant ", in other words the alleged "miracle drug" has largely the same effect as a placebo in terms of overall disease mortality.

The study authors also note that the "findings in our trial should be compared with those observed in a randomized trial from China in which 237 patients were enrolled (158 assigned to remdesivir and 79 to placebo).... That trial failed to complete full enrollment (owing to the end of the outbreak), had lower power than the present trial (owing to the smaller sample size and a 2:1 randomization), and was unable to demonstrate any statistically significant clinical benefits of remdesivir. "

Finally, the study found that while mortality was modestly lower for the remdesivir arm, it was not significantly so, at 7.1% at 14 days on drug versus 11.9% on placebo.

In conclusion, while the "preliminary findings support the use of remdesivir for patients who are hospitalized with Covid-19 and require supplemental oxygen therapy" the study goes on to warn that " given high mortality despite the use of remdesivir, it is clear that treatment with an antiviral drug alone is not likely to be sufficient."

The study's recommendation:

Future strategies should evaluate antiviral agents in combination with other therapeutic approaches or combinations of antiviral agents to continue to improve patient outcomes in Covid-19.

So a generally disappointing outcome, one which would lead to a drop in the market. Nonsense: think of all the spin, and why this is in fact great news for stocks: Remdesivir may be a dud as a "silver bullet" to curing covid, leading to statistically significant improvement in only a very limited subset of infected patients and "high mortality" for those taking it, but at least the algos will have a whole lot of other "miracle drugs" to levitate them as optimism that the next remdesivir is just around the corner. In short: rinse, rumor, and repeat... and then save the bad news for 6pm on a Friday.

Oh, and for those asking about the "official" reason why the NE Journal of Medicine waited until just the right time to make sure nobody reads the results, here it is:

I asked NEJM spox to explain the Friday 6 pm release of the remdesivir study. Her response is below. pic.twitter.com/WjNGyUv7sH

-- Adam Feuerstein (@adamfeuerstein) May 22, 2020

The full study is available here .

[May 22, 2020] Global report: don't count on vaccine, US scientist warns, as cases pass 5m

May 22, 2020 | www.theguardian.com

A top US scientist has said that people should not count on a Covid-19 vaccine being developed any time soon...

William Haseltine, the groundbreaking cancer, HIV/AIDS and human genome projects researcher, has said the best approach to the pandemic is to manage the disease through careful tracing of infections and strict isolation measures whenever it starts spreading. He said that while a vaccine could be developed, "I wouldn't count on it", and urged people to wear masks, wash hands, clean surfaces and keep a distance.

[May 22, 2020] Washington State conned out of a likely 'hundreds of millions of dollars' by Nigerian scammers

If Nigerian hackers can steal that much money, Israel, Chinese, and Russian, intel agencies probably are in the most Fed information systems doing what they want ;-)
Notable quotes:
"... officials in Washington State may have lost "hundreds of millions of dollars" to fraudsters filing bogus unemployment claim ..."
May 22, 2020 | www.rt.com
officials in Washington State may have lost "hundreds of millions of dollars" to fraudsters filing bogus unemployment claim s – all the way from Nigeria.

[May 21, 2020] Smokers are at a lower risk of contracting covid19 infections

May 21, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

J Norwich , May 19 2020 5:43 utc | 108

Prior infection with other coronavirus strains appears to confer an enhanced immune response to covid19. Smokers are at a lower risk of contracting covid19 infections. Perhaps the two observations are related? Smokers generally have poorer lung health and may be more likely to acquire lung infections such as those caused by other varieties of coronavirus and to develop antibody protection. So maybe their vulnerability to such infections has proved an advantage in this case?

Hoarsewhisperer , May 19 2020 6:05 utc | 109

"Immune warriors known as T cells help us fight some viruses, but their importance for battling SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has been unclear. Now, two studies reveal infected people harbor T cells that target the virus -- and may help them recover. Both studies also found some people never infected with SARS-CoV-2 have these cellular defenses, most likely because they were previously infected with other coronaviruses."

Thanks for drawing attention to this, b.

The T cell/Common Cold factor may help to explain why children are less likely to be infected by COVID-19 than adults. I can recall that when each of my own offspring went through that miserable, snotty-nosed toddler phase, there seemed to be no upside for them or their parents. In retrospect, maybe it was producing a hidden benefit?

[May 21, 2020] Is nikotin effective against COVID-19

May 21, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

gm , May 19 2020 16:13 utc | 129

With respect to highly addictive nicotine, it is not hard to find any number of "healthful" justifications for continuing with the (disgusting, imho) smoking habit.

Why, there is already an extensive body of scientific "evidence" one can latch onto that nicotine is beneficial in Parkinson's disease:

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=smoking+parkinson%27s+disease&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart

And of course, one can also find numerous reports nicotine also helps schizophrenics to manage their symptoms:

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=smoking+schizophrenia+benefits&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart

But with regard to anecdotal/unverified [touch'e] claims of nicotine benefits in covid, one should not reflexively ignore the evidence to the contrary that conflict with one's pro-nicotine bias/belief system:}

"Smokers more likely to express ACE2 protein that SARS-COV-2 uses to enter human cells"
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-05-smokers-ace2-protein-sars-cov-human.html

and

"Tobacco smoking increases lung entry points for COVID-19 virus"
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-04-tobacco-lung-entry-covid-virus.html

"They looked at the expression of ACE2, the molecule in the respiratory tract that the COVID-19 virus uses to attach to and infect human cells. They also looked at the expression of FURIN and TMPRSS2, human enzymes known to facilitate COVID-19 virus infection.

The researchers report in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine a 25 percent increase in the expression of ACE2 in lung tissues from ever-smokers, people who have smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lives, when compared with nonsmokers. Smoking also increased the presence of FURIN, but to a lower extent compared to ACE2 . TMRPSS2 expression in lungs was not associated with smoking. They also found that smoking remodeled the gene expression of cells in the lungs so that the ACE2 gene was more highly expressed in goblet cells, cells that secrete mucus in order to protect the mucous membranes in the lungs ."

But if you are totally bent on using a non-addictive feel-good drug that Israelis say may prevent/fight against the Corona-chan, try CANNABIS:

https://news.google.com/search?for=marijuana%20covid%20israel&hl=en-US&gl=US&ceid=US%3Aen

[May 21, 2020] An MD wrote this op/ed dealing with the hypoxia caused by the coronavirus and provides evidence in support of Dr. Bush's video interview

May 21, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

karlof1 , May 19 2020 20:56 utc | 137

An MD wrote this op/ed dealing with the hypoxia caused by the coronavirus and provides evidence in support of Dr. Bush's video interview that can be reached through the link @135 above.

Yes, the op/ed's a month old, but the dynamics of the virus haven't changed nor have the frequency of deaths within the Outlaw US Empire.

Based on the doctor's first hand testimony and other studies, the initial treatment approach advocated by Dr. Bush and its reasoning seem quite pragmatic and logical.

Comparison with Malaria yields almost no correlation aside from the malaria parasite's use of red blood cells as nurseries and lairs, which may explain why anti-malaria drugs used against COVID-19 in its initial stages have some positive results.

[May 21, 2020] Our FLCCC Working Group currently believes that, if hydroxychloroquine proves to have any benefit, it will most likely be in the earliest stage of infection, while the virus replicates and the patient is still at home, before breathing difficulties or low oxygen levels necessitate a trip to the hospital.

May 21, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Richard Steven Hack , May 19 2020 4:45 utc | 106

The Front-Line COVID-19 Critical Care Working Group (EVMS is part of that group) has this to say about HCQ:
Some have asked why our initial protocol included hydroxychloroquine, the anti-viral drug that was widely touted as a cure for the COVID-19 disease that is caused by the virus. Almost all ER and ICU physicians tried it before a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine showed it to have no effect on mortality in patients with severe cases of the disease. Our FLCCC Working Group currently believes that, if hydroxychloroquine proves to have any benefit, it will most likely be in the earliest stage of infection, while the virus replicates and the patient is still at home, before breathing difficulties or low oxygen levels necessitate a trip to the hospital.

A shortened version of their current treatment protocol (PDF):
https://tinyurl.com/y836kmpc

Dr. Kory Senate Testimony before the Homeland Security and Government Affairs Committee Hearing (Vimeo video)
https://vimeo.com/415698366

Dr. Kory is Pierre Kory, M.D., M.P.A., Medical Director, Trauma & Life Support Center, Critical Care Service Chief, Associate Professor of Medicine Univ. of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health - one of eight medical professionals on the FLCCC team.

Note: I do *not* explicitly endorse any of this. I am not a doctor, nor do I play one on MoA. But I find their arguments reasonable to the degree I can comprehend them.

Richard Steven Hack , May 19 2020 6:26 utc | 110

Just watched Dr. Kory's testimony before the Senate Committee I referenced above... Link again: https://vimeo.com/415698366

I recommend it to everyone. Again, I can't speak to the medicine, but I think you'll find him highly persuasive, if rather desperate to fit his arguments into the time allotted him (which he overran.)

At least we got a number for the patients treated with their complete MATH+ Protocol - merely 100 (at the time of his testimony.) That's not a high number that persuades me. But he also cites a number of other doctors around the country and in Italy who have tried corticosteroids and apparently they consider it a "game-changer" in treatment, in that it massively reduces the number of people needing to be put on ventilators. He emphasizes that the treatment is safe, physiologically sound, well-recognized as useful for the conditions caused by the virus for years, and although "off-label" for this disease it is not unusual to do "off-label" and that is supported by all the medical association ethical standards.

But he emphasizes that the treatment needs to be started as soon as respirator symptoms develop and he is concerned that too many people are avoiding going to the hospital until it's too late. This of course raises the question as to whether this is another treatment - like HCQ - that "only" works at early stages and therefore is not necessarily proven by trials, but is only supported by "observation" in the hospital.

Of course, the solution to that is run the bloody trial. Or at least use the treatment on a greater number of treatments and see how it washes out. He's concerned that they can't get the White House to listen - big surprise, there.

[May 21, 2020] On the necessity and the duration of quarantine

May 21, 2020 | www.unz.com

likbez , says: Show Comment May 21, 2020 at 9:20 pm GMT

Hi The Kremlin Stooge,

Don't forget 'Covidiots'. The frontline-worker-lovin', government-narrative-believin' social-distance welcomin' simpletons are endlessly inventive when it comes to coining contemptuous nicknames for those who don't buy into their embrace of madness. I am happy to be able to say I thought the virus was bogus from the first, and said so to anyone who would listen.

That's too simplistic. You should agree that religious nuts who attend the church in large groups despite the risk can and should be called "Covidiots". Because they are. And the people who are trying to preserve their meager income generally should not.

Why religious nuts can't move to outdoors for the same purpose like first Chirstians did, is unclear to me ;-). Not sure about Orthodox Jews, which is pretty closed sect in any case so if they want to infect each other, be my guest.

The virus causes specific for it virus pneumonia which is no joke. People who recovered still have fibroses in this lungs of different degree. That's why people who were hospitalized with COVID-19 are ineligible to serve in US army. So for those unlucky who get virus pneumonia that's a crippling disease. You can't deny this.

For around 15-20% of people over 65 infected with COVID-19 it means the death sentence -- they will never recover and either die in hospital or soon after. Men over 65 are two third of those so for old men the risk can't be discounted.

So the question is what forms and length of quarantine was optimal, not whether it should or should not be enforced. I doubt that you want to argue that night clubs should remain open. Or that wearing masks in closed spaces is redundant (in open spaces they generally are redundant, unless you are standing in line, etc)

You also need some timeout to collect the vital information about the disease using first cases, enhance the protection of medical personnel, and access the level of actual risk to the population and the economy (the USA generally wasted it and Trump was inapt; so the effect of quarantine is more questionable for this particular country).

It was not that clear in March that the risk is generally low, although we can't deny that Fauci and Co were caught without pants (or, for some sinister reason were intended to be caught this way as if they waited until epidemic got to a certain point that masks something else )

That does not excuse incompetence of Trump administration and very strange behaviors of Fauci, who spent two months and then woke up and suddenly start crying Wolf, Wolf, but the USA is very mysterious country and in no way Canadians can understand it

[May 21, 2020] New York Times continues to prop up the vaccine hype

May 21, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

vk , May 21 2020 0:49 utc | 55

New York Times continues to prop up the vaccine hype:

Coronavirus Live Updates: Scientists See Progress in Path to Vaccine by Next Year

In addition to this Home Page highlight, there's an opinion piece as a side dish:

What to Expect When a Coronavirus Vaccine Finally Arrives

Buried a little bit more at the bottom, there's this borderline pseudoscientific, definitely reckless article:

Prototype Vaccine Protects Monkeys From Coronavirus

There is a statistical possibility a vaccine comes out next year. But his possibility is remote. The key here is that a vaccine must be tested to the exhaustion before being ok'd by any government for mass use. Any mistake can result in a number of deaths that will make this pandemic look like child's play. My opinion is that the NYT is feeding too much enthusiasm to its readers.

Circe , May 19 2020 12:05 utc | 119

The Moderna Vaccine the media is touting as a promising, miracle breakthrough that has only been tested on a limited group of 45 people, aged 18 to 55 has Grade 3 adverse effects in 100 and 250 microgram dosage.

So they're going to lower dosage to 50 micrograms and test it on the 56 to 70 and over 70 age groups. What about the group most Americans are in: the KFC, McDonald's, IHOP group?

[May 21, 2020] It is worth reminding of criticism of the untrustworthiness of modern medical science from the editors of some of the top medical journals

Notable quotes:
"... There are some who parrot Big Pharma vested interests in ridiculing and denigrating hydroxychloroquine, despite the very notable positive results several countries such as China, Russia, Iran and Turkey have had with it, while vainly spouting the benefits of smoking despite complete lack of quality research papers supporting it and abundant quality papers against. ..."
"... Research is not created equal. There is good research (some, not so much) and there is bad research (bundles of it), mostly funded by vested interests, who where necessary direct the desired results. In general, research from China and Russia arguably tends to be higher quality and more reliable because those countries place the emphasis on health for society, not on profits for the corporations. ..."
May 21, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

BM , May 20 2020 6:17 utc | 146

But with regard to anecdotal/unverified [touch'e] claims of nicotine benefits in covid, one should not reflexively ignore the evidence to the contrary that conflict with one's pro-nicotine bias/belief system:}
"Smokers more likely to express ACE2 protein that SARS-COV-2 uses to enter human cells"
"Tobacco smoking increases lung entry points for COVID-19 virus"
Posted by: gm | May 19 2020 16:13 utc | 129

Touché again gm!

It is indeed desperate grasping at straws to believe that smoking will protect against Covid-19 when far higher quality research clearly indicates increased risk from smoking that the disease will be more severe (the latter also being the more plausible result).

As I commented the last time B raised this issue, there is one genuine effect of a past history of smoking that statistically reduces risk of death from Covid-19 - namely smoking significantly reduces expected lifespan, and therefore reduces the risk of living long enough to reach the highest risk age groups for severe Covid-19. Alternatively expressed - smoking kills you off first before you get a chance to be killed by Covid, if that is what you want. Post-hoc nicotine patches at a late stage deny you even that advantage.

There are some who parrot Big Pharma vested interests in ridiculing and denigrating hydroxychloroquine, despite the very notable positive results several countries such as China, Russia, Iran and Turkey have had with it, while vainly spouting the benefits of smoking despite complete lack of quality research papers supporting it and abundant quality papers against.

At this point it is worth reminding of criticism of the untrustworthiness of modern medical science from the editors of some of the top medical journals:

Skeptical of medical science reports?

"It is simply no longer possible to believe much of the clinical research that is published, or to rely on the judgment of trusted physicians or authoritative medical guidelines. I take no pleasure in this conclusion, which I reached slowly and reluctantly over my two decades as editor of The New England Journal of Medicine"
Angell M. Drug Companies & Doctors: A Story of Corruption. The New York Review of Books magazine.

More recently, Richard Horton, editor of The Lancet, wrote that "The case against science is straightforward: much of the scientific literature, perhaps half, may simply be untrue. Afflicted by studies with small sample sizes, tiny effects, invalid exploratory analyses, and flagrant conflicts of interest, together with an obsession for pursuing fashionable trends of dubious importance, science has taken a turn towards darkness"
Horton R. Offline: What is medicine's 5 sigma? www.thelancet.com.

The first of these two commentaries on clinical research publications appeared in 2009, the second in April of this year. These statements are being taken seriously, coming as they do from the experiences of editors of two of the world's most prestigious medical journals. The first article showed how the relationships between pharmaceutical companies and academic physicians at prestigious universities impacted certain drug-related publications and the marketing of prescription drugs. Potential conflicts of interest seemed to abound: millions of dollars in consulting and speaking fees to physicians who promoted specific drugs, public research dollars being used by a researcher to test a drug owned by a company in which the researcher held millions of dollars in shares, failure of university researchers to disclose income from drug companies, company subsidies to physician continuing education, publishing practice guidelines involving drugs in which the authors have a financial interest, using influential physicians to promote drugs for unapproved uses, bias in favor of a product coming from failure to publish negative results and repeated publication of positive results in different forms. The author, Marcia Angell, cited the case of a drug giant that had to agree to settle charges that it deliberately withheld evidence that its top-selling anti-depressant was ineffective and could be harmful to certain age groups. ...

Richard Horton's statement was part of his comments on a recent symposium on reliability and reproducibility of research in the biomedical sciences and addresses a broader area of concern. Some of the problems he identified are seen in the veterinary literature. They include inadequate number of subjects in the study, poor study design, and potential conflicts of interest. He notes that the quest for journal impact factor is fuelling competition for publication in a few high reputation journals. He warns that "our love of 'significance' pollutes the literature with many a statistical fairy-tale" ...

Research is not created equal. There is good research (some, not so much) and there is bad research (bundles of it), mostly funded by vested interests, who where necessary direct the desired results. In general, research from China and Russia arguably tends to be higher quality and more reliable because those countries place the emphasis on health for society, not on profits for the corporations.

@Flatulus @16 "sources"
Christian Drosten, chief virologist Charité Berlin in his podcast no 31. Available with transcript here.
Posted by: b | May 18 2020 16:42 utc | 32

B, have you looked into the Big Pharma vested interests of Drosten yet? I suggest you do so.

[May 20, 2020] Adding insult to injury Spike in Covid-19 robocalls fraud

Few things can be more annoying than answering the phone while you're in the middle of something -- and then being greeted by a recording. If you receive a robocall trying to sell you something (and you haven't given the caller your written permission), it's an illegal call. You should hang up. Then, file a complaint with the FTC and the National Do Not Call Registry.
May 20, 2020 | www.rt.com

From phony positive Covid-19 test results to deceptive offers of financial relief, robocalls have proliferated amid the pandemic, separating Americans from millions of precious dollars at a time when few can afford to lose money.

One particularly nasty scam sees the target receive a text or phone call warning them they've been exposed to the virus, tricking them into providing personal information while in a state of panic. Another cruel variant dangles the possibility of virus-related financial relief if they just give up their bank account details or wire the scammer a small " fee " – a tempting prospect at a time when half of American workers are unlikely to see a paycheck this month and upwards of 36 million have filed for unemployment since the pandemic began. Phony treatments – in which the target orders a miracle cure, only to never receive it – comprise some 22 percent of coronavirus-related robocalls, making them the most common pandemic scam.

Even those who haven't been personally scammed by a robocaller have experienced stress because of them, Provision found; 70 percent of millennials are concerned a parent or grandparent will be preyed upon by the automated scammers, who frequently impersonate government authorities like the Social Security Administration or the Internal Revenue Service in order to con their targets out of bank account information or other personal data. In fact, nearly two in five robocalls (39 percent) claim to be the SSA, with 38 percent impersonating the IRS and 33 percent pretending to be debt collectors.

The Covid-19 scams are apparently quite effective, robbing Americans of over $13.4 million of their hard-earned cash in the first three months of 2020 alone, according to the Federal Trade Commission. That number doesn't include scams that haven't been discovered by their victims, or those that go unreported to the FTC – meaning the real figure is likely much higher.

[May 20, 2020] Beware of fake contact tracers, N.J. officials warn

May 20, 2020 | www.nytimes.com

Beware of fake contact tracers, N.J. officials warn.

New Jersey officials warned residents on Wednesday to be wary of fraudsters identifying themselves as contact tracers in order to obtain financial information.

In recent weeks, as health departments have hired legitimate tracers to track the spread of the coronavirus, fake tracers have been sending people text messages looking for insurance information and bank account and social security numbers, said Judith Persichilli, the state health commissioner.

Real contact tracers do not ask for such things, the state said.

A legitimate tracer will call, identify themselves as part of a local health department, and explain to the person on the phone that they may have come into contact with someone who tested positive for the virus.

Scams around the virus, unemployment benefits and stimulus checks have proliferated nationwide , the authorities say.

Gov. Philip D. Murphy said "there is a special place in hell" for people who would scam others during the pandemic.

Mr. Murphy also reported the state's daily virus fatalities: 168, bringing the overall death toll to 10,747.

[May 20, 2020] Breakthrough South Korean Study Finds Recovered COVID Patients Who Test Positive Aren't Infectious

May 19, 2020 | www.zerohedge.com
In what appears to be yet another strike against public officials like LA County's Barbara Ferrer - that is, Democrats and others who insist that lockdowns should continue perhaps until a vaccine has been discovered and that police should punish anyone who dares violate these orders - a study from the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has found that patients who test positive for COVID-19 after recovering from the illness appear to be shedding dead copies of the virus. That would suggest that these patients are not infectious, the scientists said, which helped dispel fears that some patients can remain infectious for months after being infected. While the study doesn't answer every question about the virus's longevity - such as patients who almost appear to have developed a "chronic" form of the illness because their symptoms have persisted for so long.

But still, the finding was greeted as a major relief, and, if anything, should encourage economies to reopen more quickly, as a potential trigger for reinfection that had panicked some experts appears to be a non-issue.

The research also undermines the reliability of 'antibody' tests like the ones NY Gov Andrew Cuomo insisted would be 'critical' for NY's reopening.

The results mean health authorities in South Korea will no longer consider people infectious after recovering from the illness. Research last month showed that so-called PCR tests for the coronavirus's nucleic acid can't distinguish between dead and viable virus particles, potentially giving the wrong impression that someone who tests positive for the virus remains infectious.

The research may also aid in the debate over antibody tests, which look for markers in the blood that indicate exposure to the novel coronavirus. Experts believe antibodies probably convey some level of protection against the virus, but they don't have any solid proof yet. Nor do they know how long any immunity may last.

A recent study in Singapore showed that recovered patients from severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, are found to have "significant levels of neutralizing antibodies" nine to 17 years after initial infection, according to researchers including Danielle E. Anderson of Duke-NUS Medical School.

Other scientists have found higher levels of IgM, an antibody that appears in response to exposure to an antigen, in children, according to an article published on medRxiv. That suggests younger populations have the potential to produce a more potent defense against Covid-19. The study has not been certified by peer review.

Bloomberg offers a succinct review of some of the research into the infectious qualities of the virus, and the efficacy of antibodies in keeping patients safe from reinfection. As BBG shows, studies of SARS, which is related to the virus that causes COVID-19, suggest that antibodies keep patients safe for years, undermining warnings about a possible second wave, or worries that the virus might become endemic, which were recently raised by the WHO.

The research may also aid in the debate over antibody tests, which look for markers in the blood that indicate exposure to the novel coronavirus. Experts believe antibodies probably convey some level of protection against the virus, but they don't have any solid proof yet.

Nor do they know how long any immunity may last.

A recent study in Singapore showed that recovered patients from severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, are found to have "significant levels of neutralizing antibodies" nine to 17 years after initial infection, according to researchers including Danielle E. Anderson of Duke-NUS Medical School.

Other scientists have found higher levels of IgM, an antibody that appears in response to exposure to an antigen, in children, according to an article published on medRxiv. That suggests younger populations have the potential to produce a more potent defense against Covid-19. The study has not been certified by peer review.

The study's findings are apparently convincing enough for South Korean health authorities to no longer require patients to be re-tested after they've recovered from COVID-19 and all symptoms have subsided.

As a result of the findings in the South Korea study, authorities said that under revised protocols, people should no longer be required to test negative for the virus before returning to work or school after they have recovered from their illness and completed their period of isolation.

"Under the new protocols, no additional tests are required for cases that have been discharged from isolation," the Korean CDC said in a report. The agency said it will now refer to "re-positive" cases as "PCR re-detected after discharge from isolation."

Some coronavirus patients have tested positive again for the virus up to 82 days after becoming infected. Almost all of the cases for which blood tests were taken had antibodies against the virus.

If nothing else, this study is just the latest reminder of how much we don't know about the virus.

[May 20, 2020] Here's a source of excellent n95 masks. They are 3m 8210 PLUS

May 20, 2020 | www.unz.com

Alden , says: Show Comment May 10, 2020 at 2:53 pm GMT

@Al t from wood like cherry and walnut Unlike the medical masks with the 3 flapping edges, dust doesn't come in through the seal.

The medical masks are 6 inch long rectangles that are open at the bottom and 2 sides. According to the 2 Drs I saw , they're useless for preventing germs and viruses coming in.

The 3m 8210 PLUS n95 masks work to keep the finest softest dust out if you think you need a mask. And you can use them for days if you're not sanding and using dangerous materials.

The only reason I looked at was after I used a really strong toxic paint stripper all day long. The stripper was orange. I saw that the outside of the mask was orange from the fumes. But the inside was still white, no orange. So that mask prevented the fumes going through to my nose and mouth.

[May 20, 2020] Men's Blood Contains High Levels of Enzyme That Helps COVID-19 Infect Cells Study

May 20, 2020 | www.unz.com

vot tak , says: Show Comment May 12, 2020 at 12:22 am GMT

Men's Blood Contains High Levels of Enzyme That Helps COVID-19 Infect Cells – Study

https://sputniknews.com/science/202005111079275898-mens-blood-contains-high-levels-of-enzyme-that-helps-covid-19-infect-cells -- study/

"A new study published in the European Heart Journal on Monday has provided scientific evidence that men have higher concentrations of ACE2 in their blood than women. ACE2, which is found in organs such as the heart, kidney, intestines and others, is the receptor required for cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

While the ACE2 receptor is normally helpful to the human body, as it stabilizes one's blood pressure and regulates blood vessel dilation, it is also the target of SARS-CoV-2's spike protein. Once the spike protein has attached itself to the receptor, the novel coronavirus is able to invade the human cell and infect an individual.

"When we found that one of the strongest biomarkers, ACE2, was much higher in men than in women, I realised that this had the potential to explain why men were more likely to die from COVID-19 than women," said Iziah Sama, a doctor at University Medical Center (UMC) Groningen who co-led the study.

Findings from the recent study further advanced scientists' presumption that the ACE2 is a key component to how COVID-19, the respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus, creeps to the lungs.

"ACE2 is a receptor on the surface of cells. It binds to the coronavirus and allows it to enter and infect healthy cells after it has been modified by another protein on the surface of the cell, called TMPRSS2," explained Dr. Adriaan Voors, a professor of cardiology at UMC Groningen who led the study. "High levels of ACE2 are present in the lungs and, therefore, it is thought to play a crucial role in the progression of lung disorders related to COVID-19."

The study, which relied on blood samples from several thousand participants, also found that heart failure patients prescribed drugs that target the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, like angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), did not have higher concentrations of ACE2 in their blood.

"ACE inhibitors and ARBs are widely prescribed to patients with congestive heart failure, diabetes or kidney disease," Reuters noted.

"Our findings do not support the discontinuation of these drugs in COVID-19 patients as has been suggested by earlier reports," explained Voors."

[May 20, 2020] If 20% recovered enough for herd immunity?

May 20, 2020 | www.unz.com

Alfred , says: Show Comment May 9, 2020 at 3:29 pm GMT

@KA From April 12, 2009 to April 10, 2010, CDC estimated there were 60.8 million cases (range: 43.3-89.3 million), 274,304 hospitalizations (range: 195,086-402,719), and 12,469 deaths (range: 8868-18,306) in the United States due to the H1N1pdm09 virus

This is interesting.

The population of the USA in 2010 was 308 million. The number of infected was 60.8 million. That suggests that herd immunity was reached when 19.7% of the population was infected.

That magical number of 20% has been repeated by me in a number of comments here. I don't claim to have originated it.

[May 20, 2020] There are several papers on pubmed suggesting the use of doxycycline to treat COVID-19

May 20, 2020 | www.unz.com

Harold Smith , says: Show Comment May 6, 2020 at 9:15 pm GMT

@Anon Speaking of antibiotics, there are several papers on pubmed suggesting the use of doxycycline to treat COVID-19 (and the ARB drug telmisartan is apparently another off-the-shelf treatment possibility).

In silico modeling shows that doxycycline might inhibit SARS-CoV-2 PLpro and 3CLpro; plus it has an anti-inflammatory effect. Doxy is highly bioavailable and crosses the blood brain barrier.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102550/

Apparently some clinical trials with doxycycline for COVID-19 are in the works.

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04371952

[May 19, 2020] Does COVID-19 attack hemoglobin cells?

May 19, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

karlof1 , May 18 2020 22:57 utc | 85

What if the virus causing COVID-19 is first doing great injury to hemoglobin which then allows bacteriological infections to do their work? People are showing hypoxia, not all, just what become the worst cases. Those factors are part of an hypothesis developed by Dr. Zach Bush, a physician specializing in internal medicine, endocrinology and hospice care, that gets presented during this 1 hour 20 minute interview that covers more than just the COVID-19 issue. When finished, you'll have a completely different appreciation for the term Environmental Science.

[May 19, 2020] A team of doctors in Bangladesh claims success in treating patients with COVID-19 using doxycycline and ivermectin:

May 19, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Jen , May 19 2020 2:59 utc | 104

A team of doctors in Bangladesh claims success in treating patients with COVID-19 using doxycycline and ivermectin:

Kamal Kant Kohli, "Doxycycline And Ivermectin Combo May Be New Effective Covid 19 Treatment"

Doxycycline is an anti-malarial drug that was patented in 1957, became commercial in 1967 and is now a generic drug. Ivermectin , used to treat parasitic infestations, is available in the US as a generic prescription drug. Both drugs do have side effects. It will be interesting to see if either drug gets much attention in the global press beyond the medical literature if the Bangladeshi doctors continue to have success in treating their patients.

Jim , May 19 2020 3:28 utc | 106

https://www.evms.edu/media/evms_public/departments/internal_medicine/Marik-Covid-Protocol-Summary.pdf

Eastern Virginia Medical school covid treament protocol
Pretty recent update (may 14th)

[May 16, 2020] FDA Halts Bill Gates-Backed COVID-19 Testing Program

Notable quotes:
"... SCAN is backed by The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the University of Washington Medicine. The testing program was sending free test kits to participants' homes in the Seattle Metropolitan Area, with the goal of testing people in the region to get a sense of how the virus was spreading through the community. ..."
May 16, 2020 | www.zerohedge.com

About a month after Bill Gates criticized President Trump's decision to suspend funding to the World Health Organization (WHO), the federal government has just halted a Seattle-based COVID-19 testing program backed by Gates.

What are the odds, right?

"Please discontinue patient testing and return of diagnostic results to patients until proper authorization is obtained," the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) wrote in a memo, addressed to the Seattle Coronavirus Assessment Network (SCAN), according to The New York Times .

SCAN posted an update on its website on Thursday (May 14) describing how the FDA had asked it to "pause" testing while it receives further guidance on new procedures for its COVID-19 test kits that collect samples at home.

The FDA "recently clarified its guidance for home-based, self-collected samples to test for COVID-19. We have been notified that a separate federal emergency use authorization (EUA) is required to return results for self-collected tests," the post read.

"The FDA has not raised any concerns regarding the safety and accuracy of SCAN's test, but we have been asked to pause testing until we receive that additional authorization."

An FDA spokesperson told The Times, the home collection test kits raised some concerns about "safety and accuracy that required the agency's review."

The issue in the Seattle case appears to be that the test results are being used not only by researchers for surveillance of the virus in the community but that the results are also being returned to patients to inform them.

The two kinds of testing — surveillance and diagnostic — fall under different F.D.A. standards. In a pure surveillance study, the researchers may keep the results just for themselves. But coronavirus testing has largely revolved around getting results returned to doctors who can share the results with patients.

"We had previously understood that SCAN was being conducted as a surveillance study," the spokesperson said.

SCAN is backed by The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the University of Washington Medicine. The testing program was sending free test kits to participants' homes in the Seattle Metropolitan Area, with the goal of testing people in the region to get a sense of how the virus was spreading through the community.

[May 16, 2020] Side effect of untested vassine can be crippling

May 16, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

juliania , May 16 2020 13:41 utc | 88

As there have been some comments relating to the development of a vaccine against the virus, I made a search this morning relating to the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation's record in funding such developments. I tried to stay away from the articles that seemed to be inflammatory but did find this article dated today at indianexpress.com: "Can't penalise US NGO for violating drug trial norms" related to a previous drug trial involvement of the foundation. Here are the opening paragraphs:
The NDA government Friday told the Supreme Court that no specific penalties could be imposed on the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation-funded Programme for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) for violating norms in conducting the vaccination trials on tribal girls in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat.

Pointing out that the current legal regime had no provision of penalties, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has expressed its inability to proceed against the NGO PATH despite a parliamentary panel recommending strict actions.

The article would seem to advise caution in urging such trials on the part of the US government with respect to a vaccine for the covid virus, as they also have taken place in other countries, with unforseen complications for some of the participants. It is often the case that strong medicinal remedies are available to poor people on a trial basis. These days I'm remembering the John Le Carre novel, "The Constant Gardener". If my library were open I'd be rereading it.

The old saying 'haste makes waste' needs to be kept in mind.

Trailer Trash , May 16 2020 14:25 utc | 96

> I made a search this morning relating to the Bill and Melinda Gates
>Posted by: juliania | May 16 2020 13:41 utc | 88

Thank you for this. I've been wondering about the noise swirling around Gates and vaccine shenanigans and how much of it is true. I would not be surprised to learn that he really did harm many people with his PATH project.

It's well understood in the computer industry that Gates was an abusive bully to his employees while wrecking every company he crossed paths with, whether they were the competition or a partner. No reason to think it would be different with his new projects.

I'll take my chances with the evil virus before I'll take a dose of a Gates' vaccine.

[May 16, 2020] Any drugs out of patent will be discredited by big pharma lobbyists. It seems a number of drugs do have an impact on the covid-19 set of symptoms.

May 16, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Peter AU1 , May 16 2020 11:18 utc | 73

Any drugs out of patent will be discredited by big pharma lobbyists. It seems a number of drugs do have an impact on the covid-19 set of symptoms.

At one point in time, I was diagnosed with 'chronic fatigue syndrome'. It is a bullshit diagnosis, basically the scrap heap for undiagnosed disease. I looked up research on the subject at the the time. There was a couple of interesting contrasts.

One research project simply took in a mob that had been diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome, and of course found nothing in various trials.

Another project took in a cohort with exactly the same symptoms, and found that a pathogen was indeed causing their problems.

A number of drugs on anecdotal evidence (and perhaps the observations of Chinese doctors unencombered by lobbyists are anecdotal) do help certain patients.
Each drug may not be a cure all for all people with COVID-19, but it seems these do help various patients depending on their symptoms and the way the virus is attacking them.

With that in mind, I would be keeping an eye on China rather than US big pharma.
Big pharma may well come up with a you beaut cure all, but in the mean time I would be looking at doctors unencombered by big pharma for something that will help.


BM , May 16 2020 13:59 utc | 91

WaPo: Drug promoted by Trump as coronavirus 'game changer' increasingly linked to deaths
Posted by: b | May 16 2020 9:39 utc | 61

b,
do you have any conception of the lobbying methods used by Big Pharma?
Do you have any conception of the financial clout they have available for protecting their interests?
Do you have any conceptions of the influence they have, of the revolving doors between Big Pharma, pharmaceutical regulatory bodies, medical schools and every single level of the medical industry?
Do you have any conception of the way pharmaceutical registration works, and of the corrupt and fraudulent practices used to obtain authorisation for drugs?

It is one gigantic spaghetti pot of corruption and deception. Boeing/FAA is miniscule and almost angelic by comparison (and far less deadly also).


Coincidentally I have direct first-hand experience of both sides of the activities of Big Pharma concerning one specific highly effective cancer drug that the world's biggest Pharma corporations have tried for the last 40 years to eradicate (finally almost successful by 2014, unfortunately). I have direct first-hand experience of the highest praise they share amongst their own top elites of the efficacy of that competitor's medicine against all known types of cancer. I also have close 2nd hand inside knowledge of their efforts to purchase the patents for that same medicine for vast sums of money. I also personally know the proprietor and developer of that same medicine, and have witnessed and experienced first hand some of the fraudulent and criminal methods Big Pharma have used non-stop for 40 years to try to force my friend out of business, together with the lies and deception they have used publicly falsely alleging its "danger" and "inefficacy", together even with using police to illegally force parents to stop using it for their seriously ill children who had already dramatically benefited from its use, and forcing doctors to stop using it for treatment. I also have extensive 2nd hand knowledge of their activities to that effect, and have good reason to believe they are true. I have also used that medicine myself, to great effect, and closely know a medical practice which has used it with considerable medical success, and of the coercion they also experienced not to use it.

The way the Western medical establishment has handled the question of the use of chloroquine and closely related drugs for Covid-19 is in every single respect and at every level 100% typical of Big Pharma disinformation projects .

The very fact that the US medical establishment approved use of hydroxychloroquine under specific conditions that ensure it is used exclusively at a very late stage after the virus has ceased to replicate guarantees that all or almost all major Western hydroxychloroquine trials will be negative - because it is a specific and known requirement of hydroxychloroquine therapy that the therapy is conducted early whilst the virus is stil replicating - later it is known to be useless. The approval of its use under such conditions is the specific result of Big Pharma influence . That is how they operate all the time.

Big Pharma is no more honest about either the safety or the efficacity of its products than are the White Helmets about their activities in Syria. Many of the most dangerous drugs sold by the biggest companies are approved on the basis of very small, improperly balanced trials, sometimes fraudulently conducted. Trials which give the wrong result are routinely hidden. Research on toxicity and dangerous side-effects are routinely inadequate, frequently fraudulent or knowingly misleading, and legal requirements for drug authorisations are frequently waived on the basis of influence campaigns. This is especially so for new chemotherapy drugs, which are intrinsically highly toxic and are normally used at very close to the fatal dose. There is no level playing field at all, quite the contrary.

Big Pharma do not profit from cures - they profit from selling very expensive drugs, and they are far more ruthless than the White Helmets in destroying any potential threat to their profits. There is no more effective threat to the World-View of Big Pharma - as I know from first hand experience - than effective cures, especially where they are cheap and unpatentable, or the patents are owned outside the cabal. Any such cure must be destroyed at all costs.

Several of the Big Pharma companies in recent years have been given multi-billion dollar fines for the fraud and subversion they have utilised in obtaining authorisation for drugs which are dangerous to the patient, and for their marketing of drugs known to be dangerous.

The patent for chloroquine and its derivatives has expired. It has been widely used for many years, its hazards and limitations are thoroughly documented, and it is in this respect - under proper supervision with respect to its known hazards and limitations and qualified by them - incomparably safer than any new and barely tested pharmaceutical drug or vaccine such as Remdesivir. It is cheaply produced around the world. Therefore, no full-scale well-controlled randomised clinical trial of hydroxychloroquine treatment for Covid-19 will ever be conducted in a major Western country. Big Pharma will ensure that.

BM , May 16 2020 16:24 utc | 112
One does have to wonder whether it is simply a matter that the difficulty in the US concerning early diagnosis is the real problem that makes use of the drug impractical here. Perhaps we just don't have the resources, teams of testers and physicians and nurses, for the accuracy and careful monitoring of patients in early stage infection required when using this drug.
Posted by: juliania | May 16 2020 15:17 utc | 103

I'm afraid it's not anything to do with early diagnosis, it is only about profit. As Blue Dotterel said, it is about profit, not curing patients. For Big Pharma the very last thing they want is for the patient to be cured - a dead patient is far more profitable. No wonder Gilead holds the more promising GS-441524 off the market, because they can make more profit from a more expensive useless drug that will be in patent for far longer.

Big Pharma expects to make many trillions of dollars profit per year on Covid-19, as they do on cancer. The more Covid cases, the more profits. The less effective the efforts to reduce infections, the more profits. The less availability of PPE, the more profits. The more chaotic and irrational the government policies, the more profit. Big Pharma profits at every step.

They will stop at nothing to block proper trials of hydroxychloroquine - including bribery, coercion, and sabotage, not just massive disinformation. They will spend billions just to block
proper trials, using myriad different methods of subterfuge and subversion. That is just small change compared to the profits they want and expect.

The entire philosophy of Western medicine is a dying patient - it is corrupt, it is dishonest, its entire foundations are fraudulent. There is an urgent need for a whole new paradigm for medicine that is based on maximising the health of society, not on maximising profit.

There is a story I heard on television several decades ago - I think it was true, but I am not certain - about an old Chinese tradition. Villagers would pay a regular monthly fee to the doctor, as long as they stay healthy. As soon as they fall sick they stop paying, and the doctor has to cure them (without charge). Only when they get better will they resume the normal regular payments. Think about it, what is the best interest of the doctor towards his patient? He has an investment in their good health. Now compare the Western system. What interest does the doctor have in the patient's health? If the patient is sick for 4 times as long and then dies, is the doctor richer or poorer? If the doctor gives drugs with side effects, which need more drugs against the side effects, will he be richer or poorer? If there are two drugs available, one cheap, one expensive, which one does the doctor prefer?

Think about it Juliana, the last time you went to a hospital, how much did it cost? How many useless medicines did the doctor give you, versus how many basic essential medicines?

Western medicine is a big scam. It is a business. The second biggest business in the world after war.

That is why I reject Western medicine. For 20 years I have used only non-Western medicine.

[May 16, 2020] WaPo: for a certain type of patients hydroxychloroquine promoted by Trump as coronavirus 'game changer' increasingly linked to deaths

May 16, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

b , May 16 2020 9:39 utc | 61

@fairleft

You want to continue to promote Trump's wonder medicine? Than leave this place and go elsewhere.

You are obviously not well informed about the issue anyway.

WaPo: Drug promoted by Trump as coronavirus 'game changer' increasingly linked to deaths

Clinical trials, academic research and scientific analysis indicate that the danger of the Trump-backed drug is a significantly increased risk of death for certain patients. Evidence showing the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine in treating covid-19 has been scant. Those two developments pushed the Food and Drug Administration to warn against the use of hydroxychloroquine outside of a hospital setting last month, just weeks after it approved an emergency use authorization for the drug.

Alarmed by a growing cache of data linking the anti-malaria drug to serious cardiac problems, some drug safety experts are now calling for even more forceful action by the government to discourage its use. Several have called for the FDA to revoke its emergency use authorization, given hydroxychloroquine's documented risks.

"They should say, 'We know there are harms, and until we know the benefits, let's hold off,' " said Joseph Ross, a professor of medicine and public health at Yale University, who added that the original authorization may have been warranted but new evidence has emerged about the drug's risks.

"I'm surprised it hasn't been revoked yet," said Luciana Borio, who served as director for medical and biodefense preparedness of the National Security Council and was acting chief scientist at the FDA.
...
Yogen Kanthi, assistant professor in the division of cardiovascular medicine at the University of Michigan, said that it has been clear that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin -- used to treat bacterial infections -- could lead to cardiac arrhythmias, which cause the heart to beat irregularly or too fast or slow. Many patients hospitalized for covid-19 had underlying cardiovascular disease that put them at higher risk for arrhythmias, "so it shouldn't be surprising we saw an increase in death," he said.
AD

"The question has been answered that if you have the infection and it's significant enough to be in the hospital, the drug doesn't seem to do anything for you," he said. "It may be the horse is out of the barn."

Many hospitals have stopped using the drug outside of clinical trials.

"We no longer are keeping large quantities and have returned most of it," said Nishaminy Kasbekar, director of pharmacy for the Penn Presbyterian Medical Center in Philadelphia. "I think they should revoke the EUA because clearly based on the data it is no longer considered a treatment for covid."
...
A study of Veterans Affairs patients hospitalized with the coronavirus found no benefit and higher death rates among those taking hydroxychloroquine, researchers said last month.

More than 27 percent of patients treated with hydroxychloroquine died, and 22 percent of those treated with the combination therapy died, compared with an 11.4 percent death rate in those not treated with the drugs, the study said.


fairleft , May 16 2020 13:13 utc | 82

Posted by: b | May 16 2020 9:39 utc | 61

This is what I thought, you've been damaged by Trump Derangent Syndrome (TDS), so you insult with a childish phrase like "Trump's wonder medicine." You actually erased a medical doctor's respectful and evidence-laden disagreement with your 'line'. In any case, I'm not participating in the childish Trump/antiTrump, pro-hydroxychloroquine/anti-hydroxychloroquine, pro-lockdown/anti-lockdown discourse. The evidence is split on all of these issues. You cite your evidence, those who disagree with you cite theirs. Believe it or not, neither side in the disagreement are demons.

I don't have a strong opinion on Hydroxychloroquine, but it's just that it had been widely and uncontroversially used in China from early on in the fight against Covid-19. Then, after Trump mentioned it positively, it became controversial. A classic TDS timeline doesn't mean anything factually, but it naturally raises a rational person's skepticism about the extremely negative claims suddenly appearing in places like the Washington Post and other classic TDS places. I'm not expert enough to weigh the evidence, and neither are you, b, but even a brief internet search shows China-produced scientific studies of Hydroxychloroquine showing positive results:

Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: results of a randomized clinical trial
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.22.20040758v3

"But for TTCR, the body temperature recovery time and the cough remission time were significantly shortened in the HCQ treatment group. Besides, a larger proportion of patients with improved pneumonia in the HCQ treatment group (80.6%, 25 of 31) compared with the control group (54.8%, 17 of 31)."

Chinese study finds hydroxychloroquine useful in controlling Covid mortality

"The mortality rate in the HCQ group stood at 18.8 percent against 43.5 percent in the non-HCQ group, the study noted.

"'Hydroxychloroquine treatment is significantly associated with a decreased mortality in critically-ill Covid-19 patients,' the researchers wrote. ...

"The Chinese researchers, however, also suggest that despite their findings, the randomized double-blind-control study was needed to provide stronger evidence."

So there is evidence on both sides, as contributors more expert than you or me have told you repeatedly. Non-experts don't know who's right, or if this disagreement will reach some nuanced "you're both partly right" conclusion. I will humbly continue to be open to both sides of the argument. Get well soon from TDS, b.

BM , May 16 2020 13:59 utc | 91
WaPo: Drug promoted by Trump as coronavirus 'game changer' increasingly linked to deaths
Posted by: b | May 16 2020 9:39 utc | 61

b,
do you have any conception of the lobbying methods used by Big Pharma?
Do you have any conception of the financial clout they have available for protecting their interests?
Do you have any conceptions of the influence they have, of the revolving doors between Big Pharma, pharmaceutical regulatory bodies, medical schools and every single level of the medical industry?
Do you have any conception of the way pharmaceutical registration works, and of the corrupt and fraudulent practices used to obtain authorisation for drugs?

It is one gigantic spaghetti pot of corruption and deception. Boeing/FAA is miniscule and almost angelic by comparison (and far less deadly also).


Coincidentally I have direct first-hand experience of both sides of the activities of Big Pharma concerning one specific highly effective cancer drug that the world's biggest Pharma corporations have tried for the last 40 years to eradicate (finally almost successful by 2014, unfortunately). I have direct first-hand experience of the highest praise they share amongst their own top elites of the efficacy of that competitor's medicine against all known types of cancer. I also have close 2nd hand inside knowledge of their efforts to purchase the patents for that same medicine for vast sums of money. I also personally know the proprietor and developer of that same medicine, and have witnessed and experienced first hand some of the fraudulent and criminal methods Big Pharma have used non-stop for 40 years to try to force my friend out of business, together with the lies and deception they have used publicly falsely alleging its "danger" and "inefficacy", together even with using police to illegally force parents to stop using it for their seriously ill children who had already dramatically benefited from its use, and forcing doctors to stop using it for treatment. I also have extensive 2nd hand knowledge of their activities to that effect, and have good reason to believe they are true. I have also used that medicine myself, to great effect, and closely know a medical practice which has used it with considerable medical success, and of the coercion they also experienced not to use it.

The way the Western medical establishment has handled the question of the use of chloroquine and closely related drugs for Covid-19 is in every single respect and at every level 100% typical of Big Pharma disinformation projects .

The very fact that the US medical establishment approved use of hydroxychloroquine under specific conditions that ensure it is used exclusively at a very late stage after the virus has ceased to replicate guarantees that all or almost all major Western hydroxychloroquine trials will be negative - because it is a specific and known requirement of hydroxychloroquine therapy that the therapy is conducted early whilst the virus is stil replicating - later it is known to be useless. The approval of its use under such conditions is the specific result of Big Pharma influence . That is how they operate all the time.

Big Pharma is no more honest about either the safety or the efficacity of its products than are the White Helmets about their activities in Syria. Many of the most dangerous drugs sold by the biggest companies are approved on the basis of very small, improperly balanced trials, sometimes fraudulently conducted. Trials which give the wrong result are routinely hidden. Research on toxicity and dangerous side-effects are routinely inadequate, frequently fraudulent or knowingly misleading, and legal requirements for drug authorisations are frequently waived on the basis of influence campaigns. This is especially so for new chemotherapy drugs, which are intrinsically highly toxic and are normally used at very close to the fatal dose. There is no level playing field at all, quite the contrary.

Big Pharma do not profit from cures - they profit from selling very expensive drugs, and they are far more ruthless than the White Helmets in destroying any potential threat to their profits. There is no more effective threat to the World-View of Big Pharma - as I know from first hand experience - than effective cures, especially where they are cheap and unpatentable, or the patents are owned outside the cabal. Any such cure must be destroyed at all costs.

Several of the Big Pharma companies in recent years have been given multi-billion dollar fines for the fraud and subversion they have utilised in obtaining authorisation for drugs which are dangerous to the patient, and for their marketing of drugs known to be dangerous.

The patent for chloroquine and its derivatives has expired. It has been widely used for many years, its hazards and limitations are thoroughly documented, and it is in this respect - under proper supervision with respect to its known hazards and limitations and qualified by them - incomparably safer than any new and barely tested pharmaceutical drug or vaccine such as Remdesivir. It is cheaply produced around the world. Therefore, no full-scale well-controlled randomised clinical trial of hydroxychloroquine treatment for Covid-19 will ever be conducted in a major Western country. Big Pharma will ensure that.

Blue Dotterel , May 16 2020 14:17 utc | 94
Turkey uses Chloroquine as well
"Koca explained that unlike the other countries, in Turkey doctors do not advise people with symptoms such as fever, store throat and coughing to take antipyretics and stay at home, but invite them to hospital and immediately start treatment by administering chloroquine to the people in suspicious cases without waiting for the results from the test results.

Another difference between the methods Turkey and other countries use is that in addition to chloroquine, an antibiotic, called azithromycin, is used in the early stages of the treatment, Koca noted."
https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-model-proves-effective-in-covid-19-treatment-154220

So one has to wonder

Blue Dotterel , May 16 2020 14:17 utc | 94
Turkey uses Chloroquine as well
"Koca explained that unlike the other countries, in Turkey doctors do not advise people with symptoms such as fever, store throat and coughing to take antipyretics and stay at home, but invite them to hospital and immediately start treatment by administering chloroquine to the people in suspicious cases without waiting for the results from the test results.

Another difference between the methods Turkey and other countries use is that in addition to chloroquine, an antibiotic, called azithromycin, is used in the early stages of the treatment, Koca noted."
https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-model-proves-effective-in-covid-19-treatment-154220

So one has to wonder

Hoarsewhisperer , May 16 2020 14:46 utc | 98
...
The very fact that the US medical establishment approved use of hydroxychloroquine under specific conditions that ensure it is used exclusively at a very late stage after the virus has ceased to replicate guarantees that all or almost all major Western hydroxychloroquine trials will be negative-
...
Posted by: BM | May 16 2020 13:59 utc | 91

I'm calling bullshit on that claim.
Whoever made it is an ignoramus with no knowledge, or understanding, of what Clinical Trials involve, how many variables have to be tested, nor why it takes so long for such trials to reach a 'safe' set of recommendations. If ever...

Trailer Trash , May 16 2020 15:36 utc | 105
>I'm calling bullshit on that claim.

Unfortunately the poster doesn't state what is wrong with the claim. Assertions that another poster is ignorant are not relevant. Neither are appeals to authority.

BM , May 16 2020 16:24 utc | 112
One does have to wonder whether it is simply a matter that the difficulty in the US concerning early diagnosis is the real problem that makes use of the drug impractical here. Perhaps we just don't have the resources, teams of testers and physicians and nurses, for the accuracy and careful monitoring of patients in early stage infection required when using this drug.
Posted by: juliania | May 16 2020 15:17 utc | 103

I'm afraid it's not anything to do with early diagnosis, it is only about profit. As Blue Dotterel said, it is about profit, not curing patients. For Big Pharma the very last thing they want is for the patient to be cured - a dead patient is far more profitable. No wonder Gilead holds the more promising GS-441524 off the market, because they can make more profit from a more expensive useless drug that will be in patent for far longer.

Big Pharma expects to make many trillions of dollars profit per year on Covid-19, as they do on cancer. The more Covid cases, the more profits. The less effective the efforts to reduce infections, the more profits. The less availability of PPE, the more profits. The more chaotic and irrational the government policies, the more profit. Big Pharma profits at every step.

They will stop at nothing to block proper trials of hydroxychloroquine - including bribery, coercion, and sabotage, not just massive disinformation. They will spend billions just to block
proper trials, using myriad different methods of subterfuge and subversion. That is just small change compared to the profits they want and expect.

The entire philosophy of Western medicine is a dying patient - it is corrupt, it is dishonest, its entire foundations are fraudulent. There is an urgent need for a whole new paradigm for medicine that is based on maximising the health of society, not on maximising profit.

There is a story I heard on television several decades ago - I think it was true, but I am not certain - about an old Chinese tradition. Villagers would pay a regular monthly fee to the doctor, as long as they stay healthy. As soon as they fall sick they stop paying, and the doctor has to cure them (without charge). Only when they get better will they resume the normal regular payments. Think about it, what is the best interest of the doctor towards his patient? He has an investment in their good health. Now compare the Western system. What interest does the doctor have in the patient's health? If the patient is sick for 4 times as long and then dies, is the doctor richer or poorer? If the doctor gives drugs with side effects, which need more drugs against the side effects, will he be richer or poorer? If there are two drugs available, one cheap, one expensive, which one does the doctor prefer?

Think about it Juliana, the last time you went to a hospital, how much did it cost? How many useless medicines did the doctor give you, versus how many basic essential medicines?

Western medicine is a big scam. It is a business. The second biggest business in the world after war.

That is why I reject Western medicine. For 20 years I have used only non-Western medicine.

[May 16, 2020] Remdesivir is a drug looking for a disease

May 16, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

abierno , May 15 2020 19:34 utc | 10

Deep thanks for the comment on Remdesivir. I've seen this appraisal in the medical community but not in any public commentary. It was developed to address Ebola and failed miserably. Tagged "a drug looking for a disease."

[May 15, 2020] The games cats play: a cat which went out of the house and met a cat already infected with Covid-19 comes back home and infects its own human servant

May 15, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

oldhippie , May 15 2020 22:32 utc | 27

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM)has a correspondence about cats:

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Domestic Cats

Cats can get infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and do replicate it strongly in their respiratory system. But the cats do not get sick and show no symptoms. During the study three infected cats were each put into the same cage as a not-infected cat. They transmitted the disease to the previously non-infected ones. The researchers tested if the viruses the cats produce are still able to grow on human tissues. Unfortunately they are.

This means that a cat which went out of the house and met a cat who's owner has Covid-19 might come back home and infect its own human servant. Household cats may also play a role in the infection chain between household members. Any cat owner who goes into lockdown or is quarantined at home must also quarantine the cat. So far COVID lives in cats, Siberian tigers, bats, pangolins, raccoon dogs, ferrets. Only commonality here is they are all mammals. There have been a couple reports that it lives in dogs as well. If conclusions can be drawn from this it would seem to be a simple and indiscriminate virus. And we must mask our dogs, mask our cats, make them wear diapers if they go outside.

[May 15, 2020] French researchers High temperatures ineffective against coronavirus TheHill

May 15, 2020 | thehill.com

The novel coronavirus can survive in high temperatures, researchers said, casting doubt on suggestions that the threat will subside in the summer.

Researchers from the University of Aix-Marseille in France, led by Remi Charrel and Boris Pastorino, found that the virus survived in 140-degree Fahrenheit temperatures typically used to disinfect research labs, The Jerusalem Post reported .

It took 15 minutes of exposure to 197.6-degree temperatures to kill the virus, the newspaper noted, adding that the study had yet to be peer-reviewed.

Researchers did say the lower temperature should be sufficient to deactivate the virus in samples with smaller loads but added that the higher temperature was necessary for larger loads and concluded that disinfecting chemicals were a better option.

Earlier research has reached similar conclusions.

A National Academies of Sciences (NAS) panel told the White House in early April that previous research suggesting a connection between temperature and the virus's transmissibility was flawed. "There is some evidence to suggest that [the coronavirus] may transmit less efficiently in environments with higher ambient temperature and humidity; however, given the lack of host immunity globally, this reduction in transmission efficiency may not lead to a significant reduction in disease spread" without efforts such as social distancing, the NAS report stated, noting that SARS and MERS are not seasonal.

[May 15, 2020] Uncovering Why the COVID-19 Virus Is So Infectious and Efficiently Evades Immune Responses

May 15, 2020 | scitechdaily.com

SARS-CoV-2 , the virus that causes COVID-19 , is highly infectious. Curiously, in many patients, it triggers poor immune responses, which prolongs illness. This helps the virus spread widely, exacerbating the global pandemic. In a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , researchers at the University of Minnesota identified the biochemical mechanism that may explain how the virus infects people efficiently while evading their immune responses.

This study, led by Fang Li, a professor in the College of Veterinary Medicine, examined the mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 enters cells. Specifically, the team of scientists investigated how the virus "unlocks" human cells using a surface spike protein as the "key." They made three important findings:

"Typically when a virus develops mechanisms to evade immune responses, it loses its potency to infect people," said Li. "However, SARS-CoV-2 maintains its infectivity using two mechanisms. First, during its limited exposure time, the tip of the viral key grabs a receptor protein on human cells quickly and firmly. Second, the pre-activation of the viral key allows the virus to more effectively infect human cells."

Li says that recognizing the evasiveness of SARS-CoV-2 is important for designing antibody drugs and vaccines. Antibody drugs would need to overpower the tip of the hidden viral key by latching onto it very quickly and tightly during its limited exposure time. Alternatively, drugs can target other parts of the viral key that are more exposed.

Li recommends that successful antiviral strategies will need to consider both the potency of the virus and its evasiveness.

Reference: "Cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2" by Jian Shang, Yushun Wan, Chuming Luo, Gang Ye, Qibin Geng, Ashley Auerbach and Fang Li, 6 May 2020, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences .
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003138117

The study is coauthored by postdoctoral researchers Jian Shang, Yushun Wan, and Chuming Luo, graduate students Gang Ye and Qibin Geng, and junior scientist Ashley Auerbach. The National Institutes of Health funded the study.

[May 15, 2020] Dirty games of big pharma

Notable quotes:
"... I've seen this appraisal in the medical community but not in any public commentary. It was developed to address Ebola and failed miserably. Tagged "a drug looking for a disease." ..."
May 15, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Stonebird , May 15 2020 20:46 utc | 14

The remdesivir drug by the company Gilead gets hyped as a potential useful drug against the Covid-19 disease. This even after a serious study from China published in Lancet found it useless:

Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial

The result:

In this study of adult patients admitted to hospital for severe COVID-19, remdesivir was not associated with statistically significant clinical benefits.

A not completed Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial (ACTT) by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases also found that remdesivir does not change the mortality of serious Covid-19 cases. But it found that the drug may lead to a faster recovery. That has led to run on the hard to produce drug and confusion about its distribution .

But the real scandal behind this is that Gilead has a second drug, GS-441524, that is more promising and much easier to produce. STAT published a strong call on Gilead to release it immediately:

Gilead should ditch remdesivir and focus on its simpler and safer ancestor

The authors have the suspicion that Gilead has an ignoble motive for holding back the better drug as its patent will run out sooner:

The attractive profile of GS-441524 from both manufacturing and clinical perspectives raises this question: Why hasn't Gilead opted to advance this compound to the clinic? We would be remiss for not mentioning patents, and thus profits. The first patent on GS-441524 was issued in 2009, while the first patent for remdesivir was issued in 2017.
...
Given GS-441524's optimal properties, we -- along with the millions of people awaiting an effective treatment for Covid-19 -- are left to wonder why Gilead isn't giving it the same attention it is giving remdesivir. The world can only hope it isn't for the sake of protecting its intellectual property.
Surely it is profit that Gilead is after? I have heard quoted that one dose of remdesivir is about $1'000 so a "full" cure (whatever that may be) is $30'000. The second drug is almost certainly much cheaper.

They may think about reducing the cost if they find it is being given to the cat.

abierno , May 15 2020 19:34 utc | 11

Deep thanks for the comment on Remdesivir. I've seen this appraisal in the medical community but not in any public commentary. It was developed to address Ebola and failed miserably. Tagged "a drug looking for a disease."

[May 14, 2020] Interesting *opinion* piece supporting HCQ over remdesivir.

May 14, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Richard Steven Hack , May 13 2020 6:29 utc | 213

Interesting *opinion* piece supporting HCQ over remdesivir. I take no position on this argument - unlike many here - except that as I've said before, we need a *good* set of studies on both (and every other treatment, which includes the EVMS treatment I discuss above) and then a decent review study to interpret the results for us laymen. Perhaps that's another case of "good luck with that" any time before, say, five or ten years from now...

A Tale of Two Drugs: Money vs. Medical Wisdom
https://tinyurl.com/yadpyktu


Richard Steven Hack , May 13 2020 6:39 utc | 214

Ah, the same doctor referenced above as author of the "A Tale of Two Drugs" has another *opinion* article on the same topic - HCQ. Again, I have no idea whether her statements are factual, although presumably her quoting the CDC on HCQ is accurate, which in itself is interesting if true.

Doctors and Patients Are Pawns in a Dangerous Political Brinkmanship
https://tinyurl.com/ycpxcjry


On duration of use: "CDC has no limits on the use of hydroxychloroquine for the prevention of malaria. When hydroxychloroquine is used at higher doses for many years, a rare eye condition called retinopathy has occurred. People who take hydroxychloroquine for more than five years should get regular eye exams."

NOTE: CDC guidelines for use in malaria do not even mention the "fatal heart arrhythmia" hyped in the fear-mongering articles in the media. Rheumatology guidelines for HCQ in lupus and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not require a baseline EKG to check heart rhythm, although doctors might order one before prescribing HCQ if needed for a patient with heart disease. SARS-CoV-2 itself, which can damage to the heart, may be responsible for some heart problems now blamed on HCQ.

Hausmeister , May 13 2020 13:35 utc | 223
@ b
Did you read what you linked here?
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2012410?query=featured_home

„Conclusions

In this observational study involving patients with Covid-19 who had been admitted to the hospital, hydroxychloroquine administration was not associated with either a greatly lowered or an increased risk of the composite end point of intubation or death. Randomized, controlled trials of hydroxychloroquine in patients with Covid-19 are needed. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.)"

According to what we learnt in the meantime the use of HCQ at a quite late stadium of this illness is as meaningless as most likely the use of Remdisivir (another kind of pure antiviral medicament) would have been. The only thing what one can learn from this study isthat HCQ apparently did not damage people. So your sentence „...to be as false as the promotion of the useless but potentially dangerous Hydroxychloroquine as a therapy for Covid-19." is just nonsense.

[May 14, 2020] UCSF Health Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Prevention COVID-19 Global Clinical Knowledge Base

May 14, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Richard Steven Hack , May 13 2020 6:13 utc | 212

People might find this resource useful...

UCSF Health Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Prevention COVID-19 Global Clinical Knowledge Base
https://tinyurl.com/y9qu3qs6


The goal of this site is to compile a comprehensive but curated directory of publicly-available practice guidelines, clinical protocols, and other resources related to COVID-19. We hope this resource will encourage clinicians and medical organizations to share knowledge and compare practices with peers.

Submitted resources are reviewed by a team of medical professionals for accuracy and relevance. We do not specifically endorse any resource posted on this site.

[May 12, 2020] How coronavirus attacks the human body - The Washington Post

May 12, 2020 | www.washingtonpost.com

How coronavirus attacks the human body - The Washington Post It mostly spares the young. Until it doesn't: Last week, doctors warned of a rare inflammatory reaction with cardiac complications among children that may be connected to the virus. On Friday, New York Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo (D) announced 73 children had fallen severely ill in the state and a 5-year-old boy in New York City had become the first child to die of the syndrome. Two more children had succumbed as of Saturday.

That news has shaken many doctors, who felt they were finally grasping the full dimensions of the disease in adults. "We were all thinking this is a disease that kills old people, not kids," Reich said.

Mount Sinai has treated five children with the condition. Reich said each started with gastrointestinal symptoms, which turned into inflammatory complications that caused very low blood pressure and expanded their blood vessels. This led to heart failure in the case of the first child who died.

"The pattern of disease was different than anything else with covid," he said.

"We were all thinking this is a disease that kills old people, not kids," said David Reich, president of Mount Sinai Hospital in Manhattan. (Jeenah Moon/Reuters)

Of the millions, perhaps billions, of coronaviruses, six were previously known to infect humans.

Four cause colds that spread easily each winter, barely noticed. Another was responsible for the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome that killed 774 people in 2003. Yet another sparked the outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome in 2012, which kills 34 percent of the people who contract it. But few do.

SARS-CoV-2, the bad seed of the coronavirus family, is the seventh. It has managed to combine the infectiousness of its cold-causing cousins with some of the lethality of SARS and MERS. It can spread before people show symptoms of disease, making it difficult to control, especially without widespread and accurate testing. At the moment, social distancing is the only effective countermeasure .

It has infected 4 million people around the globe, killing more than 280,000, according to the Johns Hopkins University Coronavirus Resource Center. In the United States, 1.3 million have been infected and more than 78,000 have died.

Had SARS or MERS spread as widely as this virus, Rasmussen said, they might have shown the same capacity to attack beyond the lungs. But they were snuffed out quickly, leaving only a small sample of disease and death.

Paramedics bring home a woman with covid-19 who underwent an emergency C-section because she was gravely ill. After extensive care, including time on a ventilator, she was released from a hospital in Stamford, Conn., and she has a healthy newborn. (John Moore/Getty Images)

Trying to define a pathogen in the midst of an ever-spreading epidemic is fraught with difficulties. Experts say it will be years until it is understood how the disease damages organs and how medications, genetics, diets, lifestyles and distancing impact its course.

"This is a virus that literally did not exist in humans six months ago," said Geoffrey Barnes, an assistant professor at the University of Michigan who works in cardiovascular medicine. "We had to rapidly learn how this virus impacts the human body and identify ways to treat it literally in a time-scale of weeks. With many other diseases, we have had decades."

In the initial days of the outbreak, most efforts focused on the lungs. SARS-CoV-2 infects both the upper and lower respiratory tracts, eventually working its way deep into the lungs, filling tiny air sacs with cells and fluid that choke off the flow of oxygen.

But many scientists have come to believe that much of the disease's devastation comes from two intertwined causes.

The first is the harm the virus wreaks on blood vessels, leading to clots that can range from microscopic to sizable. Patients have suffered strokes and pulmonary emboli as clots break loose and travel to the brain and lungs. A study in the Lancet, a British medical journal, showed this may be because the virus directly targets the endothelial cells that line blood vessels.

The second is an exaggerated response from the body's own immune system, a storm of killer "cytokines" that attack the body's own cells along with the virus as it seeks to defend the body from an invader.

Research and therapies are focused on these phenomena. Blood thinners are being more widely used in some hospitals . A review of records for 2,733 patients, published Wednesday in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, indicates they may help the most seriously ill.

"Things change in science all the time. Theories are made and thrown out. Hypotheses are tweaked. It doesn't mean we don't know what we are doing. It means we are learning," said Deepak Bhatt, executive director of interventional cardiology at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston.

Inflammation of those endothelial cells lining blood vessels may help explain why the virus harms so many parts of the body, said Mandeep Mehra, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and one of the authors of the Lancet study on how covid-19 attacks blood vessels.

Subtitle Settings Font Font Size Font Edge Font Color Background The novel coronavirus is a master of disguise: Here's how it works Skip

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That means defeating covid-19 will require more than antiviral therapy, he said.

"What this virus does is it starts as a viral infection and becomes a more global disturbance to the immune system and blood vessels -- and what kills is exactly that," Mehra said. "Our hypothesis is that covid-19 begins as a respiratory virus and kills as a cardiovascular virus."

The thinking of kidney specialists has evolved along similar lines. Initially, they attributed widespread and severe kidney disease to the damage caused by ventilators and certain medications given to intensive-care patients, said Daniel Batlle, a professor of medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.

Then they noticed damage to the waste-filtering kidney cells of patients even before they needed intensive care. And studies out of Wuhan found the pathogen in the kidneys themselves, leading to speculation the virus is harming the organ.

"There was nothing unique at first," Batlle said. But the new information "shows this is beyond the regular bread-and-butter acute kidney injury that we normally see."

Like other coronaviruses, SARS-Cov-2 infiltrates the body by attaching to a receptor, ACE2, found on some cells. But the makeup of the spikes that protrude from this virus is somewhat different, allowing the virus to bind more tightly. As a result, fewer virus particles are required to infect the host. This also may help explain why this virus is so much more infectious than SARS, Rasmussen said.

Other factors can't be ruled out in transmission, she said, including the amount of virus people shed and how strictly they observe social distancing rules.

Once inside a cell, the virus replicates, causing chaos. ACE2 receptors, which help regulate blood pressure, are plentiful in the lungs, kidneys and intestines -- organs hit hard by the pathogen in many patients. That also may be why high blood pressure has emerged as one of the most common preexisting conditions in people who become severely ill with covid-19.

A colorized scan of a cell (shown in red) infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (shown in yellow), isolated from a patient sample. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

The receptors differ from person to person, leading to speculation that genetics may explain some of the variability in symptoms and how sick some people become.

Those cells "are almost everywhere, so it makes sense that the virus would cause damage throughout the body," said Mitchell Elkind, a professor of neurology at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons and president-elect of the American Heart Association.

Inflammation spurs clotting as white blood cells fight off infection. They interact with platelets and activate them in a way that increases the likelihood of clotting, Elkind said.

Such reactions have been seen in severe infections, such as sepsis. But for covid-19, he said, "we are seeing this in a large number of people in a very short time, so it really stands out."

"The virus can attack a lot of different parts of the body, and we don't understand why it causes some problems for some people, different problems for others -- and no problems at all for a large proportion," Elkind said.

Coughlin, in critical condition at a hospital in Connecticut, deteriorated quickly after she reached the emergency room. Her fever shot up to 105 and pneumonia developed in her lungs.

On Wednesday, she called her six daughters on FaceTime, telling them doctors advised she go on a ventilator.

"If something happens to me, and I don't make it, I'm at peace with it," she told them.

The conversation broke daughter Coleman's heart.

"I am deciding to help her go on a ventilator, and she may never come off," she said. "That could have been my last phone conversation with her."

Illustrations from iStock. Edited by Carol Eisenberg . Photo editing by Nick Kirkpatrick . Copy-edited by Jennifer Anderson and Thomas Floyd. Design and development by Tyler Remmel.

Read more:

Coronavirus destroys lungs. But doctors are finding its damage in kidneys, hearts and elsewhere.

Young and middle-aged people, barely sick with covid-19, are dying of strokes

Children are falling ill with perplexing inflammatory syndrome thought to be linked to covid-19

A mysterious blood-clotting complication is killing coronavirus patients

Frostbite' toes and other peculiar rashes may be signs of hidden coronavirus infection, especially in the young

[May 12, 2020] https://www.newsbiella.it/2020/04/28/leggi-notizia/argomenti/speciale-coronavirus-4/articolo/idrossiclorochina-vs-covid-19-una-terapia-considerata-efficace-ma-controversa-il-parere-dellinfet-4.html

May 12, 2020 | www.newsbiella.it

Posted by: cirsium | May 11 2020 23:44 utc | 43

[May 11, 2020] Do you need a personal oximeter to fight coronavirus? by By Jane Ridley

Vital for old people who live alone. Especially for those with hypertension
Apr 08, 2020 | nypost.com

ver since coronavirus survivor Andy Cohen told listeners of "Andy Cohen Live" March 30 that owning a pulse oximeter provided a source of relief for him, interest in the humble medical device has soared.

The small, handheld units, which normally attach to your finger or toe, monitor your oxygen-saturation level -- which, if that level dips below 90%, can be an indicator that you have COVID-19.

"Oximeters measure how efficient the lungs are at getting the blood filled with oxygen," Dr. Eric Cioe-Pena, director of global health at Northwell Health , tells The Post. "Most healthy people's reading of oxygen in the blood is 100%.

"We are seeing lower levels in coronavirus patients because the virus impedes their ability to oxygenate the blood. There is fluid, instead of air, in their lungs, and so, when the blood passes through those organs, it doesn't get oxygen."

The doctor, based in New Hyde Park, LI, adds that he has treated COVID-19 sufferers with blood-oxygen levels as low as 55% and even 27%.

Speaking on his radio show, Cohen, 51, said, "You could scare yourself and think: 'Oh my God, my lungs don't feel right,' but you could use this pulse oximeter and see, OK, actually, you're fine, you're within the range." CNN host Chris Cuomo, 49, who currently has the coronavirus , has also been testing his oxygen levels daily using an oximeter, according to his wife, Cristina, who shared an extensive update on Cuomo's health earlier this week.

No wonder people are scrambling to purchase their own oximeters, which can be found at pharmacies and online for anywhere from $20 to $50.

see also Andy Cohen reveals what it was like to have coronavirus His symptoms included a fever, tightness in his chest, a...

But Cioe-Pena maintains that healthy people don't need them. Not only that, a rush on the devices could cause problems at hospitals and other emergency facilities that require them, similar to the situation that played out over N95 masks and other gear for essential medical workers .

"The issue is supply and demand," explains Cioe-Pena, adding that the information given by an oximeter about oxygen is really "only good if you have the ability to supply supplementary oxygen, like you can in a hospital." He notes as well that folks with "underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension or chronic lung disease" might need to have access to oximeters more than the average healthy person with fears of contracting the coronavirus.

[May 10, 2020] Can pulse oximeters detect coronavirus How they work and more by Dale Smith

Notable quotes:
"... According to the Mayo Clinic, a normal pulse oximeter oxygen level reading is between 95% and 100% , and anything less than 90% is considered dangerously low, or hypoxic. Some doctors have reported COVID-19 patients entering the hospital with oxygen levels at 50% or below . ..."
May 08, 2020 | www.cnet.com

Some doctors are recommending these small, inexpensive devices to help monitor symptoms.

A pulse oximeter attaches to a finger and uses light to detect the level of oxygen in your blood.

As coronavirus testing efforts continue to ramp up and face masks are now a part of everyday life, a small diagnostic tool that clips to the tip of your finger is fast becoming a must-have gadget in the fight against the coronavirus . It's called a pulse oximeter, and it painlessly checks your blood oxygen level, which can be affected by lung diseases such as COVID-19.

The device was already starting to surge in popularity as word got around that people with the coronavirus frequently arrive at the hospital with abnormally low oxygen levels . After an op-ed piece in The New York Times recommended the use of pulse oximeters to detect a frightening condition called "silent hypoxia," sales of the devices skyrocketed . Many models are sold out or on lengthy backorder online. Same with brick-and-mortar drug stores, supermarkets and box stores.

[May 10, 2020] Monoclonal antibodies Drug inspired by an old treatment could be 'next big thing for Covid-19' - CNN

May 10, 2020 | www.cnn.com

At least five US teams have cloned antibodies to Covid-19, paving the way for cutting-edge treatments that could be what one researcher calls "an immunity bridge" before a vaccine comes along. The treatment is monoclonal antibody therapy, and the antibodies come from people who have recovered from the novel coronavirus. Researchers then take the blood, select the most potent antibodies, and make them into a drug. One company, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, hopes to have a treatment available to patients as early as the end of the summer. "I think monoclonal antibody therapy has enormous promise as the next big thing for Covid-19," said Dr. Peter Hotez, a vaccine specialist at Baylor University School of Medicine who is not involved in the research. Monoclonal antibody therapy is a modern take on convalescent plasma, where someone who has recovered from coronavirus donates blood to someone who is currently ill. Read More Even if convalescent plasma is effective -- it's still being studied -- it has two shortcomings. First, one person can only give so much blood. Second, the donor might not have enough strong antibodies for the blood donation to be effective. To develop a monoclonal antibody treatment, researchers cull through thousands of antibodies to find the best ones, and then clone them potentially in unlimited amounts. Many other illnesses are treated with monoclonal antibodies, such as various forms of cancer, HIV, asthma, lupus, multiple sclerosis and various forms of cancer, but of course there's no guarantee it could work for Covid-19. What happens if a coronavirus vaccine is never developed? It has happened before <img alt="What happens if a coronavirus vaccine is never developed? It has happened before" src="//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200428210047-coronavirus-new-york-0320-large-169.jpg"> What happens if a coronavirus vaccine is never developed? It has happened before "One of the things about the search is it's a little bit like finding a needle in a haystack. We're all searching for the magical antibody that's a silver bullet," said Dr. James Crowe, who's leading the Covid-19 monoclonal antibody effort at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Regeneron is hoping to start clinical trials for an antibody treatment for coronavirus in humans as soon as next month, and if everything goes right, perhaps have a treatment ready for widespread distribution by the end of the summer. "We generated thousands of [antibodies] and then selected the most powerful and potent ones to grow up into an antibody cocktail," said company president Dr. George Yancopoulos. Like any treatment under development, it might not pan out. But if it does, it could treat coronavirus and possibly also prevent infection for a period of time. A vaccine would likely offer longer lasting immunity, but that would likely take longer to develop, with the earliest estimates set at January. "I think antibodies will be finished first, and will be the bridge toward longer immunity, which will be conferred by vaccines," said Crowe, director of the Vanderbilt Vaccine Center at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. 'A guided nuclear warhead' In mid-January, researchers at the Rockefeller University in New York City heard from the National Institutes of Health: Get to work because we hope to have coronavirus antibodies cloned by the spring. About two months later, Rockefeller researcher Jill Horowitz found herself handing out fliers outside a supermarket in New Rochelle, New York, inviting people who'd recovered from coronavirus to learn more about the Rockefeller study. They won the fight against coronavirus. Here&#39;s what life looks like on the other side <img alt="They won the fight against coronavirus. Here&amp;#39;s what life looks like on the other side" src="//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/200416042613-03-coronavirus-recovery-large-169.jpg"> They won the fight against coronavirus. Here's what life looks like on the other side The city -- and in particular one synagogue -- had been hit hard by a coronavirus outbreak. "I'm Jewish, and I'm Orthodox, and I know people at Young Israel. I have friends in New Rochelle. Our kids went to school together, so I could go into the community and make my case," said Horowitz, executive director of strategic operations in the immunology laboratory at Rockefeller. In all, more than 100 people donated blood for the study, many of them from the New Rochelle community. Some of their stories will be told in an upcoming documentary, " Rebel Blood The Race to Cure Covid-19 ." The lead scientist in Rockefeller's monoclonal antibody effort compares it to battle, noting that convalescent plasma has been used for more than a century. "If you're thinking about a war, and you're fighting a war with a drug that came out of the early part of the 20thcentury, the monoclonal antibody is like a guided nuclear warhead in comparison," said Dr. Michel Nussenzweig, a professor at Rockefeller. Research by several US teams Several other US teams also say they've cloned antibodies, including Vanderbilt, Regeneron, Lilly Pharmaceuticals and Distributed Bio. Regeneron anticipates starting clinical trials next month and hopes to provide "hundreds of thousands of doses" to patients by the end of the summer, Yancopoulos said. The company already makes monoclonal antibodies for several illnesses, including cancer, arthritis and asthma. "We're using the same exact technology now to come up with a specific tailored approach against Covid-19," Yancopoulos said. Get CNN Health's weekly newsletter Sign up here to get The Results Are In with Dr. Sanjay Gupta every Tuesday from the CNN Health team. Other companies gave a longer timeline. For example, Crowe, the doctor at Vanderbilt, said he anticipates it will be around the first quarter of next year before his team might have a Covid monoclonal antibody treatment ready to distribute. He said it's a good sign that several teams are working on monoclonal antibodies. "I think the more groups we have working on it, all the better, and the more shots on goal we have for getting an effective prevention or treatment," he said.

CNN's Dr. Minali Nigam, Devon Sayers and Wes Bruer contributed to this report.

[May 09, 2020] Is Fauci corrupt? The story of Remdesevir approval suggest that YES.

Does Dr Fauci enjoy indirect financial ties to Gilead? Does he own the stock?
Notable quotes:
"... Basically, this was a negative trial. Of the 255 patients screened, 237 met the eligibility criteria, and 158 were assigned to the remdesivir group, with 79 assigned to placebo control. Unfortunately, remdesivir treatment was not associated with a shorter time to clinical improvement, and mortality was not different between the two groups. ..."
"... It does look very fishy to me. Endpoint or outcome switching, particularly late in a clinical trial is a huge red flag. ..."
"... There are also other reasons to question this trial, including how no confidence intervals were reported, that not even an abstract was published, just a press release with, as Heathers put it, "two results in four lines": ..."
"... I remain very suspicious that the NIH study was announced the same day that a negative study out of China of remdesivir was published. It just seems too convenient. Maybe I'm being overly suspicious. Maybe I'm too suspicious. Maybe I'm falling prey to conspiracy mongering. However, in the Trump era, when the Trump administration has politicized previously (mostly) apolitical government agencies as never before, it's hard not to wonder. ..."
"... He was unimpressed by remdesivir's modest benefit. "It was expected to be a whopping effect," Topol added. "It clearly does not have that." ..."
"... Indeed, given that the pre-test probability of remdesivir having a significant effect was low, meaning that this trial is probably just noise: ..."
"... But Gilead will make billions and billions of dollars ..."
"... Could Anthony Fauci explain why the investigators of the NIAID remdesivir trial did change the primary outcome during the course of the project (16th April)? Removing "death" from primary outcome is a surprising decision. ..."
"... The most common adverse effects in studies of remdesivir for COVID-19 include respiratory failure and blood biomarkers of organ impairment, including low albumin, low potassium, low count of red blood cells, low count of platelets that help with clotting, and yellow discoloration of the skin. Other reported side effects include gastrointestinal distress, elevated transaminase levels in the blood (liver enzymes), and infusion site reactions. ..."
"... So, if it does shorten duration, is it worth potential liver damage, respiratory failure and organ impairment? In other words is the cure potentially as bad as the disease. ..."
"... For yet another drug that was supposed to be a game changer, I am unimpressed by its results. The whole mechanism is wrong. A drug with this mechanism would need to be almost a prophylactic for it to be hugely effective. ..."
"... Fauci didn't seem to have any problem cautioning against unwarranted optimism for CQ/HCQ even while DJT was championing the stuff. What is different about this? . ..."
"... So, what did Fauci say about chloroquine? ""We've got to be careful that we don't make that majestic leap to assume that this is a knockout drug. We still need to do the kinds of studies that definitely prove whether any intervention is truly safe and effective," Fauci, who is also a member of the White House coronavirus task force, said during an interview on "Fox & Friends. . . "We don't operate on how you feel, we operate on what evidence and data is," Fauci said, adding that it was "not a very robust study" or "overwhelmingly strong."" (Concha, 2020 Apr 3) ..."
"... Now, what did he say about Remdesivir: "Speaking to reporters from the White House, Fauci said he was told data from the trial showed a "clear-cut positive effect in diminishing time to recover." Fauci said the median time of recovery for patients taking the drug was 11 days, compared with 15 days in the placebo group. He said the mortality benefit of remdesivir "has not yet reached statistical significance." ..."
"... Disappointingly, the lock down seems to have made a number of people irrational. Just a quick post to expound on my Fauci post for those who see the world as binary – ie: black or white. These people think you either support Fauci 100% or 0% and a single criticism of any Fauci statement means 0% support of Fauci. I do not happen to worship at the altar of Fauci or any scientist and recognize all are subject to errors – including myself. I view the world in a more nuanced manner than those with the black/white delusion. I find I can disagree with some things a person says or stands for and agree with some other things they say or do. ..."
"... I am of the opinion that Fauci made a mistake here. The evidence for Remdesiver is nowhere near good enough for it to become the standard of care. ..."
"... On the other hand, watching the White House performance from afar, I can see the administration is dysfunctional and is run by a narcissistic bully, who will publicly turn on anyone who disagrees with them. ..."
"... I believe that is the main thrust of this Orac article – that the evidence for Remdesiver efficacy is sorely lacking. ..."
May 09, 2020 | respectfulinsolence.com
Remdesivir: Gilead wins with unimpressive results announced by press release On Wednesday, Dr. Anthony Fauci announced positive results for the antiviral drug remdesivir treating COVID-19. They were unimpressive and, suspiciously, announced by press release rather than scientific paper. It's all very fishy, but one thing's for sure. Gilead Sciences will make boatloads of money. I've been writing a lot about the unjustified and premature hype over hydroxychloroquine, an anti-malarial drug with mild immunosuppressive activity that is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases and how the drug probably doesn't work against COVID-19, despite its being hyped by President Trump and his sycophants, toadies, and lackeys on Fox News, Dr. Mehmet Oz , Dr. Phil , Dr. Didier Raoult , and a bevy of irresponsible fame seeking doctors who have no idea how to do a proper clinical study.

There are, however, other drugs being hyped out there, drugs that might actually have a better chance of turning out to be effective treatments for COVID-19. Chief among these is remdesivir, the experimental antiviral drug being tested by Gilead Sciences.

Remdesivir is an adenosine (a nucleotide) analog that inhibits viral RNA polymerases. It is incorporated into RNA made by the virus, causing the premature termination of the RNA molecule, thus interfering with viral replication. The drug was originally developed to treat Ebola and Marburg but was ultimately found to be ineffective against these viruses . Because it inhibits the replication of a number of RNA viruses, it was only natural that it would be considered as a possible treatment for COVID-19, and Gilead has been relentlessly promoting it as such as the company has been working to carry out clinical trials.

What prompted me to write about remdesivir were headlines like Dr. Anthony Fauci says Gilead's remdesivir will set a new 'standard of care' for coronavirus treatment that started popping up on Wednesday afternoon:

White House health advisor Dr. Anthony Fauci said Wednesday that data from a coronavirus drug trial testing Gilead Sciences' antiviral drug remdesivir showed "quite good news" and sets a new standard of care for Covid-19 patients.

Speaking to reporters from the White House, Fauci said he was told data from the trial showed a "clear-cut positive effect in diminishing time to recover."

Fauci said the median time of recovery for patients taking the drug was 11 days, compared with 15 days in the placebo group. He said the mortality benefit of remdesivir "has not yet reached statistical significance."

The results suggested a survival benefit, with a mortality rate of 8% for the group receiving remdesivir versus 11.6% for the placebo group, according to a statement from the National Institutes of Health released later Wednesday.

"This will be the standard of care," Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, added. "When you know a drug works, you have to let people in the placebo group know so they can take it."

My skeptical antennae started twitching immediately, because on the same day a study from China was published in The Lancet that was far less impressive. In fact, it was a negative trial. What also got my skeptical antennae all aflutter twitching away was how the results of the remdesivir trial were announced. Normally, when a study is announced to the press, it's upon publication of the paper, and the press release is issued either the same day or the evening before publication. As of last night, as I wrote this, however, the actual paper reporting the results of the clinical trial had not yet been published. As I perused Twitter on Wednesday, I found even more reasons for skepticism.

So, before I get to the study touted by Dr. Fauci, let's review some history.

Remdesivir: The early days versus COVID-19 (like, you know, three weeks ago)

The first data published on remdesivir was a single-arm uncontrolled trial that somehow got published three weeks ago in The New England Journal of Medicine . This was peak COVID-19 publishing, when an uncontrolled case series of patients with severe COVID-19 treated with remdesivir under compassionate was published in a super high impact journal like NEJM and made headlines as a result. Be that as it may, the case series examined 61 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who had an oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing room air or who were receiving oxygen support. They received a 10-day course of remdesivir, consisting of 200 mg given intravenously on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for the remaining 9 days of treatment. (Remdesivir is an intravenous drug.) The authors reported clinical improvement in 68% of evaluable patients:

Of the 61 patients who received at least one dose of remdesivir, data from 8 could not be analyzed (including 7 patients with no post-treatment data and 1 with a dosing error). Of the 53 patients whose data were analyzed, 22 were in the United States, 22 in Europe or Canada, and 9 in Japan. At baseline, 30 patients (57%) were receiving mechanical ventilation and 4 (8%) were receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. During a median follow-up of 18 days, 36 patients (68%) had an improvement in oxygen-support class, including 17 of 30 patients (57%) receiving mechanical ventilation who were extubated. A total of 25 patients (47%) were discharged, and 7 patients (13%) died; mortality was 18% (6 of 34) among patients receiving invasive ventilation and 5% (1 of 19) among those not receiving invasive ventilation.

The case series also did not collect viral load data to confirm potential antiviral activity in humans or any association between declines in viral load and clinical improvement. Basically, when you get right down to it, this study was not really much better than Didier Raoult's crappy study of his hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin combination, but that didn't stop the authors from concluding that comparisons with contemporaneous cohorts "suggest that remdesivir may have clinical benefit in patients with severe Covid-19." In reality, like Raoult's trials, this trial said nothing about the efficacy of remdesivir against COVID-19 other than that the drug could be given to COVID-19 patients with a reasonable safety profile.

Less than week later, as related by Derek Lowe , came news that two clinical trials of remdesivir in China, one for severe disease and one for moderate disease had been suspended. (They still are.) Lowe noted that both trials had the notice: "The epidemic of COVID-19 has been controlled well at present, no eligible patients can be recruited." The apparent explanation was "the stringent inclusion criteria for the trials – apparently patients had to have no previous therapy with any other experimental agent to enroll, and that eliminates a lot of people." Around the same time, Adam Feuerstein and Matthew Herper published a story in STAT, Early peek at data on Gilead coronavirus drug suggests patients are responding to treatment :

The University of Chicago Medicine recruited 125 people with Covid-19 into Gilead's two Phase 3 clinical trials. Of those people, 113 had severe disease. All the patients have been treated with daily infusions of remdesivir.

"The best news is that most of our patients have already been discharged, which is great. We've only had two patients perish," said Kathleen Mullane, the University of Chicago infectious disease specialist overseeing the remdesivir studies for the hospital.

Her comments were made this week during a video discussion about the trial results with other University of Chicago faculty members. The discussion was recorded and STAT obtained a copy of the video.

Derek Lowe discussed this story in depth, and I largely agree with him that the leak of the video to STAT was a serious breach of clinical trial ethics and protocol. (I'm not alone in suspecting that it was almost certainly intentional to jack up Gilead's stock price, a result that was achieved.) Lowe also noted:

But now that it's out there, let's talk about what's in the leak. Gilead stock jumped like a spawning salmon in after-market trading on this, and one of the reasons was that that 113 of the 125 patients were classed as having "severe disease". People ran with the idea that these must have been people on ventilators who were walking out of the hospital, but that is not the case. As AndyBiotech pointed out on Twitter, all you had to do was read the trial's exclusion criteria : patients were not even admitted into the trial if they were on mechanical ventilation. Some will have moved on to ventilation during the trial, but we don't know how many (the trial protocol has these in a separate group).

Note also that this trial is open-label; both doctors and patients know who is getting what, and note the really key point: there is no control arm. This is one of the trials mentioned in this post on small-molecule therapies as being the most likely to read out first, but it's always been clear that the tradeoff for that speed is rigor. The observational paper that was published on remdesivir in the NEJM had no controls either, of course, and that made it hard to interpret. Scratch that, it made it impossible to interpret. It will likely be the same with this trial – the comparison is between a five-day course of remdesivir and a ten-day course, and the primary endpoint is the odds ratio for improvement between the two groups.

Again, these data, such as they are, are no more useful than Didier Raoult's data on hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin to treat COVID-19, but this brings us to the Chinese trial published in The Lancet on Wednesday.

The Chinese randomized clinical trial

The Chinese trial published two days ago is the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of remdesivir to treat COVID-19, but it was also one of the studies halted. Eligible patients were adults admitted to the hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 whose symptoms had lasted less than 12 days before enrollment and who had an oxygen saturation on room air of 94% or less or a ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less (another measure of hypoxia), and radiologically confirmed pneumonia.

Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to intravenous remdesivir at the same dose as the NIH trial touted by Dr. Fauci or the same volume of placebo infusions for 10 days and were permitted concomitant use of lopinavir–ritonavir, interferons, and corticosteroids. The primary endpoint was time to clinical improvement up to day 28, defined at the time from randomization to the point of a decline of two levels on a six-point ordinal scale of clinical status (from 1=discharged to 6=death) or discharged alive from hospital, whichever came first. An intention-to-treat analysis was carried out.

Basically, this was a negative trial. Of the 255 patients screened, 237 met the eligibility criteria, and 158 were assigned to the remdesivir group, with 79 assigned to placebo control. Unfortunately, remdesivir treatment was not associated with a shorter time to clinical improvement, and mortality was not different between the two groups. Subgroup analysis looking for hypotheses found that there was a trend towards a shorter duration of symptoms (not statistically significant) in patients treated with remdesivir who had had symptoms for less than ten days. Most disappointingly, there was no detectable difference in viral load between the remdesivir groups and the placebo controls. Again, basically this was a negative study with only the barest hint that remdesivir might -- I repeat, might -- work if administered earlier in the course of COVID-19. That's some pretty thin gruel.

Which brings us to the NIH trial of remdesivir touted by Anthony Fauci.

The NIH press release for its remdesivir trial.

The results of the NIH remdesivir trial can, unfortunately, only be gleaned from the press release and news stories so far:

For the first time, a major study suggests that an experimental drug works against the new coronavirus, and U.S. government officials said Wednesday that they would work to make it available to appropriate patients as quickly as possible.

In a study of 1,063 patients sick enough to be hospitalized, Gilead Sciences's remdesivir shortened the time to recovery by 31% -- 11 days on average versus 15 days for those just given usual care, officials said. The drug also might be reducing deaths, although that's not certain from the partial results revealed so far.

"What it has proven is that a drug can block this virus," the National Institutes of Health's Dr. Anthony Fauci said.

"This will be the standard of care," and any other potential treatments will now have to be tested against or in combination with remdesivir, he said.

Here is the press release , posted to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases website:

Hospitalized patients with advanced COVID-19 and lung involvement who received remdesivir recovered faster than similar patients who received placebo, according to a preliminary data analysis from a randomized, controlled trial involving 1063 patients, which began on February 21. The trial (known as the Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial, or ACTT), sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, is the first clinical trial launched in the United States to evaluate an experimental treatment for COVID-19.

An independent data and safety monitoring board (DSMB) overseeing the trial met on April 27 to review data and shared their interim analysis with the study team. Based upon their review of the data, they noted that remdesivir was better than placebo from the perspective of the primary endpoint, time to recovery, a metric often used in influenza trials. Recovery in this study was defined as being well enough for hospital discharge or returning to normal activity level.

Preliminary results indicate that patients who received remdesivir had a 31% faster time to recovery than those who received placebo (p<0.001). Specifically, the median time to recovery was 11 days for patients treated with remdesivir compared with 15 days for those who received placebo. Results also suggested a survival benefit, with a mortality rate of 8.0% for the group receiving remdesivir versus 11.6% for the placebo group (p=0.059).

More detailed information about the trial results, including more comprehensive data, will be available in a forthcoming report. As part of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's commitment to expediting the development and availability of potential COVID-19 treatments, the agency has been engaged in sustained and ongoing discussions with Gilead Sciences regarding making remdesivir available to patients as quickly as possible, as appropriate. The trial closed to new enrollments on April 19. NIAID will also provide an update on the plans for the ACTT trial moving forward. This trial was an adaptive trial designed to incorporate additional investigative treatments.

As you can see, the difference in mortality was not statistically significantly different, although that could just be because of inadequate numbers. It's also very important to note the part about the adaptive trial design of this trial, which puts Dr. Fauci's comment about how remdesivir will become the "standard of care" going forward into the proper context. In this particular trial , multiple different drugs can be compared to placebo or standard of care. The idea is that, if a signal of efficacy is found with one drug, that drug becomes "standard of care" and the trial is adapted to study how adding other experimental drugs compares to the "standard of care." So what Dr. Fauci meant was that, based on the finding, going forward remdesivir will become the "standard of care" arm for the trial and the experimental arm will become remdesivir plus another experimental therapeutic. However, given that the FDA is on the verge of issuing an emergency use authorization for remdesivir to treat COVID-19, it looks as though remdesivir will become standard-of-care in general soon.

But back to the results. Derek Lowe observed:

it's worth noting that had there been "clear and substantial evidence of a treatment difference" during the trial that the DSMB was to have halted the study at that point. We can infer that nothing rose to that level, then: we have a difference, but not substantial enough to have ended the trial prematurely.

It's also worth noting some things posted on Twitter about the trial. For instance, Waller Gellad noted:

Since NIH remdesivir trial is in the news

was there an explanation about why the primary outcome (now positive) was changed last month to 'time until clinical recovery?' @matthewherper https://t.co/fCTc1EGI1d pic.twitter.com/W1hAACnO1r

-- Walid Gellad, MD MPH (@walidgellad) April 29, 2020

It's very odd that the primary endpoint was changed:

Thread that summarizes my concerns with Remdesivir press release (not science) as well.

Changing the endpoint midtrial this way is like hosting a race for one destination then declaring wherever you end up after running for an hour is the finish line. https://t.co/XMUXYW3njp

-- Mark Hoofnagle (@MarkHoofnagle) April 30, 2020

This long Twitter thread explains:

Here's Fauci talking about it. Give him a listen, sharpen your ears at about 0.30.

"The primary endpoint was the time to recovery, namely the ability to be discharged."

He's right, it was.

On April 16th. https://t.co/U6Cx3XSOJ6

-- 🏴James Heathers 🏴 (@jamesheathers) April 30, 2020

I'll summarize, so that you don't have to scroll through a Twitter thread if you don't want to. As James Heathers and Waller Gellad noted, the original primary outcome of the trial when it was registered on March 20. The original primary endpoint of the trial was an 8-point severity scale (death, on ventilator, hospitalized with oxygen, all the way down to discharged with no limits on activity) but was changed to time to recovery. There's still a similar scale for the secondary endpoints, but no numbers for that were reported. (Any bets on whether the results are negative?) This change was apparently made on or around April 16.

Gellad also notes:

last thing:
Here is the results table for the negative lancet trial of remdesivir. The highlighted results are what the primary outcome for the NIH trial was until 2 weeks ago. https://t.co/niQ65zgLF2

We need to see that outcome, in addition to time until recovery. pic.twitter.com/ptXGhPx13N

-- Walid Gellad, MD MPH (@walidgellad) April 30, 2020

It does look very fishy to me. Endpoint or outcome switching, particularly late in a clinical trial is a huge red flag. Don't get me wrong. There can be legitimate scientific reasons to switch primary endpoints of a trial. as James Heathers puts it:

Sometimes it becomes clear after you start that the registration is incomplete or wrong. Sometimes you have a better idea after you start. Sometimes your thinking changes.

Other times, you're trying to cherry-pick the results.

-- James Heathers 🏴 (@jamesheathers) April 30, 2020

There are also other reasons to question this trial, including how no confidence intervals were reported, that not even an abstract was published, just a press release with, as Heathers put it, "two results in four lines":

(2) the results in the press release. I call this 'two results, four sentences' – press releases describe the results in incredibly brief terms, usually the two most positive outcomes w the briefest explanation possible. He's me bitching about it earlier. https://t.co/FQlaAQaytG

-- James Heathers 🏴 (@jamesheathers) April 30, 2020

Basically, if you have two "good" results and twenty "bad" or uninterpretable results, what do you do? What are you going to tell people? The two "good" results, of course!

Gary Schwitzer has a nice summary of the negative reactions to the trial and how it was announced.

The bottom line

I remain very suspicious that the NIH study was announced the same day that a negative study out of China of remdesivir was published. It just seems too convenient. Maybe I'm being overly suspicious. Maybe I'm too suspicious. Maybe I'm falling prey to conspiracy mongering. However, in the Trump era, when the Trump administration has politicized previously (mostly) apolitical government agencies as never before, it's hard not to wonder.

Adding to my suspicion is the fact that the study was reported in a press release, rather than being published, which makes me wonder if the press release was written to counter the negative study from China that would certainly have tanked Gilead's stock prices. Yes, I know that the press release reported that this decis, apparently the announcement was decided upon after April 27 meeting of the data and safety monitoring board overseeing this trial, but the outcome switching so late in the trial makes me very suspicious. Yes, the explanation, which should have been in the press release, along with an acknowledgment that the primary outcome/endpoint had been changed, but wasn't is not unreasonable:

NIAID explains why endpoint of remdesivir trial was changed: pic.twitter.com/Zpl08nd4PL

-- Meg Tirrell (@megtirrell) April 30, 2020

Then there was this news report in which Fauci claimed that concerns about leaks fueled the announcement:

He expressed concern that leaks of partial information would lead to confusion. Since the White House was not planning a daily virus briefing, Fauci said he was invited to release the news at a news conference with Louisiana Gov. John Bel Edwards(D). "It was purely driven by ethical concerns," Fauci told Reuters in a telephone interview.

"I would love to wait to present it at a scientific meeting, but it's just not in the cards when you have a situation where the ethical concern about getting the drug to people on placebo dominates the conversation."

An independent data safety and monitoring board, which had looked at the preliminary results of the NIAID trial, determined it had met its primary goal of reducing hospital stays.

On Tuesday evening, that information was conveyed in a conference call to scientists studying the drug globally.

"There are literally dozens and dozens of investigators around the world," Fauci said. "People were starting to leak it." But he did not give details of where the unreported data was being shared.

I smell bullshit here. What probably really happened is that he was under enormous pressure to release the results. It was also unwise to discuss the results with so many scientists until the manuscript reporting the results of the trial had at least been submitted for publication. I agree with the scientists who had "expected it [the trial data] to be presented simultaneously in a detailed news release, a briefing at a medical meeting or in a scientific journal, allowing researchers to review the data." I also agree with Dr. Eric Topol, referring to the Chinese RCT and this one:

"That's the only thing I'll hang my hat on, and that was negative," said Dr. Eric Topol, director and founder of the Scripps Research Translational Institute in La Jolla, California.

He was unimpressed by remdesivir's modest benefit. "It was expected to be a whopping effect," Topol added. "It clearly does not have that."

Indeed, given that the pre-test probability of remdesivir having a significant effect was low, meaning that this trial is probably just noise:

Unfortunately, by the time you are symptomatic with a virus, you are usually already high/peak viral load. So, when you give an antiviral to someone who is already ill, the damage from the virus is largely done. It's there in big numbers and in the cells.

-- Mark Hoofnagle (@MarkHoofnagle) May 1, 2020

Indeed, I'm not only unimpressed with the modest benefit reported, I question whether there really was any benefit at all, particularly in light of the Chinese trial, which found zero difference in viral load in the remdesivir group.

The whole thing looks damned fishy, and we can't judge the study until it's actually published. Meanwhile, whatever the true reasons for releasing the study results this way, mission accomplished. The negative effect of the Chinese study on Gilead's stock price was successfully countered and remdesivir becomes a de facto standard of care for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Worse, no further trials of remdesivir versus placebo will be possible, because it's been declared that remdesivir "works" against COVID-19 and is the new standard of care! As Mark Hoofnagle put it in a great Twitter thread, that echoes my thoughts:

By the end of the day, reports that FDA is going to emergently approve remdesivir for treatment of COVID.

Gilead gets what they want. No one will want to be in a control arm in further trials and they will argue all future trials must be noninferiority.

-- Mark Hoofnagle (@MarkHoofnagle) May 1, 2020

Absolute genius. You have to salute them. On the day a negative trial of their drug is reported, based on a press release they took over the news cycle, and with some midstream edits to their endpoints their now "positive" trial wins them FDA approval and a halted trial.

-- Mark Hoofnagle (@MarkHoofnagle) May 1, 2020

It's worse than that. If remdesivir is now the "standard of care" for hospitalized COVID-19 patients, it now becomes unethical to randomize them to a placebo group testing ANY new drug for COVID-19. Trials will now have to compare remdesivir alone to remdesivir plus experimental drug. We'll probably never know now for sure if remdesivir is truly effective against COVID-19.

But Gilead will make billions and billions of dollars.

Related The FDA's emergency use authorization of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19: Dangerous politics, not science

Yesterday, the FDA issued emergency use authorization for hydroxychloroqine and chloroquine to treat COVID-19. Politics, not science, is why.

By Orac Orac is the nom de blog of a humble surgeon/scientist who has an ego just big enough to delude himself that someone, somewhere might actually give a rodent's posterior about his copious verbal meanderings, but just barely small enough to admit to himself that few probably will. That surgeon is otherwise known as David Gorski ...

John Kane says: May 2, 2020 at 8:52 am

In long twitter exchange mainly led by James Heathers, has anyone noticed that there are a series of tweets by Didier Raoult ?

One tweet reads:

Could Anthony Fauci explain why the investigators of the NIAID remdesivir trial did change the primary outcome during the course of the project (16th April)? Removing "death" from primary outcome is a surprising decision.

In a quick search of the web I found the following two:

WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS OF REMDESIVIR (RDV)?

In the Ebola trial, researchers noted side effects of remdesivir (RDV) that included:

Typical antiviral drug side effects include:

Nausea
Vomiting

Found at: https://www.rxlist.com/consumer_remdesivir_rdv/drugs-condition.htm

Side effects

The most common adverse effects in studies of remdesivir for COVID-19 include respiratory failure and blood biomarkers of organ impairment, including low albumin, low potassium, low count of red blood cells, low count of platelets that help with clotting, and yellow discoloration of the skin. Other reported side effects include gastrointestinal distress, elevated transaminase levels in the blood (liver enzymes), and infusion site reactions.

Other possible side effects of remdesivir include:

Infusion‐related reactions. Infusion‐related reactions have been seen during a remdesivir infusion or around the time remdesivir was given.[8] Signs and symptoms of infusion‐related reactions may include: low blood pressure, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and shivering.

Increases in levels of liver enzymes, seen in abnormal liver blood tests. Increases in levels of liver enzymes have been seen in people who have received remdesivir, which may be a sign of inflammation or damage to cells in the liver.

Found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remdesivir

So, if it does shorten duration, is it worth potential liver damage, respiratory failure and organ impairment? In other words is the cure potentially as bad as the disease.

And, as Orac and many commenters have made more than clear, one more example of Trump's government, ignoring science, and jumping to conclusions.

And once more I suggest reading the following:

Jeanne Lenzer and Shannon Brownlee (April 28, 2020). Pandemic Science Out of Control. Issues in Science and Technology. Available at: https://issues.org/pandemic-science-out-of-control/

Joel A. Harrison, PhD, MPH says: May 2, 2020 at 7:05 pm
ADDENDUM

I found the following: "Particular laboratory features have also been associated with worse outcomes (table 2). These include: Elevated liver enzymes"

Found at: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-epidemiology-virology-clinical-features-diagnosis-and-prevention?search=coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19- demiology-virology-clinical-features-diagnosis-and-prevention&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1

So, one of the side-effects has been associated with worse outcomes. Not exactly a ringing endorsement of Remdesivir.

Chris Preston says: May 2, 2020 at 6:52 pm
For yet another drug that was supposed to be a game changer, I am unimpressed by its results. The whole mechanism is wrong. A drug with this mechanism would need to be almost a prophylactic for it to be hugely effective.
Tim says: May 3, 2020 at 11:33 am

One thing they discovered is that the proteins involved have zinc atoms incorporated into their structure. This won't surprise any biochemists, as zinc-containing proteins are common. But there's been a steady flow of fringe treatments for the disease -- including some involving chloroquine derivatives -- in which zinc was a key component. We'll have to see whether that changes now that it's clear that zinc is needed to make copies of the virus (assuming that fact registers at all with the people prone to promoting fringe therapies).

https://arstechnica.com/science/2020/05/scientists-get-an-atomic-level-look-at-how-a-drug-blocks-the-coronavirus/

What is that saying about zinc? I've always heard that zinc was a good thing to have a high intracellular level of it to protect against viruses besides also being needed to make NO.

https://arstechnica.com/science/2020/05/nih-cuts-coronavirus-funding-amid-trump-comments-and-conspiracy-theories/

Joel A. Harrison, PhD, MPH says: May 4, 2020 at 1:11 pm
@ Reality

So: "Fauci just dropped down a level or two in my estimation of his commitment to rationality."

Let's look at the "Reality": "America needs a federal government that assertively promotes and helps to coordinate that, not one in which experts like Tony Fauci and Deborah Birx tiptoe around a president's tender ego."

I wouldn't want to be in Fauchi's shoes. If he openly criticizes Trump, he is out and staying in allows him to have some effect. Damned if he does and damned if he doesn't. So, he has to balance his "committment to rationality" to trying to modify/reduce the insanity of Trump. If he resigned or was fired, could he have more of an influence? Maybe, maybe not. I would not want to be in his shoes! ! ! Personally, I would probably resign and try to get our media to listen to me. Just standing next to Trump would turn my stomach.

So, maybe you should live up to your "name" and evaluate "reality" not an idealistic world.

Reality says: May 4, 2020 at 2:22 pm
So you wouldn't say what Fauci said and would quit, eh, Joel?
I wouldn't say what Fauci said about "standard of care" which is basically his endorsement of this.
I believe Orac wouldn't make that statement endorsing Remdesivir as the "standard of care".
I don't know of any self-respecting scientist who would make such a statement no matter what the pressure.
If I was pressured by DJT I would object but maybe agree to not make any statement pro or con about the subject – so as to keep my position and influence but if someone asked me to say something I thought was not true I would not do it and refuse.
.
Fauci didn't seem to have any problem cautioning against unwarranted optimism for CQ/HCQ even while DJT was championing the stuff. What is different about this?
.

That is the Reality of this Fauci statement.

A. Harrison, PhD, MPH says: May 4, 2020 at 4:31 pm
@ Reality

You write: "Fauci didn't seem to have any problem cautioning against unwarranted optimism for CQ/HCQ even while DJT was championing the stuff. What is different about this?"

Yep; but the only studies promoting CQ/HCQ was a fraudulent one in France and an in vitro study.

What about Remdesivir? First it is a nucleic acid analogue designed to directly disrupt replication of the viral genome. Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine were not even remotely designed to target viruses, though they have a moderate dampening effect on immune reactions, so they work for autoimmune diseases (e.g., lupus, rheumatoid arthritis); but, as I wrote in a previous exchange, the immune response in an autoimmune disease compared to a cytokine storm is like comparing 20 mile per hour winds to a category 5 hurricane, 160 mph winds. In addition, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine have a large number of mild side-effects and some really serious major ones.

So, what did Fauci say about chloroquine? ""We've got to be careful that we don't make that majestic leap to assume that this is a knockout drug. We still need to do the kinds of studies that definitely prove whether any intervention is truly safe and effective," Fauci, who is also a member of the White House coronavirus task force, said during an interview on "Fox & Friends. . . "We don't operate on how you feel, we operate on what evidence and data is," Fauci said, adding that it was "not a very robust study" or "overwhelmingly strong."" (Concha, 2020 Apr 3)

Now, what did he say about Remdesivir: "Speaking to reporters from the White House, Fauci said he was told data from the trial showed a "clear-cut positive effect in diminishing time to recover." Fauci said the median time of recovery for patients taking the drug was 11 days, compared with 15 days in the placebo group. He said the mortality benefit of remdesivir "has not yet reached statistical significance."

The results suggested a survival benefit, with a mortality rate of 8% for the group receiving remdesivir versus 11.6% for the placebo group, according to a statement from the National Institutes of Health released later Wednesday. "This will be the standard of care," Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, added. "When you know a drug works, you have to let people in the placebo group know so they can take it." "What it has proven is a drug can block this virus," he said. (Lovelace, 2020 Apr 29)

"The data shows that remdesivir has a clear-cut, significant, positive effect in diminishing the time to recovery," Fauci said at the White House on Wednesday. The data he referred to is from a large study of more than 1,000 patients from multiple sites around the world. Patients either received the drug, called remdesivir, or a placebo.

Dr. Michael Saag, associate dean for global health at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, said the results seemed promising. Antiviral drugs such as remdesivir tend to work earlier in the course of an illness, so "the thing that I think is important in this study is the patients had advanced disease," said Saag, who is not involved with any remdesivir trials. (NBC News (2020 Apr 29)

Hospitalized patients with advanced COVID-19 and lung involvement who received remdesivir recovered faster than similar patients who received placebo, according to a preliminary data analysis from a randomized, controlled trial involving 1063 patients, which began on February 21. The trial (known as the Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial, or ACTT), sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, is the first clinical trial launched in the United States to evaluate an experimental treatment for COVID-19.

An independent data and safety monitoring board (DSMB) overseeing the trial met on April 27 to review data and shared their interim analysis with the study team. Based upon their review of the data, they noted that remdesivir was better than placebo from the perspective of the primary endpoint, time to recovery, a metric often used in influenza trials [my emphasis]. Recovery in this study was defined as being well enough for hospital discharge or returning to normal activity level. . .

Results also suggested a survival benefit, with a mortality rate of 8.0% for the group receiving remdesivir versus 11.6% for the placebo group (p=0.059). the group receiving remdesivir versus 11.6% for the placebo group (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (2020 Apr 29).

So, first I'd bet you don't understand how nucleic acid analogues work?
Second, though I tend not to rely on one study, this one was fairly large and the shortening of time to recovery was clinically significant, "defined as being well enough for hospital discharge or returning to normal activity level." And Dr. Michael Saag: "Antiviral drugs such as remdesivir tend to work earlier in the course of an illness, so "the thing that I think is important in this study is the patients had advanced disease,"

Standard of Care is more a legal definition than a clinical one. Basically it reduces risk of malpractice lawsuits.

While I probably would not have called it "standard of care", instead clearly stating that based on the recent trial, it is currently the best we have to offer or something to that effect.

So, Fauci didn't call it a cure, didn't claim it reduced mortality, though indications it did, and based on over 1,000 patients, found it reduced hospitalization and return to normal life by a clinically significant margin, the standard used for flu studies. Again, I would have been more cautious in my working; but your rank attack on a man who knows more about infectious diseases that you, I, and many others, a man who has dedicated his life to preventing and dealing with them is just plain sickening. Your black and white view of Fauci is how antivaccinationists and other adherers to unscience see the world. And an MPH probably means a couple of lower level epidemiology courses. So, the old saying: A little knowledge is a dangerous thing, coupled with a personality that prefers a dichotomous world is very very problematic.

Only time and further studies will tell if Remdesivir really does shorten recovery time and, perhaps, also lowers mortality. Right now, we have nothing else and I wouldn't jump on something because of this; but the over 1,000 patient study isn't nothing.

Just to be clear, Orac's critique is valid; but, as he says, by this time one becomes perhaps overly skeptical given Trump's insanity. How cautious should Fauci have been? People are becoming desperate. The risks from Remdesivir are extremely low, so currently, either use it or continue as is.

If there were significant risks and the one study had been one a much smaller group, the scales would be different. And, though Orac is right they changed the outcome points, as mentioned, shortening of recovery time is a criterion used for treatment of flu, so, though not, perhaps, the best end-point, it is certainly not the same as some studies using endpoints such as lowered cholesterol without looking at deaths. They did look at deaths and though not significant, in the right direction. By the way, do you even understand significance levels? Though only one study, p=0.059 isn't far from p=0.05.

References:

Reality says: May 5, 2020 at 10:58 am
Disappointingly, the lock down seems to have made a number of people irrational. Just a quick post to expound on my Fauci post for those who see the world as binary – ie: black or white. These people think you either support Fauci 100% or 0% and a single criticism of any Fauci statement means 0% support of Fauci. I do not happen to worship at the altar of Fauci or any scientist and recognize all are subject to errors – including myself. I view the world in a more nuanced manner than those with the black/white delusion. I find I can disagree with some things a person says or stands for and agree with some other things they say or do.

My criticism of Fauci in regard to his remdesivir endorsement does not mean I have 0% support for Fauci it means that with that statement and some others my positive view of him is now ~80% but not 100% and I will have to check up on what he is endorsing to make sure that I agree with it just like I do with any other scientist/person.

BTW – If some were to check my Disqus account history (Reality022) you would find posts strongly defending Fauci against the Loony Libertarians who seem to think he is the debil.
.
Now to a second point:

There appears to be a group of Fauci apologists who, to excuse Fauci's statement, say it is due to 'pressure from Trump/the administration'.
I do not subscribe to this excuse and think it is a horrible thing to say for 2 reasons:

1) There is absolutely no evidence that this statement was made under pressure. That idea is totally invented in the minds of the Fauci apologists in their attempt to exonerate Fauci.

2) It is a horrible thing to say about Fauci. I take him at his word. If he said it he meant it. The excuse actually means that Fauci's word is so untrustworthy that he can be pressured into being dishonest about his scientific opinions and only the apologists can tell us when he is lying or actually relating his honest view. The apologists are basically saying Fauci is dishonest.

I have much more respect for the man and believe he is honest but in this case merely wrong.
.
That is all I'm going to say about this subject as some people are going off the rails with their binary view of the world. (snicker)

A. Harrison, PhD, MPH says: May 5, 2020 at 11:06 am

@ Reality

And you continue to miss the point that "Standard of Care" is mainly a legal term. Are you that dense? It is you who stated your opinion of Fauci sank, so your binary view of the world. Try reading my other comments, closely, maybe you will learn something; but I doubt it. "Reality", lacks reality testing. Reply

Preston says: May 5, 2020 at 8:18 pm

I tend to agree. I am of the opinion that Fauci made a mistake here. The evidence for Remdesiver is nowhere near good enough for it to become the standard of care. But then I am not the one having to make these decisions under difficult circumstances. I don't pretend to understand why Fauci might have made the comment, so don't see a lot of point in speculating about it.

On the other hand, watching the White House performance from afar, I can see the administration is dysfunctional and is run by a narcissistic bully, who will publicly turn on anyone who disagrees with them. I also see there are people within and around the White House who are happy to tell whatever lies they think Trump wants to hear, either through fear or hope for advancement. I understand why people would add 2 and 2 and come up with 5.

Reality says: May 5, 2020 at 9:28 pm
Chris Preston said, "I am of the opinion that Fauci made a mistake here. The evidence for Remdesiver is nowhere near good enough for it to become the standard of care."

I believe that is the main thrust of this Orac article – that the evidence for Remdesiver efficacy is sorely lacking.

Quoting Orac's article above: "In reality, like Raoult's trials, this trial said nothing about the efficacy of remdesivir against COVID-19 other than that the drug could be given to COVID-19 patients with a reasonable safety profile."
.
I agree with your 2nd paragraph and think that Fauci is not one of those administration toadies and is being honest and has merely made a mistake perhaps brought about through grasping-at-straws desperation as described in a current SBM article.

I, as well, do not know why Fauci made the statement but to me it is very disrespectful of the man to use as an excuse that he is dishonest enough to lie like a toady when pressured by Trump.

I think we are essentially in agreement about this matter.
Have fun.

Denice Walter says: May 5, 2020 at 10:05 pm
re dysfunctional administration.. narcissistic bully et al

It seems that the aforementioned will now " wind down" the Covid task force ( The Hill reports) but Drs Fauci and Birx will still be involved in some capacity.

AS though the battle is already won. Hah! CA and the NY area are reporting lower numbers of deaths and hospital admissions BUT whilst
other areas are increasing theirs.

Maybe the Orange One imagines that if we discuss Covid less, people will think it's gone, go back to work, buy stuff and the economy will flourish. Ignore it and it'll go away. Wishful thinking as usual.

Joel A. Harrison, PhD, MPH says: May 5, 2020 at 10:55 pm
@ Chris Preston

Apparently you lack understanding of English. As I explained even grandfathered in medical treatments with no hard scientific evidence are considered the standard of care, that is, if a doctor uses them he/she lessens risk of lawsuits. Standard of care doesn't mean a high level of scientific validity.

I guess I am wasting my time. Think of it this way, if allowed for compassionate use advised by ones doctor, then doctor may not be protected against lawsuits. Unfortunately, as something I read a long time ago, even in Colonial times Americans would rather sue than eat breakfast. Just one more sickness of American exceptionalism, so maybe, just maybe, all Fauci was doing was trying to reduce this risk.

Tim says: May 5, 2020 at 10:56 pm
No shit???

https://www.youtube.com/embed/KzRhcjOG1es?version=3&rel=1&fs=1&autohide=2&showsearch=0&showinfo=1&iv_load_policy=1&wmode=transparent

At least, he had the googles on; Wouldn't want him to get fibres in his eyes.,

Aarno Syvänen says: May 6, 2020 at 12:34 am
Not to mention that CDC closed the lab. So CDC is not part of great vaccine conspiracy, after all. Huge news, I would say. One could mention, too, that Johnson & Johnson get COVID vaccine contract. So Dorit Reiss' plots are not very effective, ater all. Reply
Natalie White says: May 6, 2020 at 10:30 am
Aarno, you made me curious about how much $$$$ and how many companies. A list of the Convid19, oops, I mean Covid19 cash! https://www.fool.com/investing/2020/04/07/here-are-all-the-companies-working-on-covid-19-vac.aspx
Natalie White says: May 9, 2020 at 10:20 am
@Aarno- Sometimes the CDC gets it right and sometimes, well .. sometimes you can't truss it. https://arstechnica.com/science/2020/04/cdcs-failed-coronavirus-tests-were-tainted-with-coronavirus-feds-confirm/

https://www.youtube.com/embed/am9BqZ6eA5c

Natalie White says: May 9, 2020 at 11:47 am
Aarno writes, "Not to mention that CDC closed the lab." Yes, sometimes they get it right. Then, they fail miserably like this https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/cdc-lab-contamination-delayed-coronavirus-testing-67438

Confidence meter less than zero.

Natalie White says: May 6, 2020 at 9:40 am
Hmm . Problems with the Wuhan Lab and those nasty bats back in 2018. Just another coincidence, I suppose. Weird. So many coincidences. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2020/04/14/state-department-cables-warned-safety-issues-wuhan-lab-studying-bat-coronaviruses/ Reply
Joel A. Harrison, PhD, MPH says: May 6, 2020 at 2:18 pm
@ Natalie White

You write: Hmm . Problems with the Wuhan Lab and those nasty bats back in 2018. Just another coincidence, I suppose. Weird. So many coincidences."

From a recent article in the Atlantic:

scientists have also identified about 500 other coronaviruses among China's many bat species. "There will be many more -- I think it's safe to say tens of thousands," says Peter Daszak of the EcoHealth Alliance, who has led that work. Laboratory experiments show that some of these new viruses could potentially infect humans. SARS-CoV-2 likely came from a bat, too.

It seems unlikely that a random bat virus should somehow jump into a susceptible human. But when you consider millions of people, in regular contact with millions of bats, which carry tens of thousands of new viruses, vanishingly improbable events become probable ones. In 2015, Daszak's team found that 3 percent of people from four Chinese villages that are close to bat caves had antibodies that indicated a previous encounter with SARS-like coronaviruses. "Bats fly out every night over their houses.

Some of them shelter from rain in caves, or collect guano for fertilizer," Daszak says. "If you extrapolate up to the rural population, across the region where the bats that carry these viruses live, you're talking 1 [million] to 7 million people a year exposed." Most of these infections likely go nowhere. It takes just one to trigger an epidemic.

Ed Yong (2020 Apr 29). Why the Coronavirus Is So Confusing. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2020/04/pandemic-confusing-uncertainty/610819/

Note. he links to peer-reviewed journal articles. So, as the second paragraph makes clear, antibodies to bat coronaviruses exist in the population, etc. Add this to the sequencing of the genome that shows just how close it is to the 2003 SARS corona virus and to bat coronaviruses and, as usual, your moronic "coincidences" just lacks any validity.

Note also that his article links to many other good ones.

As I've written before, nature is quite capable of creating really nasty microbes.

Natalie White says: May 6, 2020 at 10:17 am

Oh this guy needs a dishonorable mention, Harvard traitor, Charles Leiber. "has received more than $15,000,000 in grant funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Department of Defense (DOD)." Our tax dollars hard at work for this POS.

Dude is still collecting a paycheck. https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/harvard-university-professor-and-two-chinese-nationals-charged-three-separate-china-related Reply

Aarno Syvänen says: May 6, 2020 at 11:00 am

This is our guy:
Charles M. Lieber
Semiconductor nanowires: A platform for nanoscience and nanotechnology
MRS Bulletin
Volume 36, Issue 12 (Laser micro- and nanofabrication of biomaterials)December 2011 , pp. 1052-1063
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1557/mrs.2011.26
So COVID 19 was not involved. One should indeed not serve two masters, DOD and a Chinese university Reply
Joel A. Harrison, PhD, MPH says: May 6, 2020 at 4:48 pm
@ Natalie White

You write: "Hmm . Problems with the Wuhan Lab and those nasty bats back in 2018. Just another coincidence, I suppose. Weird. So many coincidences."

From a recent article by Ed Yong (2020 Apr 29). "Why the Coronavirus Is So Confusing: A guide to making sense of a problem that is now too big for any one person to fully comprehend." The Atlantic. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2020/04/pandemic-confusing-uncertainty/610819/

Note that he links to a number of excellent articles, including the two that the following is based on:

"scientists have also identified about 500 other coronaviruses among China's many bat species. "There will be many more -- I think it's safe to say tens of thousands," says Peter Daszak of the EcoHealth Alliance, who has led that work. Laboratory experiments show that some of these new viruses could potentially infect humans. SARS-CoV-2 likely came from a bat, too.

It seems unlikely that a random bat virus should somehow jump into a susceptible human. But when you consider millions of people, in regular contact with millions of bats, which carry tens of thousands of new viruses, vanishingly improbable events become probable ones. In 2015, Daszak's team found that 3 percent of people from four Chinese villages that are close to bat caves had antibodies that indicated a previous encounter with SARS-like coronaviruses. "Bats fly out every night over their houses. Some of them shelter from rain in caves, or collect guano for fertilizer," Daszak says. "If you extrapolate up to the rural population, across the region where the bats that carry these viruses live, you're talking 1 [million] to 7 million people a year exposed." Most of these infections likely go nowhere. It takes just one to trigger an epidemic."

So, 3 percent of people had antibodies to bat corona viruses. As the above explains, it is quite probable that the current virus came from someone infected by a bat. Now, since sequencing of the current SARS-Cov-2 has found its genome quite close to the 2003 SARS virus and to several bat coronavirus genomes, goes against your sick need to blame the Chinese. A coincidence is not even close to any type of proof, except in the mind of a moron like you looking to place blame. And there is a great book on "coincidences": David J. Hand (2014). "The Improbability Principle: Why Coincidences, Miracles, and Rare Events Happen Every Day." Basically, what someone might think is a rare coincidence isn't.

And, the major blame for what is happening in the U.S. is a combination of Trump and overall American unappreciation for Public Health and, thus, pandemic preparedness. When it comes to cutting funding, first to go.

I realize that real research, logic, etc. have NO effect on moron's like you; but, hopefully, others monitoring this exchange are open-minded.

And as Aarno pointed out, you attacked someone who had nothing to do with COVID. He worked with the Wuhan Institute of Technology; yep, in Wuhan and that's it. It's a large city dimwit. More importantly, he has been charged, not found guilty. I realize that the old adage innocent until proven guilty doesn't apply to anyone you chose to attack. You just don't know when to stop. YOU ARE DESPICABLE! Reply

[May 07, 2020] The Puzzling Questions of the Coronavirus: A Doctor Addresses 6 Questions That Are Stumping Physicians

Notable quotes:
"... Originally published at The Conversation ..."
"... Editor's Note: As researchers try to find treatments and create a vaccine for COVID-19, doctors and others on the front lines continue to find perplexing symptoms. And the disease itself has unpredictable effects on various people. Dr. William Petri, a professor of medicine at the University of Virginia Medical School, answers questions about these confusing findings. ..."
"... Even before symptoms arise ..."
"... Differences in susceptibility to a virus is one of the main working hypotheses regarding the disease Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (a.k.a. myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), and systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID). ..."
"... It is possible that the virus is spreading within crowded and substandard apartment complexes. One possible mechanism? Toilets, as an outbreak of SARs in 2003 demonstrated: https://www.cnn.com/2013/02/21/world/asia/sars-amoy-gardens/index.html ..."
"... In addition in poorly maintained buildings just going out in the hallways to put out your garbage, for example, might well expose a home bound residents to viruses lingering on common surfaces. ..."
"... The city of Hong Kong is even more crowded than New York, but last I checked its virus deaths and hospitalizations were much lower. ..."
"... This link has the slides Cuomo used plus more details: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/05/06/ny-gov-cuomo-says-its-shocking-most-new-coronavirus-hospitalizations-are-people-staying-home.html ..."
"... some aspect of their domiciles, such as plumbing or ventilation; or are they permitting non-household individuals to visit them. ..."
"... It would be interesting to see if there is a connection between the virus and apartments/co-living. ..."
"... Indians and Pakistani's in particular seem to have been hit very hard in the UK, and yet the same can't be said in their home countries. ..."
"... The drug, made by the US company Gilead Sciences, is an antiviral that was trialled in Ebola, but which failed to show benefits in Africa. ..."
"... Here is a study on an early transmission site in China, where incidents of infection seem to correlate to ventilated air flow in a restaurant: COVID-19 Outbreak Associated with Air Conditioning in Restaurant, Guangzhou, China, 2020 https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/7/20-0764_article ..."
"... Here is a not-yet-reviewed preprint of a study of two buses transporting attendees to and from an event in China. One bus (#2) had a suspected "index patient" (IP), the other didn't. https://twitter.com/zeynep/status/1255579524047220741 ..."
"... Interestingly, the conference itself produced few further cases, these were all traced to prolonged interactions with the IP. Generally with viruses, some critical mass of virions must accumulate in sufficient number to produce infection, and total net exposure may approximately correlate with severity. Untreated recirculated air bearing virus-laden droplets may lead to repeated exposure and increase concentration of virions in individuals. ..."
May 07, 2020 | www.nakedcapitalism.com

Yves here. While a list of coronavirus "known unknowns" is useful, I imagine most readers would have focused on other questions, like "When will we know how much if any immunity you get from contracting the virus?" However, this article likely reflects issues that seem to be coming up in layperson discussions .which in turn reflects the informational nuggets that attract media attention.

Originally published at The Conversation

Editor's Note: As researchers try to find treatments and create a vaccine for COVID-19, doctors and others on the front lines continue to find perplexing symptoms. And the disease itself has unpredictable effects on various people. Dr. William Petri, a professor of medicine at the University of Virginia Medical School, answers questions about these confusing findings.

Some evidence suggests that patients experience low oxygen saturation days before they appear in the ER. If so, is there a way to treat patients earlier?

Even before symptoms arise, people infected with SARS-CoV-2 show damage to their lungs. This is likely why low oxygen saturation – that is, below-normal oxygen levels in their blood – occurs before the patient goes to the ER . Restoring those levels to normal is presumed, though not proven, to be beneficial; giving patients supplemental oxygen via a nasal cannula, a flexible tube that delivers oxygen, placed just inside the nostrils, will restore oxygen to normal levels unless disease worsens to the extent that mechanical ventilation is needed.

Young adults are having strokes with COVID-19. Does this suggest the illness is more of a vascular disease than a lung disease in that age group ?

COVID-19 can be a devastating disease to multiple organs and systems in the body, including the vascular and immune systems. A lung infection is the primary cause of disease and death. There are examples of the clotting system being activated and causing strokes, perhaps caused by an immune system responding abnormally to COVID-19 .

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated its official list of symptoms. Does this suggest anything unusual about COVID-19?

This new information is due to a greater number of infected individuals being studied . The update simply reflects a better understanding of the full spectrum of illness due to COVID-19, from asymptomatic to presymptomatic to severe and fatal infections.

How can so many people experience such mild symptoms and others quickly die from it?

One of the most fascinating aspects of these diseases is the huge difference that individuals experience with an infection. In our own research, we have found that many children in the U.S. infected with cryptosporidia have no symptoms, yet this parasite is a major killer of infants in the developing world. After an infection of SARS-CoV-2, the severity of the illness is likely due in part to how the patient's immune system responds; an overzealous immune response may cause death through what is called colloquially a " cytokine storm. ." We do not know yet if cytokine storms occur more in one group than another – for example, older versus younger.

The disease appears now to affect various other organs – heart and kidney, for example. What does this suggest?

What we know most clearly is that infection starts only in human cells with the ACE2 receptor – that is, in a cell that is capable of receiving the virus. That is present not only in the lungs, but in other cells as well, including those in the intestine and in the nasal mucosa, which lines the nasal cavity. When those cells are infected, the immune system is activated. A consequence is that both the heart and kidney are affected.

Why are some countries not experiencing as much COVID-19 as the U.S., Europe and China?

I think it's too early in the pandemic to know if certain countries or populations are relatively less susceptible. The younger overall age of a population could be a primary factor. Or perhaps the virus, so far at least, has not had time to spread more widely in these countries.


PlutoniumKun , May 7, 2020 at 10:12 am

I'd add that the FT has a very good free to read article on the 'unknowns' around the virus: From Blood Clots to 'Covid Toe', the Medical Mysteries of Coronavirus.

The Rev Kev , May 7, 2020 at 10:25 am

The thing about this virus is that it seems to be the Swiss Army knife of the virus world. Instead of a simple virus, as time goes along you find out that it has all sorts of weird and damaging effects in all sorts of places. And that just because you get it does not mean that the won't get the next strain.

We aren't even sure how to treat it and financial interest are clouding the search for a treatment. It is like we just can't get a handle on just what this virus really is or just what it does to the human body.

Synoia , May 7, 2020 at 11:41 am

The Eco-sphere strikes back? There are a lot of humans to infect, appears to the virus as a bountiful place to inhabit.

Lee , May 7, 2020 at 10:34 am

Differences in susceptibility to a virus is one of the main working hypotheses regarding the disease Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (a.k.a. myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), and systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID).

The assumption is that the symptoms represent a relatively rare immune system over-reaction in a relatively small percentage of the population to a viruses that in the vast majority of persons is part of their normal viral load producing no symptoms.

Hana M , May 7, 2020 at 10:50 am

Yet another puzzling note on Coronavirus transmission. Sixty-six percent of coronavirus hospital admissions in New York in a recent study cited by Gov. Cuomo, were people who had been staying home. Most of the cases were elderly, and either retired or unemployed. The vast majority had other conditions. And African-Americans and Hispanics were disproportionately affected. My apologies for not linking to the original study–I'm still trying to track it down.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/lisettevoytko/2020/05/06/majority-of-new-coronavirus-cases-in-new-york-are-from-people-staying-at-home-not-traveling-or-working/#792178af1655

It is possible that the virus is spreading within crowded and substandard apartment complexes. One possible mechanism? Toilets, as an outbreak of SARs in 2003 demonstrated: https://www.cnn.com/2013/02/21/world/asia/sars-amoy-gardens/index.html

In addition in poorly maintained buildings just going out in the hallways to put out your garbage, for example, might well expose a home bound residents to viruses lingering on common surfaces.

Bob Hertz , May 7, 2020 at 10:54 am

The city of Hong Kong is even more crowded than New York, but last I checked its virus deaths and hospitalizations were much lower.

Hana M , May 7, 2020 at 4:26 pm

Hong Kong and New York are completely different on so many levels apart from population density. The differences are more instructive than the similarities. Hong Kong had a devastating experience with the SARs coronovirus epidemic in 2003 so they had a much clearer idea what they were dealing with; much of the early response (masks, increased social hygiene) was a bottom up response by people who had gone through it before.

https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/coronavirus-sense-of-crisis-scars-from-sars-help-keep-cases-in-hong-kong-lower-than

The HK response to COVID-19 was also earlier, more targeted, both more draconian in some ways and much less so in others.

https://www.sfgate.com/science/article/How-Hong-Kong-kept-COVID-19-at-bay-15254007.php .

Still, the two apartment building outbreaks I've referenced in these threads both occurred in Hong Kong.

Hana M , May 7, 2020 at 10:58 am

This link has the slides Cuomo used plus more details: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/05/06/ny-gov-cuomo-says-its-shocking-most-new-coronavirus-hospitalizations-are-people-staying-home.html

Hana M , May 7, 2020 at 11:00 am

What a surprise! You're on your own, says Cuomo.

'"Much of this comes down to what you do to protect yourself. Everything is closed down, government has done everything it could, society has done everything it could. Now it's up to you," Cuomo said.'

IsabelPS , May 7, 2020 at 11:13 am

"How can so many people experience such mild symptoms and others quickly die from it?"

There seems to be another possibility, that SARS-CoV-2 can infect both the upper respiratory tract (like the coronavirus responsible for the common cold) and the lower respiratory tract, eventually causing pneumonia (like the SARS-CoV)

anon in so cal , May 7, 2020 at 12:38 pm

This is an alarming development, not least because anti lockdown GOP and Libertarian types have jumped on it to argue that the lockdowns are misguided. The news item raises many questions, such as, are the afflicted individuals getting the virus from groceries; some aspect of their domiciles, such as plumbing or ventilation; or are they permitting non-household individuals to visit them. Obviously, more detailed data are needed.

PlutoniumKun , May 7, 2020 at 11:02 am

It would be interesting to see if there is a connection between the virus and apartments/co-living.

The one thing for sure is that this virus is extremely contagious for those who are vulnerable. A colleague of mine cocooned himself with his two elderly parents in their detached suburban house at the very beginning of this, back in late February (he could see it coming). I know he was very cautious in order to protect them. But both his parents died from it over the last 2 weeks, and he is only just recovering from it. So far as I know, he has no idea how the infection got into the house.

Synoia , May 7, 2020 at 11:50 am

Is the address data for the death available? It would be interesting to look for correlation between Covid deaths and the ages of the apartment complex.

Hana M , May 7, 2020 at 12:53 pm

What a terrifying story! Really we are so far behind on the basic public health detective work and analysis that we need to do to beat this.

rtah100 , May 7, 2020 at 5:12 pm

We have been isolating since mid- March. All food delivered and disinfected, post heat-treated. Never eaten a healthier diet or taken more vitamins. Been out (beach and moor) just a handful of times, no contact, always hand sanitizer etc.

Nevertheless, still had three colds!

Viruses are damn infectious.

Also, pace the Kawasaki-like syndrome in children putatively linked to sars-cov-2, true Kawasaki syndrome has no known causal agent but it is believed to be infectious in origin because it is reliably linked to wind: when it blows from central Asia, cases spike in Japan and Hawaii.

Could Sars-cov-2 be hitching a ride on the wind / pollen and infecting people long distance?

Oso , May 7, 2020 at 12:20 pm

Hana M, good post and links

"It is possible that the virus is spreading within crowded and substandard apartment complexes. One possible mechanism? Toilets, as an outbreak of SARs in 2003 demonstrated"

brought to mind one of the possible causes among my community (field workers). porta pottys are badly maintained as well as in short supply. among the many hazards, also particle board living quarters where people sleep in shifts.

Oso , May 7, 2020 at 1:45 pm

you're welcome Hana M.
also, along similar lines a group of us here in oakland (with some city council buy in) are asking for a black new deal dealing with covid-19. demands are specific as well as linked to available funding. i'll share them if ur interested.

Oregoncharles , May 7, 2020 at 4:08 pm

We've been having groceries and other items delivered; one just arrived. This leads to a big disinfecting operation, focused on containers, sacks, etc. I even wash all the veggies before bringing them in. It's more trouble than doing the shopping was, but so far it's worked. We're healthy so far, salt over shoulder.

Fortunately there's minimal infection here, but it is present.

I'm just thinking if you DON'T disinfect the packaging and then your hands, you might well introduce the virus.

Ignacio , May 7, 2020 at 6:18 pm

Indeed, two weeks after a lockdown most hospitalizations must be originated in contagions inside houses or residential buildings where most direct or indirect contacts occur. This suggests that fomites-led contagions are important in Covid-19 transmission. During a lockdown, with very few getting in and out one should basically beware about touching things like doors, elevator buttons, or light switches rather than breathing contaminated air. In buildings with wealthy residents someone will be paid to keep all these surfaces clean once or twice a day but in less wealthy sites it has to be done by oneself.

cnchal , May 7, 2020 at 8:31 pm

> . . . Sixty-six percent of coronavirus hospital admissions in New York in a recent study cited by Gov. Cuomo, were people who had been staying home.

Anyone check if there is a stack of empty Amazon boxes in the corner? Every one of their warehouses has infected workers, and we all know how much people like to push the buy button and crack that whip.

Hana M , May 7, 2020 at 10:51 am

More on the toilet problem with technical notes and 'news you can use': https://waterandhealth.org/disinfect/preventing-infection/can-coronavirus-spread-through-defective-bathroom-sewage-pipes/

CuriosityConcern , May 7, 2020 at 10:58 am

I had a thought yesterday, and it probably has nothing to do with COVID19, but remember the vaping injuries to young people last year? What if those were early infections transmitted via infected vape devices or accessories? Points against this being true: didn't appear to be any spread among medical personnel treating the vape injury population.

Final verdict if I remember right was some form of vitamin e being in the vape liquid. Points in favor: I thought certain quarters were not satisfied with the vit e explanation. Just wild speculation on my part, but interesting idea, no?

Code Name D , May 7, 2020 at 3:37 pm

I remember hearing a roomer that smokers were more susceptible to covid. Not seen anything to support that though.

ShamanicFallout , May 7, 2020 at 4:12 pm

It is actually now appearing to be the opposite- smoking (and/or nicotine) is something of a prophylactic. There have been several links floating around here discussing this. Not sure how definite the conclusions though.

Also, I am untrained in any of this stuff, though have been following, but it seems that something that hits a small majority of people very hard, while so many seem to not even know they have it, says to me it's some specific genetic issue.

Hayek's Heelbiter , May 7, 2020 at 11:17 am

https://www.the-scientist.com/research-round-up/could-the-black-death-protect-against-hiv-54468

Strangely enough, one possible explanation of why ethnic minorities are more susceptible to Corona virus is the same reason that Northern Europeans seem to have greater resistance to HIV. Corona virus and HIV both are single-stranded RNA viruses. (And why remdesivir, effective against Ebola [a double-stranded RNA virus] is also showing effectiveness against Corona virus).

If you are alive today and have Northern European ancestry, they were quite likely survivors of the Black Death with a mutation that disables CCR-5 . It's Evolution 101.

Africa, Asia and the Americas were never exposed to the plague with the same virulence that Northern Europe was, and thus populations there did not develop the same level of of immunity that has lingered in people with Northern European ancestry.

As this is already a plausible theory for HIV, I have been unable to find the same research on Coronavirus as to whether people who are immune to it somehow have similarly disabled receptors on ACE-2.

Synoia , May 7, 2020 at 11:48 am

How could the two Black Death plagues, the 1347one and the 1665 affect your hypothesis?

I believe the 1347 plague was not brought to the west by sea, as it predates the Portuguese exploration of the sea route to the orient.

The Historian , May 7, 2020 at 12:03 pm

There are many good books on the Black Plague of 1347 and how it originated and spread. The most common theory is that it came with the Huns as they attacked shipping ports on the Black Sea which were connected to the overland shipping routes to China. Yes, Europe had trade with the Orient before the Portuguese rounded Africa. And then the ships in the Black Sea started bringing it west to ports in Italy and beyond.

For a simple yet historically accepted theory of the Black Plague, there is a well done course on Great Courses Plus, as well as a ton of written histories. Just search your favorite bookstore.

Harold , May 7, 2020 at 2:31 pm

By "Huns" do you mean Mongols? The disease is endemic to the grasslands of Mongolia and also the Western United States. Supposedly Genoese traders brought it to Constantinople from their ports in the Crimea, I thought.

The Historian , May 7, 2020 at 6:19 pm

Yes, it is probably more correct to call them Mongols because that is who they were fighting under, although some of the midieval historians that I have been reading called them Tartars and Huns, based on what tribes they belonged to. And Caffa, the city where the plague probably got its foothold, was both in Crimea and a port on the Black Sea. And yes, it did strike Constantinople first but since the topic was Europe proper, I just stated that ships brought it to Italy.

Hayek's Heelbiter , May 7, 2020 at 12:12 pm

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-mutant-genes-behind-the-black-death/

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/02/black-death-left-mark-human-genome

PlutoniumKun , May 7, 2020 at 1:01 pm

I'm not really convinced – for one thing I'd always understood that the Black Death did hit many other populations, they just weren't recorded so well (I can stand corrected by this, I don't know the latest research). It also doesn't explain why so far the home countries of those ethnicities that have been hit so hard in the west – East Asians, Iranians, SE Asians, have so far not been hit so hard by Covid. Indians and Pakistani's in particular seem to have been hit very hard in the UK, and yet the same can't be said in their home countries. This is why I suspect that a mix of socio economic (there is evidence that non-white healthcare workers are more likely to be put on the frontline), plus dietary/vitamin D related explanations may be stronger.

But its an interesting theory, nonetheless.

Synoia , May 7, 2020 at 1:28 pm

East Asians, Iranians, SE Asians, have so far not been hit so hard by Covid. Indians and Pakistani's in particular seem to have been hit very hard in the UK, and yet the same can't be said in their home countries.

Ambient Temperatures are very different, and there are some reports of less virulence in hotter climates.

PlutoniumKun , May 7, 2020 at 2:13 pm

Iran and a large chunk of Pakistan is actually quite cold in winter and early Spring. Tehran temperatures only went above a max of 20C in the last 2 weeks or so. Much of the temperature range of that region is not all that different from the inland cities of northern Italy and Spain.

HotFlash , May 7, 2020 at 4:53 pm

Indians and Pakistani's in particular seem to have been hit very hard in the UK, and yet the same can't be said in their home countries.

I wonder, are there differenced betw first or second generation immigrants? Age groups? Another factor that seems to correlate is vaccination for tuberculosis. The BCG vaccine (which is the only tuberculosis vaccine, although there are several strains and manufacturers of it) is mandatory in a number of countries, including India and Pakistan. Some countries never did it, and others have ended or limited their TB vaccination programs as cases of TB diminished.

There are lots of variables to work out -- lockdown, distancing, age of population, co-morbidities, yada yada. But just doing a deeper dive into Spain is interesting. Universal vaccination program started in 1965 for all newborns, no booster, and stopped in 1981, except for at-risk children. So that is a cohort of approx 49 to 55 year olds vaccinated. It would be interesting to see if the mortality rate was different in that group. Bonus! Basque region children are automatically considered 'at-risk' and have been vaccinated up to present! We have a control group! Would love to see data on that.

Here are the charts, people, go crazy. 91-divoc , this is deaths normalized for population, and the BCG World Atlas .

Bsoder , May 7, 2020 at 2:27 pm

Too bad Evolution 101 or 202 is not taught in red states, just not how god does things.

Science Officer Smirnoff , May 7, 2020 at 4:02 pm

Reply to Hayek's Heelbiter
May 7, 2020 at 11:17 am
On remdesivir:
The drug, made by the US company Gilead Sciences, is an antiviral that was trialled in Ebola, but which failed to show benefits in Africa. -- The Guardian Thu 23 Apr 2020 15.35 EDT
[emphasis added]

Hayek's Heelbiter , May 7, 2020 at 6:55 pm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remdesivir
Nevertheless (emphasis mine)

As an adenosine nucleotide triphosphate analog, the active metabolite of remdesivir interferes with the action of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and evades proofreading by viral exoribonuclease its predominant effect (as in Ebola) is to induce an irreversible chain termination. Unlike with many other chain terminators, this is not mediated by preventing addition of the immediately subsequent nucleotide, but is instead delayed, occurring after five additional bases have been added to the growing RNA chain.[56] Hence remdesivir is classified as a delayed chain terminator.

[56] Tchesnokov EP, Feng JY, Porter DP, Götte M (April 2019). "Mechanism of Inhibition of Ebola Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase by Remdesivir". Viruses. 11 (4): 326. doi:10.3390/v11040326. PMC 6520719. PMID 30987343.

Carolinian , May 7, 2020 at 1:01 pm

A useful discussion of the models versus evidence schools of epidemiology. While the evidence school sounds a lot more like science, the models school currently has the upper hand given the emergency nature of the response. Are they "assuming a can opener?"

https://bostonreview.net/science-nature/jonathan-fuller-models-v-evidence

Cuibono , May 7, 2020 at 1:17 pm

My questions

  1. how important is asymptomatic transmission?
  2. what is the relative importance of different locales of transmission
  3. does prior SARS infection provide protection

Ignacio , May 7, 2020 at 6:50 pm

Your first two questions are unfortunately very difficult to address.

I think asymptomatic or nearly asymptomatic direct transmission is very important when there is not awareness of disease in the community. Then, there is fomites-led transmission which is even more elusive than asymptomatic direct transmission. So, when you detect someone with symptoms in a community if then everyone is tested it is almost certain some more will show positive. A couple of days later some many more will. So when first symptoms appear everyone must be isolated from each other, clean all surfaces, masks mandatory, and if the community includes some medical and other care full protection by and for the providers. Suddenly the community transforms into something resembling a military camp in wartime.

What i find most difficult is to decide what discipline to keep BEFORE the first case appears.

John k , May 7, 2020 at 2:03 pm

Everybody's different, flu only kills a very small fraction, granted elderly get shots. Maybe some differences are nutritional.

My thought is that there is a wide variety of vitamin d and zinc levels in those that get the virus, and that low levels worsen the outcome. And maybe nicotine also provides protection.

Diets low in red meat and oysters typically mean low zinc, plus local soils may be low, too I saw an indication North American soils are generally low. Poor people on cheap diets likely get little red meat. Hiding inside means low vit d, plus many seniors like me anyway seek shade to avoid harmful rays. And most living seniors stopped smoking, so no nicotine input.

I take vit d, plus zinc in a multi, have zinc lozenges on hand if I get symptoms, and if they worsen would add nicotine patch.

Bsoder , May 7, 2020 at 2:32 pm

American soils remain the richest in the world. Zinc would be a mineral and mined. There's no evidence based data to indicate for people in general zinc going to do anything. But if makes you happy sure why not. I'd ask my doc for a blood test on minerals and a vitamin panel. Then you'd know.

rd , May 7, 2020 at 7:31 pm

It is a function of regional geology. The northern US and Canada were largely glaciated and the soils are very recent (<100,000 years old) and so have not leached their nutrients and miinerals out. The rolling farmed plains of Western NY, OH, IL, KS, NE, etc. are glacial till plains or old glacial lakebeds. The Russian steppes are similar. Much of the major floodplains come from such soils and are rich as well (e.g. Mississippi).

Much of the South and California are old soils that are classified as "residual", basically bedrock weathered in place with a lot of leaching over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. These regions often have limited crops that can be grown or require a lot of fertilizer and maintenance. The same issues hold true for much ot the tropics (the reason why the Amazon rainforest has slash and burn agriculture to open up new areas that are temporarily rich.

Bob , May 7, 2020 at 2:39 pm

Regarding why are some countries not experiencing as much COVID-19 as the U.S., Europe and China, my personal non-scientifcally vetted opinion is that this this virus spreads indoors. Fresh air, ozone and UV radiation are all natural disinfectants. Outdoors, coughs and sneezes are dispersed via the wind.

This could also explain why the disease is concentrated in urban settings like NYC, present in warm weather locations like Singapore and implies it won't necessarily go away come the summer. On the other hand, the poorest citizens in the poorest countries spend a lot of time outdoors and don't seem to be as hard hit. Though this has been attributed to a lack of testing, their homes aren't hermetically sealed and climate controlled like those in the US, Europe or China which I believe leads to a lower infection rate. That being said, people who live in urban slums are certainly vulnerable.

Moshe Braner , May 7, 2020 at 3:59 pm

There is also the issue, recently somewhat in the news, of different genetic variants of the virus. I've heard the claim that that explains why NY has been hit harder than the US West Coast – that the variant in NY supposedly came from Italy, while the West Coast got it from China. Of course they also spend more time outdoors on the West Coast than in NY, especially in February.

WhoaMolly , May 7, 2020 at 3:40 pm

I wonder if air conditioning systems could be contributing to infections by recirculating the air inside buildings.

My reasoning:

rd , May 7, 2020 at 7:33 pm

Commercial real estate is probably going to have to increase their fresh air exchange and potentially install electrostatic filters if they don't have them. Without that, offices are likely to be unhealthy.

neo-realist , May 7, 2020 at 10:05 pm

Offices have been unhealthy, air wise, for years. We just cough, hack, adapt, deal.

dk , May 7, 2020 at 7:41 pm

The short answer is yes.

The term for the motile form of a virus is virion , one or more strands for RNA (of DNA but SARS-CoV-19 is RNA) enclosed in a fatty lipid capsule ("capsid"), usually with protruding receptors with which the virion can attach to and inject it RNA strand into a host cell. Coronaviruses have characteristically prominent "spikes," receptors that extend beyond the capsid surface.

Basically, virions are little blobs of fat. When exposed directly to air they quickly rancidify and the exposed RNA strand disintegrates. Riding air pollution particles is possible but unlikely, as many of these kinds of particles have surfaces antagonistic to the fatty capsid. However, exhaled particulate droplets suspended in air can pass through coarse filtration. HEPA filters are designed to trap such droplets, UV irradiation can "cook" them.

Here is a study on an early transmission site in China, where incidents of infection seem to correlate to ventilated air flow in a restaurant: COVID-19 Outbreak Associated with Air Conditioning in Restaurant, Guangzhou, China, 2020 https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/7/20-0764_article

The Figure 1 illustration helps to visualize this: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/7/20-0764-f1

Here is a not-yet-reviewed preprint of a study of two buses transporting attendees to and from an event in China. One bus (#2) had a suspected "index patient" (IP), the other didn't. https://twitter.com/zeynep/status/1255579524047220741

From the article: "In both buses and conference rooms, central air-conditioners were in indoor re-circulation mode."

Interestingly, the conference itself produced few further cases, these were all traced to prolonged interactions with the IP. Generally with viruses, some critical mass of virions must accumulate in sufficient number to produce infection, and total net exposure may approximately correlate with severity. Untreated recirculated air bearing virus-laden droplets may lead to repeated exposure and increase concentration of virions in individuals.

[May 07, 2020] As of a few weeks ago in one NJ hospital Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine) was the standard treatment, along with azithromycin and zinc which is the most common protocol.

May 07, 2020 | turcopolier.typepad.com

Valissa , 06 May 2020 at 06:03 PM

Eakens, thanks for the link to the Plandemic video! I was chatting with my sister today and she recommended it as well.

BTW, my sister is a nurse in NJ in a hospital about 60 mi south of NYC near the shore. Several wards in her hospital were converted to ICUs to handle the influx of covid patients, so I have been asking her what meds they are given. As of a few weeks ago Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine) was the standard treatment, along with azithromycin and zinc which is the most common protocol. Most patients are getting this and to quote her directly: "It's standard treatment and saving lives daily." She is perplexed by the politicization. While she is a conservative, the great majority of her coworkers are not.

The other two standard treatments added more recently to their covid protocols are tocizulamab (IL-6) and plasma with antibodies.

Here is a recent article on the tocizulamb, which I had never heard of before my sister mentioned it.

https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/medical/tocilizumab-drug-shows-coronavirus-treatment-promise-doctor-says/ar-BB13HNun

optimax , 06 May 2020 at 11:23 PM
Teachers want their students back in the classroom before they start thinking for themselves. (drum roll). The NYT published a letter from a middle school girl who says she learns better, faster and deeper, distance learning than in class. Teachers have to spend too much time dealing with disruptive knuckleheads. Teachers didn't put up with any crap when I went to school.

Doctors that use hydroxychloroquine as a covid treatment report up to a 90% success rate, and works best when given early. On the other hand, the ebola wonder drug shortens the hospital stay from 15 to 11 days. I don't understand Ain't So Bright's, and many of the "experts," dismissal of of what treating physicians report an effective treatment in favor of one that less effictive. I trust the observations of the doctors on the ground more than some office dweller reading numbers, the most important ones being those in his paycheck.

[May 07, 2020] 2020 US Pentagon study that found that the flu shot INCREASES the risks from coronavirus by 36%

May 07, 2020 | www.zerohedge.com

xxx Anonymous IX, 4 hours ago

Do you believe the Pentagon? From their study published this year. From Children's Health Defense entitled "Pentagon Study: Flu Shot Raises Risk of Coronavirus by 36% (and Other Supporting Studies)."

In searching the literature, the only study we have been able to find assessing flu shots and coronavirus is a 2020 US Pentagon study that found that the flu shot INCREASES the risks from coronavirus by 36%. "Receiving influenza vaccination may increase the risk of other respiratory viruses, a phenomenon known as "virus interference 'vaccine derived' virus interference was significantly associated with coronavirus " Here are the findings:

2020 Pentagon study: Flu vaccines increase risk of coronavirus by 36%

Examining non-influenza viruses specifically, the odds of coronavirus in vaccinated individuals were significantly higher when compared to unvaccinated individuals with an odds ratio (association between an exposure and an outcome) of 1.36. In other words, the vaccinated were 36% more likely to get coronavirus.

[May 07, 2020] There is evidence that vitamin D is involved in our defense against respiratory tract infections

May 07, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Lurk , May 6 2020 20:46 utc | 14

From a rapid response to an article in the British Medical Journal:

https://www.bmj.com/content/368/bmj.m1101/rr-10

... ... ...

A risk factor that we want to highlight, however, is the low vitamin D levels...

There is evidence that vitamin D is involved in our defense against respiratory tract infections. According to a meta-analysis, vitamin D supplementation (daily-weekly dosage) prevents acute respiratory tract infections, especially in those with 25(OH)-D below 25 nmol/l (NNT = 4).[7]

In a randomised trial on individuals with frequent respiratory tract infections, treatment with cholecalciferol 4000 IE/day reduced the need for antibiotic treatment.[8] The mechanism is debated; however, modulation of the renin-angiotensin system has been implicated in animal studies of acute respiratory distress syndrome,[9] and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a well-established receptor for the SARS-CoV virus.[10]

In order to cope with the covid-19 epidemic, preventive measures could be administration of vitamin D to high-risk populations... adults with low sun-exposure and/or individuals with risk factors for respiratory tract infections. Although it may not always be helpful, it is unlikely to be harmful.

24 March 2020
Susanne Bejerot
Professor, MD
Mats Humble, MD, PhD
Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences
Campus USÖ, SE-70182 Örebro, Sweden

[May 07, 2020] Scientists have detected an antibody that blocks the coronavirus from entering cells, providing a much-needed shield for severely ill patients

May 07, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

uncle tungsten , May 7 2020 10:08 utc | 93

Likklemore #38
Scientists have detected an antibody that blocks the coronavirus from entering cells, providing a much-needed shield for severely ill patients. While not a cure or vaccine, it is still a significant development.
"This is clearly a breakthrough that shows that we are on the right track for the development of a drug against Covid-19," said virologist Professor Luka Cicin-Sain.

"In repeated experiments, we were able to show that this result is sustainable." [.]

The antibodies are currently undergoing additional testing on cell cultures to whittle their number down to find the most effective at blocking the infection. [.]

a drug for treatment, a vaccine unlikely.

Thank you Likklemore, that is promising news. Methinks chasing the holy grail (more likely Golden Fleece) of vaccines has cost the world many lives and needless lockdown. You have to wonder what all that research was doing by NOT coming up with a remedial medicine years ago.

[May 07, 2020] Evidence mounts that outside is safer when it comes to COVID-19

Notable quotes:
"... Health experts say people are significantly less likely to get the coronavirus while outside, a fact that could add momentum to calls to reopen beaches and parks closed during the COVID-19 pandemic. ..."
"... The virus is harder to transmit outdoors because the droplets that spread it are more easily disturbed or dispersed outside in the elements than in a closed, confined, indoor setting. ..."
"... As people go outside for their daily exercise and pass by one another, experts offered reassurance that simply passing someone for a split second outdoors presents a low risk. "The virus can't magically teleport," said Amesh Adalja, a senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins University Center for Health Security. "It needs a cough or sneeze or something, singing, talking, spitting. ... It's not magnetism or something like that." ..."
May 07, 2020 | thehill.com

Health experts say people are significantly less likely to get the coronavirus while outside, a fact that could add momentum to calls to reopen beaches and parks closed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

... ... ...

Murray said that even outside on the beach, people who do not live together should stay six feet apart and that activities such as beach volleyball should be avoided because multiple people touching the same equipment can spread the virus.

That means playgrounds also are a danger, she said.

"While it's great to have parks and beaches, you probably don't want playground equipment open," Murray said.

The virus is harder to transmit outdoors because the droplets that spread it are more easily disturbed or dispersed outside in the elements than in a closed, confined, indoor setting.

"It definitely spreads more indoors than outdoors," said Roger Shapiro, a professor at Harvard University's T.H. Chan School of Public Health. "The virus droplets disperse so rapidly in the wind that they become a nonfactor if you're not really very close to someone outdoors -- let's say within six feet."

As people go outside for their daily exercise and pass by one another, experts offered reassurance that simply passing someone for a split second outdoors presents a low risk. "The virus can't magically teleport," said Amesh Adalja, a senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins University Center for Health Security. "It needs a cough or sneeze or something, singing, talking, spitting. ... It's not magnetism or something like that."

Adalja said some of the decisions around activities such as sitting closer than six feet away from a friend outside on the grass have to do with how much risk someone is personally willing to accept. "There's not some kind of black or white answer to all of this stuff," he said. "People are going to have to make a lot of decisions about what risk tolerance they have."

Indoor spaces such as barbershops are certainly higher risk, though. There are more shared surfaces that could transmit the virus, such as the barber's chair. Another danger, especially in the summer, is air conditioning, which can circulate the virus through the air.

Military not accepting new recruits who've recovered from COVID-19 Immigrant detainee with COVID-19 dies in ICE custody: ACLU

"If you're in an indoor space that has the air conditioning blasting ... that air conditioning might be blowing the droplets straight at you," said Murray, the Boston University professor. Even outdoors, Adalja said people should be mindful of keeping their distance and washing their hands. "You can go to the beach, you can go to the park, and it can be safe," he said. "It's just you have to be cognizant of the fact that the virus is there."

[May 07, 2020] SARS-CoV-2 is so good at infecting the upper respiratory tract that there might even be a second receptor that the virus could use to launch its attack.

May 07, 2020 | www.unz.com

skrik , says: Show Comment May 6, 2020 at 8:52 am GMT

@Kratoklastes ory tract that there might even be a second receptor that the virus could use to launch its attack.

Even more troubling is the fact that SARS-COV-2 seems to make use of the enzyme furin from the host to cleave the viral spike protein. This is worrying, researchers say, because furin is abundant in the respiratory tract and found throughout the body.

It is used by other formidable viruses, including HIV, influenza, dengue and Ebola to enter cells. By contrast, the cleavage molecules used by SARS-CoV are much less common and not as effective

I do not think that Covid-19 is 'just a flu' and I think that the panic in Wuhan started in the next microsecond after they had decoded the [warlike!] spike. rgds

[May 07, 2020] A new strain has come Meet Spike D614G, the new improved coronavirus

May 07, 2020 | www.rt.com

Fears that the coronavirus would mutate into a more dangerous strain appear to have been borne out, as research has identified that a new, more contagious strain of SARS-CoV-2 has become the dominant form worldwide. The new strain, which has been dubbed 'Spike D614G' has been proliferating in Europe since at least mid-February, and spread to become the dominant form during the month of March. It is far more contagious than the original strain which emerged from Wuhan, for reasons as yet unknown.

Wherever it emerged it became dominant very quickly, and in some countries it became the only common strain within weeks. The paper notes that the rapid global spread of the coronavirus has provided it with "ample opportunity for natural selection to act upon rare but favorable mutations.'' Furthermore, if the virus does not wane away as the weather warms in summer there will be nothing to stop it mutating into more and more strains.

Warning call

The research , which was carried out by a joint American and British team led by Los Alamos National Laboratory, has been released ahead of peer review as 'an early warning' to other researchers. As it stands, scientists studying the coronavirus around the world may be analysing the genetic sequence of the older strain, and therefore it is crucial that they collaborate with this team to get the latest information. "We cannot afford to be blindsided as we move vaccines and antibodies into clinical testing," the lead author Dr Bette Korber, known for her work on HIV, said.

Because the paper has not yet been peer-reviewed, it has been published online on the server BioRxiv. However, the reputations of the scientists involved suggest that the findings are sound and must be taken with the utmost seriousness -- the report is 33 pages long, and short on laughs. "This is hard news,'' said Korber of the findings.

Also on rt.com Covid-19 mutations underestimated, Chinese scientists warn, as DEADLIEST strains grip Europe and US

The scientists' methodology involved running computer analysis of over 6,000 coronavirus DNA sequences collected from around the world. Although they remark that "observed diversity among pandemic SARS-CoV-2 sequences is low'' there were no fewer than 14 different mutations in the Spike protein sequences, just one of which is the strain that has everybody worried.

This is the strain with the D614G mutation, which is probably causing the increased contagiousness. The mutation affects the 'Spike proteins' on the outside of the virus, which allow the virus to invade human cells. For this reason, these spikes have until now been the main target of those trying to design vaccines or antiviral drugs to combat the virus. There are currently at least 62 vaccines in development, and most of these are focused on the Spike proteins.

Wasted efforts

Although there is not really any good news here, this may not be as bad as it sounds. There is at present no suggestion that Spike D614G is any more deadly than the original. The British team calculated that people were no more likely to be hospitalized by it, although they did seem to have higher viral loads (more of the virus in their body).

But even if Spike D614G is not meaningfully different from the old strain, it does not mean that nothing has changed. The problems introduced by multiple forms of a virus have everything to do with immunity and vaccination. If a person had contracted and been ill with one strain, that would still be no guarantee of immunity to another. Epidemiologists could be left every winter having to guess what the commonest strain of coronavirus will be, as they do with the flu.

Furthermore, the development of a vaccine relies on designing the antibodies to match perfectly to the specific 'Spikes' on the outside of the virus. If these are mutated, any potential vaccine might not be specific enough to target that strain. Receiving the vaccine would provide no guarantee of immunity. This possibility is especially worrying to the study's authors.

Also on rt.com Neither 'lab' nor 'wet market'? Covid-19 outbreak started months EARLIER and NOT in Wuhan, ongoing Cambridge study indicates

The authors have also been led to speculate that the wildly different outbreaks experienced in different regions could be down to different strains. Spike D614G hit Italy in early February, probably around the same time as the older strain hit there. Italy has been one of Europe's worst affected countries.

And in America, just a few days after the first cases were reported in New York, Spike D614G was the dominant form there. Contrasting New York City with the relatively mild outbreak on America's West Coast suggests that different strains could be at play. No matter what details transpire, it's clear that in a world with multiple strains of coronavirus, developing vaccines or treatments is only going to get harder.

[May 07, 2020] Coronavirus Mutates Into Now-Dominant, More Contagious Form As Doctors Ponder 'East Coast vs. West Coast' Strains

May 07, 2020 | www.zerohedge.com

A new study from Los Alamos National Laboratory has revealed a new, now-dominant strain of the coronavirus which appears to be more contagious , according to the authors. Meanwhile, doctors in the United States are wondering if the harder-hit East Coast is being hit with a different version of the virus than the West Coast.

Emerging in early February, the new strain migrated from Europe to the East Coast of the United States, where it became the dominant strain across the world beginning in mid-March. Wherever the new strain has appeared, it's quickly infected far more people than earlier strains which emerged from Wuhan, China. Within weeks it became the most prevalent strain in some nations.

... ... ...

Emerging in early February, the new strain migrated from Europe to the East Coast of the United States, where it became the dominant strain across the world beginning in mid-March. Wherever the new strain has appeared, it's quickly infected far more people than earlier strains which emerged from Wuhan, China. Within weeks it became the most prevalent strain in some nations.

In addition to spreading faster, it may make people vulnerable to a second infection after a first bout with the disease , the report warned.

The 33-page report was posted Thursday on BioRxiv, a website that researchers use to share their work before it is peer reviewed, an effort to speed up collaborations with scientists working on COVID-19 vaccines or treatments. That research has been largely based on the genetic sequence of earlier strains and might not be effective against the new one . - LA Times (via Yahoo)

According to the report, fourteen mutations have been identified in the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 , the protrusions on the exterior of the virus which make up its namesake 'corona.' The report was based on a computational analysis of more than 6,000 coronavirus samples from around the world, collected by the Germany-based Global Initiative for Sharing All Influenza Data.

Assisted by scientists at Duke University and the University of Sheffield in England, the Los Alamos team focused on a mutation called D614G, which controls changes in spike proteins.

"The story is worrying, as we see a mutated form of the virus very rapidly emerging, and over the month of March becoming the dominant pandemic form," said lead author Bette Korber, a Los Alamos computational biologist. "When viruses with this mutation enter a population, they rapidly begin to take over the local epidemic, thus they are more transmissible." The new strain first appeared in Italy, almost at the same time as the original Wuhan strain appeared, according to the report. By March 15, the mutated strain was dominant. The same was seen in New York, which was hit by the original virus around March 15, but was overwhelmed by the new strain within days.

The authors also warn that if the pandemic doesn't wind down during the summer as most viruses do, it could undergo further mutations right as the first medical treatments and vaccines - should the adhere to ambitious timelines we've been promised - begin to roll out.

" We cannot afford to be blindsided as we move vaccines and antibodies into clinical testing ," Korber added on Facebook. "Please be encouraged by knowing the global scientific community is on this, and we are cooperating with each other in ways I have never seen in my 30 years as a scientist."

David Montefiori , a Duke University scientist who worked on the report said it is the first to document a mutation in the coronavirus that appears to make it more infectious.

Although the researchers don't yet know the details about how the mutated spike behaves inside the body , it's clearly doing something that gives it an evolutionary advantage over its predecessor and is fueling its rapid spread. One scientist called it a "classic case of Darwinian evolution."

" D614G is increasing in frequency at an alarming rate , indicating a fitness advantage relative to the original Wuhan strain that enables more rapid spread," the study said.

Different strains, different effects?

As the Times notes, doctors in the United States have begun to question whether new strains of the virus could account for differences in how it affects different people , according to UC San Francisco professor Alan Wu, who runs the clinical chemistry and toxicology laboratories at SF General Hospital.

According to Wu, medical experts have speculated in recent weeks that at least two strains of coronavirus were circulating in the US - one prevalent on the East Coast and one on the West Coast.

"We are looking to identify the mutation," said Wu, who highlighted that his hospital has only had a few fatalities out of the hundreds of cases it's treated, which is "quite a different story than we are hearing from New York."

The Los Alamos study does not indicate that the new version of the virus is more lethal than the original. People infected with the mutated strain appear to have higher viral loads. But the study's authors from the University of Sheffield found that among a local sample of 447 patients, hospitalization rates were about the same for people infected with either virus version.

Even if the new strain is no more dangerous than the others, it could still complicate efforts to bring the pandemic under control . That would be an issue if the mutation makes the virus so different from earlier strains that people who have immunity to them would not be immune to the new version.

And if the mutation makes it back to those who have already had COVID-19, it would make "individuals susceptible to a second infection," according to the authors.

[May 06, 2020] Russian virusolog about an interesting form of institutional idiotism: enforcing wearing of masks outside closed spaces

Notable quotes:
"... "Actually, wearing masks on the street is stupid. First, in the open air, it is absolutely useless, only makes it difficult for people with disabilities to breathe. But, of course, in public places, shops, probably, wearing a mask should be left. Secondly, if you do not provide the entire population with masks, it will end in the fact that a person will buy a single mask and wear it forever, which will cause much more harm to health," Zverev says. ..."
May 06, 2020 | vz.ru

The virologist also spoke about the possible introduction of a mandatory "mask regime" throughout Russia, which is written about by the media.

"Actually, wearing masks on the street is stupid. First, in the open air, it is absolutely useless, only makes it difficult for people with disabilities to breathe. But, of course, in public places, shops, probably, wearing a mask should be left. Secondly, if you do not provide the entire population with masks, it will end in the fact that a person will buy a single mask and wear it forever, which will cause much more harm to health," Zverev says.

He explains that after two hours of continuous wearing of the mask, it becomes wet, which turns it from a means of protection to a means of infection with viruses and bacteria. Zverev reminds that in addition to the coronavirus in the world, there are still a huge number of infections that can also cause severe harm to a person, so it is not necessary to resort to such measures yet.

Earlier, a mandatory "mask regime" was introduced in the Moscow region in order to prevent a new coronavirus. For going out on the street without this means of protection, citizens of the region face a fine of 4 thousand rubles.

[May 06, 2020] The accuracy of existing tests used to detect COVID-19 is at 70%-80%

May 06, 2020 | thenewkremlinstooge.wordpress.com

[May 06, 2020] Chloroquine has strong antiviral effects on SARS-CoV infection of primate cells

May 06, 2020 | nlm.nih.gov

Virol J . 2005; 2: 69. Published online 2005 Aug 22. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-2-69 Background

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a newly discovered coronavirus (SARS-CoV). No effective prophylactic or post-exposure therapy is currently available. Results

We report, however, that chloroquine has strong antiviral effects on SARS-CoV infection of primate cells. These inhibitory effects are observed when the cells are treated with the drug either before or after exposure to the virus, suggesting both prophylactic and therapeutic advantage. In addition to the well-known functions of chloroquine such as elevations of endosomal pH, the drug appears to interfere with terminal glycosylation of the cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. This may negatively influence the virus-receptor binding and abrogate the infection, with further ramifications by the elevation of vesicular pH, resulting in the inhibition of infection and spread of SARS CoV at clinically admissible concentrations. Conclusion

Chloroquine is effective in preventing the spread of SARS CoV in cell culture. Favorable inhibition of virus spread was observed when the cells were either treated with chloroquine prior to or after SARS CoV infection. In addition, the indirect immunofluorescence assay described herein represents a simple and rapid method for screening SARS-CoV antiviral compounds.

[May 05, 2020] There may be hope in an engineered antibody that targets the viral spike protein

May 05, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Krollchem , May 5 2020 0:05 utc | 89

Laguerre@11

"Every time the virus replicates, there is a danger of error in the copy, which renders it less effective for the most part, much as in human cells."

The issue is that the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein that binds to ACE2 and CD147 receptors is what allows the virus to replicate more efficiently. In a given population of viral particles a less efficient particle would result in fewer replicates leading its mutation to be less prevalent in a population of the coronavirus.

Thus, I would expect the virus to retain its virulence over time which leads us back to Dr Talab's conclusion on how to stop the transmission of a virus that needs a host. A subset of the availability of a host is what happens if the host can also be a non-human such as the Chinese raccoon dog, ferrets or even pigs?

In discussing viral mutations it is important to also note that articles that claim to calculate viral mutation rates fail to understand that statistics is about populations, and not individuals. The mutation rates of a population are not well represented by the PCR test if the mutation is not frequent enough to be seen in the amplification process (38-39 times).

I would not bet against the persistence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus S-protein and thus its continued virulence given the probability of mutations and the loss of function by a less virulent strain.

There may be hope in an engineered antibody that targets the viral spike protein:
https://www.zerohedge.com/health/coronavirus-defeated-experimental-antibody-targets-spike-protein

As for a vaccine, I would not hold my breath and if partially successful might result in more deaths due the the vaccine of the cytokine storm that the virus itself.

[May 03, 2020] The spike elements of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus are mutating

May 03, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Pft , May 2 2020 23:31 utc | 49

Yesterday a preprint of a collaborative study involving medical, genomic and virology researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico-US, University Of Sheffield-UK, Duke University in North Carolina-US, Sheffield Teaching Hospital-UK and the NHS-Foundation-UK, was released. No quacks there.

It shows that the Spike elements of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is mutating

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.29.069054v1.full.pdf+html

It uses real-time mutation tracking in the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, specifically on the Spike (S) protein because it mediates infection of human cells and is the target of most vaccine strategies and antibody-based therapeutics.

It monitored changes over the last two months from the early strains in Wuhan to the specific strains across the globe in conjunction with the GISAID data.

They focused on 14 specific sites on the virus and 2 Spike mutations were of particular interests: D614G and S943P.

It was found that D614G is increasing in frequency at an alarming rate, indicating a fitness advantage relative and enables more rapid spread. S943P is located in the fusion core region, and is of particular interest as it is concerned with spreading via recombination.

D614 is located on the surface of the spike protein protomer, where it can form contacts with the neighboring protomer. The mutation allows from a structurally perspective more easy 'binding' to human host cells through a variety of ways and from a immunological function, it disrupts antibody functions trying to attack it.

Hence the D614G mutation not only increases transmissibility, but also impacts severity of disease.

The S943P mutation however allows recombinant strategies for the virus to evolve.

The study of the other mutation sites L5F, L8V V367F, G476S, and V483A all indicate that he virus can easily and evolve depending and conditions, displaying characteristics that it is even far more potent than HIV. There were also many other sites of mutations that the study covered.

So thats not very encouraging and doesn't bode well. Not conclusive but just means this needs watching.

... ... ...

[May 03, 2020] GSK partnered with Bill Gates to produce the Covid-19 Vaccine. GSK has been found guilty for several criminal federal offenses, bribes and health violations, and paid Billions in lawsuits including for birth defects brain damage.

May 03, 2020 | twitter.com

Marina Solonos ‏ 8:18 PM - 2 May 2020

GSK partnered with Bill Gates to produce the Covid-19 Vaccine. GSK has been found guilty for several criminal federal offenses, bribes and health violations, and paid Billions in lawsuits including for birth defects & brain damage. https://www. drugwatch.com/manufacturers/ glaxosmithkline/ # BillGates # QAnon # q

https--childrenshealthdefense.org-wp-content-themes-chd-theme-chd-theme

Promising his share of $450 million of $1.2 billion to eradicate polio, Gates took control of India's National Technical Advisory Group on Immunization (NTAGI), which mandated up to 50 doses (Table 1) of polio vaccines through overlapping immunization programs to children before the age of five. Indian doctors blame the Gates campaign for a devastating non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (NPAFP) epidemic that paralyzed 490,000 children beyond expected rates between 2000 and 2017. In 2017, the Indian government dialed back Gates' vaccine regimen and asked Gates and his vaccine policies to leave India. NPAFP rates dropped precipitously. ­

[May 03, 2020] I think this remdesivir authorization was a genius move by the Trump administration

May be it is valuable as a placebo treatment... "Remdesivir (imho) has no effect whatsoever, positive or negative, so it will work as a placebo and a show of 'good treatment'. On the whole ppl are apt to judge that what is expensive (as opposed to dirt cheap and used by lesser folks) and can be touted as 'innovative' (hmm..) is well -classier!- therefore more effective!" An indirect result might be that less /very seriously affected/ patients are put on vents. (Intubated with breathing done outside the body.)
May 03, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org
vk , May 2 2020 19:44 utc | 2
I think this remdesivir authorization was a genius move by the Trump administration. So genial even Dr. Fauci must have immediately understood the catch and endorsed it, as it is probable the drug must not have any grave collateral effects on the patients (as is the case with hydroxycloroquine).

First of all, remdesivir helps one of America's biggest pharmaceuticals (Gilead). Therefore, it will also help American capitalist reproduction.

Second, it will trigger a nationwide placebo effect thanks to widespread optimism and petit-bourgeois euphoria, thus lowering the death rates (though not the infection rates), and giving Trump an election boost in crucial areas (by the astroturf protests pattern, important swing states in the Midwest).

Third, by the time the efficacy of remdesivir is debunked, the Trump administration can simply state they acted with good will, with the "evidence" available at the time, and gently apologize. It is the perfect plausible deniability.

[May 03, 2020] prosperopharma.com

Martin Shkreli has been seeking a jail furlough since early April from his New Jersey (Fort Dix Federal) prison (ie., covid incubator/deathtrap), to do vital research on covid cures. https://thehill.com/policy/healthcare/491536-shkreli-seeks-prison-release-to-conduct-research-for-coronavirus-cure
Maybe its working for him, but then again maybe not: As of last week He's been transferred out of the New Jersey prison, but is now being held in the NYC "Jeffery Epstein Memorial Euthanasia Facility" aka the Metropolitan Detention Center", (yikes!) awaiting relocation to a minimum security (?) Allenwood Federal prison in PA. https://www.cnbc.com/2019/04/24/pharma-bro-martin-shkreli-moved-from-prison-after-rule-breaking.html
May 03, 2020 | prosperopharma.com

M. Shkreli states: The industry response to COVID-19 is inadequate. All biopharmaceutical companies should be responding with all resources to combat this health emergency. Donations from these very valuable companies do not go far enough. The biopharmaceutical industry has a large braintrust of talent that is not working on this problem as companies have deprioritized or even abandoned infectious disease research. Medicinal chemists, structural biologists, enzymologists and assay development and research biology departments at EVERY pharmaceutical company should be put to work until COVID-19 is no more.

[May 03, 2020] Another day another hypothesis: SARS-COV-2 is not primarily a respiratory virus, it is mostly an epithelial virus.

May 03, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Lurk , May 2 2020 20:01 utc | 6

Recent developments and insights point out that SARS-COV-2 is not primarily a respiratory virus, it is mostly an epithelial virus. The lung surface is composed of epithelial cells, but so are many other organs in the body.

The virus binds to ACE2 receptors that are richly expressed in epithelial cells. ACE2 stands for the angiotensin II converting enzyme. By this binding action, it disables the function of this enzyme and therein lies the mechanism of the problems it causes in the body.

A cascade of reactions surrounding the angiotensin system results in the creation of, and acerbation of pre-existing oxidative stress at the cellular level. This is why the actual risk categories turn out not to be asthmatics and other pulmonary patients, but instead diabetics, hypertensics and people with coronary disease.

Many COVID-19 victims die not from ARDS, but from sudden heart attacks, strokes and renal failure, in many cases systemic blood clotting is found. The "ground glass" lung photos are in fact showing pervasive alveolar bleeding.

Check out the latest of many highly informative MedCram videos on the topic:

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=gzx8LH4Fjic

/div>

/div

[May 03, 2020] Ignorant Italians majors do not understand that 99% of coronavirus infections happened in closed spaces.

As long as social distancing is maintained, there is no harm of people specing some time ourdoors. Excessive zeal here is countrproductive
May 03, 2020 | www.youtube.com

Angry Italian mayors rage at people ignoring coronavirus lockdown rules - YouTube


ppermint , 1 month ago

Well, walking your dog around the home for 5 minutes with no other people around, will not spread anything and will keep a better mental health. Italians have gone from total ignorance to total isolation - another extreme. Unfortunately, many people are undisciplined and careless, so there's no other choice. By the way, stop running: you may already have the virus, making any physical effort will only waste your body energy to fight the virus

spywhale , 1 month ago

Its not the people in the open countryside or walking in the streets or relaxing in the park spreading the virus its when people travel together in buses, trains or any crowded environment.

shaun grobbelaar , 2 weeks ago

Ah the open border Italian wussy is complaining about smokes. they stupid

forist1 , 2 weeks ago

The Camorra are scared of the Black Axe , Maybe if the mayors stopped turning a blind eye to the growing threat of criminal gangs on there streets instead of bullying there citizens Italy would be a safer place to live .

NotJerry Beans , 1 month ago

Poor government makes ignorant majors

Michael Lee , 1 month ago

"Sweet coronavirus-flavoured cream" that's a good one, Mayor.

Eagle 4 , 1 month ago

"What do you even need these haircuts for!?" 😂😂😂😂

Justin B , 1 month ago

They've censored all the funny bits. Like how the mayor with the glasses says the f word a lot and the one talking about hairdressing says the casket is closed, noones going to see your new haircut when yo dead' 😂

P.C. Π.Χ.Φ.Ω , 1 month ago

Love them all Mediterreneans-they have such passion and fire in them . Italians, Greeks, Spanish..LOL

Ma Sa , 1 month ago

I love the last part "why people suddenly become runners."

Sam H , 1 month ago

i love their dark humour. viva italia! what a tremendous loss of the country's elderly population, I love italian elderly, they have so much wisdom and charisma. what a loss.

Emah Edabus , 1 month ago

The best one from another clip was: if u have a party I'll send the police with flamethrowers. They're all passionate!

Tristan Lau , 1 month ago

If anyone in Italy violates the lockdown rules will be subjected to eating pineapple pizza, the streets will be empty.

Adriana Giuro-Walla , 1 month ago

"La bestialità totale!" 🤣 Grande Sindaco De Luca!

A BC , 1 month ago

I must admit, I feel so much better working from home than dragging myself to the office. And there is so much flexibility.

Pesi Belau , 4 weeks ago

The best one were the who made references to will smith and the one who threathen to send police with torch to break party out!!

[May 03, 2020] Analysis and viewpoint scenarios: COVID-19 prepare for the next 2 years

May 03, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Likklemore , May 1 2020 22:30 utc | 94

Analysis and viewpoint scenarios: COVID-19 prepare for the next 2 years

Part 1:"The Future of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Lessons from Pandemic Influenza" by CIDRAP, University Minnesota.

LINK

cited by Sputniknews.


[May 02, 2020] Power of connections: Remdesivir approved for emergency use for Covid-19 treatment in US despite lackluster clinical trials

While a study of the experimental drug remdesivir as a treatment for Covid-19 published positive preliminary results on Wednesday, such treatment is likely to remain just as far out of reach as existing coronavirus care for many patients. Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, nevertheless cheered the results, declaring the trial had " proven " that " a drug can block this virus ."
May 02, 2020 | www.rt.com

Remdesivir, made exclusively by Gilead, received FDA approval for emergency use on Friday after appearing to show clinical benefit in a single trial conducted by the National Institute for Allergy and Infections Disease (NIAID). Gilead has pledged to donate 1.5 million doses of the drug, and the stockpile currently on hand will be distributed to hospitals starting on Monday, according to Vice President Mike Pence.

FDA commissioner Steve Gottlieb called the drug an " important clinical advance. " Dr. Deborah Birx, head of the White House's coronavirus task force, gushed that it was " the first positive step forward " in treating Covid-19.

Emergency drug approval differs from full FDA approval in that it is only valid while the emergency declaration - in this case, the coronavirus pandemic - remains in effect. Remdesivir is not the first drug to receive such approval for treating Covid-19 - the malaria drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were approved on an emergency basis in late March. While their use remains controversial due to the vocal support of President Donald Trump, doctors in other countries (and even in the US) have anecdotally reported success in treating patients with the malaria pills in combination with the antibiotic azithromycin, though clinical trials have produced mixed results.

While the results of the NIAID's remdesivir trial reported on Wednesday were reportedly positive, indicating a 31 percent faster recovery time, the full data has not been publicly released, let alone peer-reviewed. Dr. Anthony Fauci, who heads the NIAID, nevertheless cheered the drug as having a " clear-cut, significant, positive effect in diminishing the time to recovery ." He insisted the drug " can block this virus " and suggested that no further studies with placebos were needed, declaring that scientists had an " ethical obligation " to let those receiving the sugar pills have access to the active drug - no further comparison needed.

Could Anthony Fauci explain why the investigators of the NIAID remdesivir trial did change the primary outcome during the course of the project (16th April)? Removing "death" from primary outcome is a surprising decision. https://t.co/ZnK9LiUzaX pic.twitter.com/Rq47FHqGyO

-- Didier Raoult (@raoult_didier) April 30, 2020

Skeptics have pointed to the NIAID's decision to change its trial's " endpoint " from mortality to duration of illness as proof remdesivir is not the miracle pill it is being portrayed as. Tellingly, the drug had no clinically significant effect on mortality for patients enrolled in the trial. Others have questioned whether a drug initially developed as a (failed) treatment for Ebola would have any effect on a totally different virus. Fauci's own comparison of the NIAID trial to the first trial of AZT for HIV treatment also raised a few eyebrows, as early high-dose AZT treatment was extremely deadly.

Another remdesivir trial Gilead has touted as positive in fact showed no difference in clinical improvement between five-day and 10-day treatment groups on the 14th day of observation. While the company suggested this meant more patients could be treated with the drug, the lack of a control group rendered the results all but meaningless. Nevertheless, Gilead flooded the media with positive releases about its two trials, drowning out concern about a Chinese trial whose results had already been published in the Lancet, showing no clinical benefit for the drug.

[May 01, 2020] 47 old drugs that might treat the coronavirus... The Conversation - Sic Semper Tyrannis

From the article: Two potent antihistamines, clemastine and cloperastine , also displayed antiviral activity... ...Interestingly, a seventh compound – an ingredient commonly found in cough suppressants, called dextromethorphan – does the opposite: Its presence helps the virus.
May 01, 2020 | turcopolier.typepad.com

In theory, any intersection on the map between viral and human proteins is a place where drugs could fight the coronavirus . But instead of trying to develop new drugs to work on these points of interaction, we turned to the more than 2,000 unique drugs already approved by the FDA for human use. We believed that somewhere on this long list would be a few drugs or compounds that interact with the very same human proteins as the coronavirus.

We were right." The Conversation

https://theconversation.com/we-found-and-tested-47-old-drugs-that-might-treat-the-coronavirus-results-show-promising-leads-and-a-whole-new-way-to-fight-covid-19-136789

deap , 01 May 2020 at 12:04 PM

Every good linked article - thanks. Important takeaway from very early research finings: OTC cough suppressant

..... "Interestingly, a seventh compound – an ingredient commonly found in cough suppressants, called dextromethorphan – does the opposite: Its presence helps the virus. When our partners tested infected cells with this compound, the virus was able to replicate more easily, and more cells died.

This is potentially a very important finding, but, and I cannot stress this enough, more tests are needed to determine if cough syrup with this ingredient should be avoided by someone who has COVID-19........"

[May 01, 2020] Ventilators are generally not working for COVID-19

Monitoring oxygen is important. If your lip are blue you need to go to the hospital. Pulse Oximeter is a relatively cheap device.
May 01, 2020 | caucus99percent.com
Treatment for the Coronavirus is evolving. The disease is complicated and is not acting like influenza. They are finding that it also causes brain infections, heart infections, and neurological problems. Ventilators are generally not working. So now they are avoiding ventilators for the most part. Sixty to eighty percent of the people put on ventilators either die or end up with additional serious complications.

Instead doctors are now turning people on their stomachs and improving their oxygenation. Dr. Richard Levitan, an airway specialist who has practiced emergency medicine for over 30 years addresses these issues.

http://www.youtube.com

~~~

[May 01, 2020] Welcome to the era of the Great Disillusionment by Jonathan Cook

May 01, 2020 | www.unz.com

Now rogue academics, rogue journalists, rogue former officials – anyone, in fact – can go online and discover a myriad of things that until recently no one outside a small establishment circle was ever supposed to understand. If you know where to look, you can even find some of this stuff on Wikipedia (see, for example, Operation Timber Sycamore ).

The effect of this information overload has been to disorientate the great majority of us who lack the time, the knowledge and the analytical skills to sift through it all and make sense of the world around us. It is hard to discriminate when there is so much information – good and bad alike – to digest.

Nonetheless, we have got a sense from these online debates, reinforced by events in the non-virtual world, that our politicians do not always tell the truth, that money – rather than the public interest – sometimes wins out in decision-making processes, and that our elites may be little better equipped than us – aside from their expensive educations – to run our societies.

Two decades of lies

There has been a handful of staging posts over the past two decades to our current era of the Great Disillusionment. They include:

lack of transparency in the US government's investigation into the events surrounding 9/11 (obscured by a parallel online controversy about what took place that day); the documented lies told about the reasons for launching a disastrous and illegal war of aggression against Iraq in 2003 that unleashed regional chaos, waves of destabilising migration into Europe and new, exceptionally brutal forms of political Islam; the astronomical bailouts after the 2008 crash of bankers whose criminal activities nearly bankrupted the global economy (but who were never held to account) and instituted more than a decade of austerity measures that had to be paid for by the public; the refusal by western governments and global institutions to take any leadership on tackling climate change , as not only the science but the weather itself has made the urgency of that emergency clear, because it would mean taking on their corporate sponsors; and now the criminal failures of our governments to prepare for, and respond properly to, the Covid-19 pandemic, despite many years of warnings.

Anyone who still takes what our governments say at face value well, I have several bridges to sell you.

Experts failed us

But it is not just governments to blame. The failings of experts, administrators and the professional class have been all too visible to the public as well. Those officials who have enjoyed easy access to prominent platforms in the state-corporate media have obediently repeated what state and corporate interests wanted us to hear, often only for that information to be exposed later as incomplete, misleading or downright fabricated.

In the run-up to the 2003 attack on Iraq, too many political scientists, journalists and weapons experts kept their heads down, keen to preserve their careers and status, rather than speak up in support of those rare experts like Scott Ritter and the late David Kelly who dared to sound the alarm that we were not being told the whole truth.

In 2008, only a handful of economists was prepared to break with corporate orthodoxy and question whether throwing money at bankers exposed as financial criminals was wise, or to demand that these bankers be prosecuted. The economists did not argue the case that there must be a price for the banks to pay, such as a public stake in the banks that were bailed out, in return for forcing taxpayers to massively invest in these discredited businesses. And the economists did not propose overhauling our financial systems to make sure there was no repetition of the economic crash. Instead, they kept their heads down as well, in the hope that their large salaries continued and that they would not lose their esteemed positions in think-tanks and universities.

... ... ...

And recently we have learnt, for example, that a series of Conservative governments in the UK recklessly ran down the supplies of hospital protective gear , even though they had more than a decade of warnings of a coming pandemic. The question is why did no scientific advisers or health officials blow the whistle earlier. Now it is too late to save the lives of many thousands, including dozens of medical staff, who have fallen victim so far to the virus in the UK.

Lesser of two evils

Worse still, in the Anglosphere of the US and the UK, we have ended up with political systems that offer a choice between one party that supports a brutal, unrestrained version of neoliberalism and another party that supports a marginally less brutal, slightly mitigated version of neoliberalism. (And we have recently discovered in the UK that, after the grassroots membership of one of those twinned parties managed to choose a leader in Jeremy Corbyn who rejected this orthodoxy, his own party machine conspired to throw the election rather than let him near power.) As we are warned at each election, in case we decide that elections are in fact futile, we enjoy a choice – between the lesser of two evils.

Those who ignore or instinctively defend these glaring failings of the modern corporate system are really in no position to sit smugly in judgment on those who wish to question the safety of 5G, or vaccines, or the truth of 9/11, or the reality of a climate catastrophe, or even of the presence of lizard overlords.

Because through their reflexive dismissal of doubt, of all critical thinking on anything that has not been pre-approved by our governments and by the state-corporate media, they have helped to disfigure the only yardsticks we have for measuring truth or falsehood. They have forced on us a terrible choice: to blindly follow those who have repeatedly demonstrated they are not worthy of being followed, or to trust nothing at all, to doubt everything. Neither position is one a healthy, balanced individual would want to adopt. But that is where we are today.

Big Brother regimes

It is therefore hardly surprising that those who have been so discredited by the current explosion of information – the politicians, the corporations and the professional class – are wondering how to fix things in the way most likely to maintain their power and authority.

They face two, possibly complementary options.

ORDER IT NOW

One is to allow the information overload to continue, or even escalate. There is an argument to be made that the more possible truths we are presented with, the more powerless we feel and the more willing we are to defer to those most vocal in claiming authority. Confused and hopeless, we will look to father figures, to the strongmen of old, to those who have cultivated an aura of decisiveness and fearlessness, to those who look like down-to-earth mavericks and rebels.

This approach will throw up more Donald Trumps, Boris Johnsons and Jair Bolsonaros. And these men, while charming us with their supposed lack of orthodoxy, will still, of course, be exceptionally accommodating to the most powerful corporate interests – the military-industrial complex – that really run the show.

The other option, which has already been road-tested under the rubric of "fake news", will be to treat us, the public, like irresponsible children, who need a firm, guiding hand. The technocrats and professionals will try to re-establish their authority as though the last two decades never occurred, as though we never saw through their hypocrisy and lies.

They will cite "conspiracy theories" – even the true ones – as proof that it is time to impose new curbs on internet freedoms, on the right to speak and to think. They will argue that the social media experiment has run its course and proved itself a menace – because we, the public, are a menace. They are already flying trial balloons for this new Big Brother world, under cover of tackling the health threats posed by the Covid-19 epidemic.

Surveillance a price worth paying to beat coronavirus, says Blair thinktank https://t.co/AAb1nnv4pG 

-- Guardian news (@guardiannews) April 24, 2020

We should not be surprised that the "thought-leaders" for shutting down the cacophony of the internet are those whose failures have been most exposed by our new freedoms to explore the dark recesses of the recent past. They have included Tony Blair, the British prime minister who lied western publics into the disastrous and illegal war on Iraq in 2003, and Jack Goldsmith, rewarded as a Harvard law professor for his role – since whitewashed – in helping the Bush administration legalise torture and step up warrantless surveillance programmes.

Fmr. Bush admin lawyer/current Harvard Law prof Jack Goldsmith goes full-Thomas Friedman, credits China's enlightened authoritarian approach to information as "largely right" and laments the US' provincial fealty to the First Amendment as "largely wrong." https://t.co/1WyQtgE8bK pic.twitter.com/1M03ybxh0I 

-- Anthony L. Fisher (@anthonyLfisher) April 26, 2020

Need for a new media

The only alternative to a future in which we are ruled by Big Brother technocrats like Tony Blair, or by chummy authoritarians who brook no dissent, or a mix of the two, will require a complete overhaul of our societies' approach to information. We will need fewer curbs on free speech, not more.

The real test of our societies – and the only hope of surviving the coming emergencies, economic and environmental – will be finding a way to hold our leaders truly to account. Not based on whether they are secretly lizards, but on what they are doing to save our planet from our all-too-human, self-destructive instinct for acquisition and our craving for guarantees of security in an uncertain world.

That, in turn, will require a transformation of our relationship to information and debate. We will need a new model of independent, pluralistic, responsive, questioning media that is accountable to the public, not to billionaires and corporations. Precisely the kind of media we do not have now. We will need media we can trust to represent the full range of credible, intelligent, informed debate, not the narrow Overton window through which we get a highly partisan, distorted view of the world that serves the 1 per cent – an elite so richly rewarded by the current system that they are prepared to ignore the fact that they and we are hurtling towards the abyss.

With that kind of media in place – one that truly holds politicians to account and celebrates scientists for their contributions to collective knowledge, not their usefulness to corporate enrichment – we would not need to worry about the safety of our communications systems or medicines, we would not need to doubt the truth of events in the news or wonder whether we have lizards for rulers, because in that kind of world no one would rule over us. They would serve the public for the common good.

Sounds like a fantastical, improbable system of government? It has a name: democracy. Maybe it is time for us finally to give it a go.

Jonathan Cook won the Martha Gellhorn Special Prize for Journalism. His books include "Israel and the Clash of Civilisations: Iraq, Iran and the Plan to Remake the Middle East" (Pluto Press) and "Disappearing Palestine: Israel's Experiments in Human Despair" (Zed Books). His website is www.jonathan-cook.net .

[Apr 29, 2020] "Four legs good, two legs bad." is now fully applicable to neoliberal MSM and especially to identity politics. But that does not mean that everything they say is wrong

Apr 29, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

c1ue , Apr 29 2020 20:22 utc | 38

@Allen #19

> The mainstream media being a lying machine doesn't automatically make everything they say wrong.

2 legs bad is no more idiotic applying to liberals as it does to conservatives, or mainstream media vs. alt media.

[Apr 28, 2020] Four of the coronavirus antibody tests produced false-positive rates ranging from 11 percent to 16 percent; many of the rest hovered around 5 percent

Apr 28, 2020 | www.nytimes.com

... ... ...

For the past few weeks, more than 50 scientists have been working diligently to do something that the Food and Drug Administration mostly has not: Verifying that 14 coronavirus antibody tests now on the market actually deliver accurate results.

These tests are crucial to reopening the economy, but public health experts have raised urgent concerns about their quality. The new research, completed just days ago and posted online Friday, confirmed some of those fears: Of the 14 tests, only three delivered consistently reliable results . Even the best had some flaws.

The research has not been peer-reviewed and is subject to revision. But the results are already raising difficult questions about the course of the epidemic.

Surveys of residents in the Bay Area, Los Angeles and New York this week found that substantial percentages tested positive for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, the official name of the new coronavirus. In New York City, the figure was said to be as high as 21 percent. Elsewhere, it was closer to 3 percent.

The idea that many residents in some parts of the country have already been exposed to the virus has wide implications. At the least, the finding could greatly complicate plans to reopen the economy.

Already Americans are scrambling to take antibody tests to see if they might escape lockdowns. Public health experts are wondering if those with positive results might be allowed to return to work.

But these tactics mean nothing if the test results can't be trusted.

In the new research, researchers found that only one of the tests never delivered a so-called false positive -- that is, it never mistakenly signaled antibodies in people who did not have them.

Two other tests did not deliver false-positive results 99 percent of the time. But the converse was not true. Even these three tests detected antibodies in infected people only 90 percent of the time, at best.

The false-positive metric is particularly important. The result may lead people to believe themselves immune to the virus when they are not, and to put themselves in danger by abandoning social distancing and other protective measures.

It is also the result on which scientists are most divided.

"There are multiple tests that look reasonable and promising," said Dr. Alexander Marson, an immunologist at the University of California, San Francisco, and one of the project's leaders. "That's some reason for optimism."

Dr. Marson is also an investigator in the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, which partly funded the study.

Other scientists were less sanguine than Dr. Marson. Four of the tests produced false-positive rates ranging from 11 percent to 16 percent; many of the rest hovered around 5 percent.

[Apr 28, 2020] Consumer Beware Coronavirus Antibody Tests Are Still A Work In Progress

Highly recommended!
Notable quotes:
"... By JoNel Aleccia, Senior Correspondent at Kaiser Health News, who previously reported for The Seattle Times, NBCNews.com, TODAY.com and MSNBC.com. Originally published at Kaiser Health News ..."
Apr 28, 2020 | www.nakedcapitalism.com

By JoNel Aleccia, Senior Correspondent at Kaiser Health News, who previously reported for The Seattle Times, NBCNews.com, TODAY.com and MSNBC.com. Originally published at Kaiser Health News

After hearing for months about serious access issues involving tests that diagnose COVID-19 based on swabs from the nose or throat, Americans are being inundated with reports about promising new tests that look for signs of infection in the blood.

There are high hopes for these antibody tests, which detect proteins that form in blood as part of the body's immune response to an invading virus. Communities across the U.S. have been rolling out the results of serological surveys that examine blood samples from people who haven't been diagnosed with COVID-19 to see if they were, in fact, previously infected.

The thinking is, if there are blood markers that can detect when people have been infected, such tests should be able to tell us how widely the novel coronavirus has spread. And equally optimistic: those same antibodies could convey immunity to the disease, signaling someone is safe from reinfection and able to get back to work.

Such high hopes, however, are running smack into the roadblocks of reality.

Infectious disease experts are raising pointed questions about the reliability of the early tests and the studies that hinge on their results. And they warn that state and local governments -- as well as individuals -- should be wary of shaping policy or changing behavior based on any single report.

In the sharpest caution to date, officials with the World Health Organization on Saturday warned against plans for proposed "immunity passports," which would allow people who have recovered from the coronavirus to resume unrestricted travel and work.

"There is currently no evidence that people who have recovered from COVID-19 and have antibodies are protected from a second infection," the agency wrote in a scientific brief.

Even before the WHO weighed in, other experts were urging restraint in interpreting early results of antibody screening.

"The science is catching up," said Dr. Liise-anne Pirofski, chief of the division of infectious diseases at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Health System. "Our ability to make a test at the moment is much greater than our understanding of what those antibodies we are testing for mean."

In the past few weeks, more than 180 academic centers, hospitals and private manufacturers have notified the federal Food and Drug Administration that they intend to create serology tests for COVID-19, spokesperson Stephanie Caccomo said in an email. They've been able to jump into the fray because the FDA in March relaxed regulations for developing tests as part of its emergency response to the pandemic.

But the FDA has not reviewed the vast majority of tests on the market, and their validity, particularly point-of-care blood tests that promise rapid results within minutes, isn't clear, said Dr. Michael Busch, director of the Vitalant Research Institute and a professor of laboratory medicine at the University of California-San Francisco.

"Some of them have sensitivities that are quite poor," he said. "You may even miss some infected people completely."

Other tests may flag people as positive for COVID-19 when they're not infected. That's especially true in regions of the country with little spread of the novel virus. If the prevalence of a disease is low, less than 5%, even an accurate test would yield a high number of false positive results because of the way such screening tools operate.

So when people see advertisements for finger-prick antibody tests becoming widely available at urgent care centers and medispas, they should think twice.

For one, antibody tests can't be used to diagnose the disease. Antibodies may not be present in high enough levels to be detected in the earliest days of an infection. And because there are several other known coronaviruses -- including those that cause the common cold -- people infected with those viruses could produce antibodies that cross-react with those produced in response to the new virus.

Scientists still know too little about whether antibodies to COVID-19 convey immunity that could allow people to put away masks and halt social distancing, said Dr. Mary Hayden, director of the division of clinical microbiology at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago.

Immunity to a virus is a complicated process that takes place over one to two weeks, the WHO noted. The immune system makes antibodies in response to an infection. But the body also makes T-cells that recognize and eliminate other cells infected with the virus, creating what's known as cellular immunity. Those two processes together may help a person recover and prevent reinfection. But it is not yet clear whether cellular immunity is required to bolster recovery and prevent subsequent infection with COVID-19.

"We do not know whether or not the antibodies detected are protective," Hayden told reporters last week on a call organized by the Infectious Diseases Society of America . "We recommend that people with antibodies not change their behavior in any way."

Scientists are hoping, however, that future COVID-19 studies may demonstrate immunity that could last for one or two years.

Concerns about the validity of the tests have cast a shadow on several recent reports aiming to quantify the spread of the virus in specific regions. Last week, New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo revealed the results of a serological survey that suggested that 1 in 5 New York City residents had been infected with the coronavirus. Statewide, the figure was 13.9%, according to the study of 3,000 New Yorkers in 19 counties who were recruited at grocery stores.

But the results quickly drew criticism. Dr. Demetre Daskalakis, who directs the city's disease control, warned that the tests could produce "false negative or false positive results. " Florian Krammer, a microbiology professor at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai who designs such tests, tweeted -- and later deleted -- that the results were "BS."

"I think this is too high," he said in a later tweet. "It is possible. But a 20% plus infection rate seems too high for NYC due to a number of reasons. I would think 6-8%, maybe 10% are closer to the truth. It would be nice to know more about the test, its sensitivity and specificity and the test population."

Similarly, two serology studies in California, one in Santa Clara County and one in Los Angeles County, drew wide criticism about the recruitment of subjects and the analyses used.

In the Santa Clara study , Stanford University researchers tested 3,330 volunteers for antibodies showing exposure to COVID-19; about 1.5% were positive. They concluded that meant from 48,000 to 81,000 people were infected with the virus in the county.

"It was completely inadequate to interpret the results that 50,000 to 80,000 people were infected," Busch said.

The L.A. study, conducted by University of Southern California researchers, concluded that 2.8% to 5.6% of the county's adult population had been exposed to the coronavirus. That translates to 221,000 to 422,000 adult residents who have been infected. Critics, however, argued that the study sample was too small and that details of the methodology weren't immediately available.

Busch understands the drive to conduct such tests.

"People are asking the questions: What's the real denominator to judge the case counts and the death counts against?" he said. "People are urgently trying to get data."

Unfortunately, that data simply is not available yet, other experts said. This coronavirus has never been seen before, so the science that will inform efforts to help communities respond and recover is playing out in real time.

"The problem is that the science has not kept up with the tests," Hayden said. "Now we need to do the research to tell what the results mean."

On the positive side, most of the scientific community has pivoted to focus on finding solutions, said Pirofski, who was also on the IDSA call. "We just have to slow our roll."

"This is our first dive in trying to understand what's going on," she said. "I would say it's a start."

[Apr 28, 2020] US attorney Robert F Kennedy Jr says that top Trump advisor Anthony Fauci has made the reckless choice to fast track vaccines, partially funded by Gates, without critical animal studies

Apr 28, 2020 | off-guardian.org

US attorney Robert F Kennedy Jr says that top Trump advisor Anthony Fauci has made the reckless choice to fast track vaccines, partially funded by Gates , without critical animal studies . Gates is so worried about the danger of adverse events that he says vaccines shouldn't be distributed until governments agree to indemnity against lawsuits.

But this should come as little surprise. The Gates Foundation and its global vaccine agenda already has much to answer for. Instead of prioritizing projects that are proven to curb infectious diseases and improve health – clean water, hygiene, nutrition and economic development – Kennedy notes that the Gates Foundation spends only about $650 million of its $5 billion budget on these areas.

It is fair to say that the Gates Foundation has an agenda: it believes that many of its aims can be delivered via the barrel of a syringe. It has been well documented in recent weeks about how the Gates Foundation has spread its tentacles into every facet of global health policy.

For instance, it is a major funder of the World Health Organization and donates to other pivotal players in the COVID-19 saga, not least Imperial College London whose Neil Ferguson produced hugely flawed data upon which the UK government implemented a lockdown, which entailed sanctioning draconian state powers and stripping of people's basic rights via the Coronavirus Emergency Act.

Although often alluded to, Gates's push for cashless societies is given less attention in the current climate but is just as important. It is not only the major pharmaceutical corporations which the Gates Foundation is firmly in bed with (along with the big agri-food players ), it is also embedded with Wall Street financial interests.

The global shift from cash towards digital transactions is being spearheaded by Bill Gates and US financial corporations who will profit from digital payments. At the same time, by controlling digital payments (and removing cash), you can control and monitor everything a country and its citizens do and pay for.

[Apr 28, 2020] Who is at RISK from COVID-19 -- UK DOCTOR -- Covid-19 Vlog #15

Highly recommended!
I recommend to listen to this video in full. It is really good !
Apr 28, 2020 | www.youtube.com

Rebecca Elliott , 4 days ago

Sign of a true expert - admitting when you don't know the answer to something

Mike Rees , 4 days ago

The format you have here with Dr Jenkins is really good. Almost like a podcast. You two have a great rapport

Sarah's Tarot , 4 days ago

Doctor Jenkins is so level headed. I imagine he must be a very reassuring presence for his patients

SuperLkelley , 4 days ago

As a research scientist in the life sciences at Imperial College, this interview is the best source of information I have seen on the internet. Thank you so much.

Daily Occasions , 4 days ago

This format where you ask a question and allow a detailed response was delightful! Watching this conversation between two highly skilled and intelligent doctors who are full of compassion has given me hope. Please do more video's like this ? Well done doctors well done!

[Apr 28, 2020] To end endless wars, I support 75% military spending cuts

This amount of money would end COVID-19 epidemic really quickly
Apr 28, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org
blues , Apr 26 2020 21:26 utc | 31
Howie Hawkins -- Peace and Freedom Party 2020

I am a retired Teamster in Syracuse, New York, who joined the civil rights, antiwar, and environmental movements as a teenager in the San Francisco Bay Area in the 1960s. In 1984, I co-founded the Green Party. In 2010, I was the first U.S. candidate to campaign for a Green New Deal in the first of three campaigns for New York governor that won Green Party ballot lines.

To end the climate crisis, I have detailed an Ecosocialist Green New Deal to create 38 million new jobs, 100% clean energy, and zero carbon emissions by 2030.

To end poverty and economic insecurity, I propose an Economic Bill of Rights: job guarantee, guaranteed minimum income, affordable housing, improved Medicare for all, tuition-free public education pre–K to college, and secure retirement by doubling Social Security.

To end endless wars, I support 75% military spending cuts, U.S. troops home, diplomacy, international law, human rights, and a Global Green New Deal.

To end the new nuclear arms race, I favor no first use, minimum credible deterrent, and ratification of the new Nuclear Weapons Ban Treaty.

I support unions, $20 minimum wage, worker co-ops, public banks, public energy, public railroads, progressive taxation, net neutrality, internet privacy, ending mass surveillance, no nukes, no fracking, abortion rights, student and medical debt relief, decriminalizing drugs, ending mass incarceration, police under community control, immigrant amnesty, African-American reparations, Indian and Mexican-American treaty rights, whistleblower and political prisoner pardons, and presidential elections by National Popular Vote using Ranked-Choice Voting. [Ranked Choice Voting is a huge fraud -- which many well-meaning people fall for]
// ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

So --

HowieHawkins20 -- Account suspended -- Twitter suspends accounts which violate the Twitter Rules

You catching on yet?

[Apr 28, 2020] SARS-CoV-2 might cause cell necrosis in endothelial tissue.

Apr 28, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Peter AU1 , Apr 27 2020 0:05 utc | 50

I had posted this comment at the 'coronavirus and smoking' thread, but it looks like it may be a major advance on understanding COVID-19 and how it affects the body so will post it here as well.

http://www.en.usz.ch/media/press-releases/pages/covid-19-endotheliitis.aspx

Varga has been able to use an electron microscope to verify for the first time that SARS-CoV-2 is present and causes cell necrosis in endothelial tissue.

Endothelial tissue is a cell layer that acts as a protective shield in blood vessels and regulates and balances out various processes in the microvessels. The disruption of this regulatory process can, for example, cause circulatory disorders in organs and body tissue, resulting in cellular necrosis and thus to the death of these organs or tissue...

... This means that the virus not only triggers the inflammation of the lungs, which then causes further complications, but is also directly responsible for systemic endotheliitis, an inflammation of all endothelial tissue in the body which affects all vessel beds – in heart, brain, lung and renal vessels as well as vessels in the intestinal tract....

...The endothelial tissue of younger patients is usually capable of coping well with the attacks launched by the virus. The situation is different for patients suffering from hypertension, diabetes, heart failure or coronary heart diseases, all of which have one thing in common – their endothelial function is markedly impaired. If patients such as these become infected with SARS-COV-2, they will be particularly at risk, as their already weakened endothelial function will diminish even further, especially during the phase in which the virus reproduces the most.

[Apr 28, 2020] Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation (UBI) is an interesting idea

Apr 28, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Pft , Apr 27 2020 0:40 utc | 54

Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation (UBI) is an interesting idea.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4783265/

It was actually quite a thing in the 1940's and 1950's for diseases like septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, arthritis, asthma and even poliomyelitis.

Low and mild doses of UV kill microorganisms by damaging the DNA, while any DNA damage in host cells can be rapidly repaired by DNA repair enzymes.

Having done a bit of reading on porphyrins of late and seeing a NY doctor mentioning that covid-19 patients have hypoxia w/o pneumonia and good lung function got me thinking. This may be due to the porphyrin heme is unable to transport oxygen , perhaps because the virus somehow has displaced iron from the porphyrin (heme) , and makes me wonder if UV light can help in this regard .

Porphyrins are highly pigmented (heme gives blood its red color) fluorescent molecules . Strong pigments are always efficient energy absorbers, and if they are also fluorescent like porphyrins, they are also good energy transmitters.

Porphyrins are more efficient energy transmitters than any other of life's components. In technical terms, their ionization potential is low, and their electron affinity high. They are therefore capable of transmitting large amounts of energy rapidly in small steps, one low-energy electron at a time. They can even transmit energy electronically from oxygen to other molecules, instead of dissipating that energy as heat and burning up. That's why breathing is possible.

The word porphyrin is derived from the Greek porphura meaning purple. The pandemic exercise last year was named Crimson Contagion. Crimson is a strong, red color, inclining to purple like heme. Coincidence?

Could it be that whatever is causing COVID-19 , and we dont know for sure because kochs postulate was not fulfilled on the virus China said they isolated, that it is infecting or altering a porphyrin like heme?

Completely out of my depth here of course. Food for thought though.

krollchem , Apr 27 2020 16:04 utc | 94

Pft@62

UVC light has been proposed as a means to sterilize indoor areas to prevent COVID-19 infections in crowded areas such as shops.
https://news.columbia.edu/ultraviolet-technology-virus-covid-19-UV-light

Interesting comment about crimson contegion. The attack on hemogloblin was reported a few weeks ago but has since disappeared. Do not know if it was true. Perhaps UVC in conjunction with ECMO which involves shunting blood outside the body and then back again may be a means to kill the virus, thus suppressing the disease progression.

[Apr 28, 2020] How air pollution exacerbates Covid-19

Apr 28, 2020 | www.bbc.com

One recent study found that even small increases in fine particulate matter, known as PM2.5, have had an outsized effect in the US. An increase of just 1 microgram per cubic metre corresponded to a 15% increase in Covid-19 deaths , according to the researchers, led by Xiao Wu and Rachel Nethery at the at the Harvard University T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

The evidence we have is pretty clear that people who have been living in places that are more polluted over time, that they are more likely to die from coronavirus – Aaron Bernstein
For comparison, the safe limit designated by the US's Environmental Protection Agency is 12 micrograms PM2.5 per cubic metre , while the World Health Organization has a guideline figure of 10 micrograms per cubic metre as an annual mean.Parts of New York have annual PM2.5 levels consistently above this safe threshold . Researchers suggest that this could have played a part in the scale of New York State's coronavirus outbreak, with deaths as of April by far the highest of any state. "The evidence we have is pretty clear that people who have been living in places that are more polluted over time, that they are more likely to die from coronavirus," says Aaron Bernstein, the director of the Center for Climate, Health, and Global Environment at Harvard University.

The study, which looked across 3,080 counties in the United States, also found people who have lived in counties with long-term pollution exposure for 15-20 years have significantly higher mortality rates, says Wu.

While the study has yet to be peer-reviewed by independent experts, Wu says that the association is likely down to the higher risk of existing respiratory and heart diseases in areas of higher pollution. Air pollution is also known to weaken the immune system , compromising people's ability to fight off infection, according to the European Public Health Alliance.

"If Manhattan had lowered its average particulate matter level by just a single unit, or one microgram per cubic meter, over the past 20 years, the borough would most likely have seen 248 fewer Covid-19 deaths by this point in the outbreak [4 April 2020]," the researchers conclude.

A study of air quality in Italy's northern provinces of Lombardy and Emilia Romagna also found a correlation between Covid-19 mortality rates and high levels of pollution. Lombardy makes up the vast majority of the country's deaths, at 13,325 of Italy's 26,644 as of 26 April , while Emilia Romagna was the province with the next greatest death toll, at 3,386. The researchers questioned the role of low air quality in their becoming hotspots, concluding that: "the high level of pollution in northern Italy should be considered an additional co-factor of the high level of lethality recorded in that area".

You could pick any city in the world and expect to see an effect of air pollution on people's risk of getting sicker from coronavirus – Aaron Bernstein
These are not the first studies to highlight a substantial link between air pollution levels and deaths from viral diseases. A 2003 study found that patients with Sars, a respiratory virus closely related to Covid-19, were 84% more likely to die if they lived in areas with high levels of pollution.

[Apr 27, 2020] I checked just now and today the CDC has removed 'smoking' as part of the list of conditions that make ppl vulnerable.

Apr 27, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Noirette , Apr 26 2020 18:27 utc | 21

When the idea 'lungs affected by' 'pneumonia' plus 'smoking' plus 'Chinese men bigly smokers (women not)' came up, I posted, this is junk!

Smoking reduces ACE2 receptors, these being (reportedly ..) 'the' or 'one of the' entry avenues for cov-19 virus.

That social media was, is, filled with such rubbish is understandable, as smoking has become in many places a marker of low status, smokers are disgusting ppl, druggies, polluters, child killers, gutter filth.

Note the difference with cocaine users who tend to be quite well off - at least in EU - and get a pass, nobody is screaming your doc is mad high and will cut in the wrong place, or X leader is coked up talking BS...(Macron?)

Yet, that supposedly serious authorative organisms like the CDC in the US (and all the MSM following) blithely announce being a smoker as a condition that is co-morbid is worrisome. I checked just now and today the CDC has removed 'smoking' as part of the list of conditions that make ppl vulnerable.

What about the other conditions, characteristics? They are all correlated with older age, being in a 'rich' country, aka more elderly living taking a pile of pills everyday.

So is having gray hair (correlates with age), is losing 2 cms in height (correlates with age), taking X meds, eating junk food, or more, leading to cov-19 deaths? What really makes older ppl more susceptible to death by nov-19?

None of this informs us about the cellular (or more general) mechanisms of the virus, its attack, success in function of x y z factors or whatever. All very shoddy check boxes (with no solid support) parading as 'Your Gvmt top info.'

Plus, the few stand out group-differences that could lead to some insight, such as death of men, much higher vs. women, are not considered seriously (or only so in a few publications, etc.)


[Apr 27, 2020] The epidemic and the population dencity: among the top 12 states in terms of nCOV mortality almost all are also the densest populated states.

Apr 27, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

c1ue , Apr 27 2020 19:29 utc | 113

@Mina #102
All true, but again, not clear where density ranks in the grand scheme of nCOV impact.
Just for grins - I did a quick experiment on US states. Specifically I compared the absolute ranking of each state in terms of density vs. its ranking in nCOV mortality per unit population:
US state density vs. nCOV mortality

The top 12 states in terms of nCOV mortality - almost all of them are roughly also the densest states.

DC is the densest and is #7 in nCOV mortality.
New Jersey is #2 in both.
New York is #1 in mortality and #10 in density.

The major outliers in the top 12 nCOV mortality is Louisiana (due to Mardi Gras) and Michigan (?).

Other outliers: Washington state: +14 nCOV mortality vs. density - but of course Washington state is where nCOV kicked off in the US.

The 3 island territories and Hawaii are all hugely below their density rankings - that's clearly a case of isolation working.

Excluding those 4, the average state is +3 places in nCOV mortality vs. density.

The top 12 nCOV mortality average average +5 places in nCOV mortality vs. density.

This certainly doesn't prove anything, but is interesting.

[Apr 27, 2020] Unfortunately, this serological test yields very high false positives "due to past or present infection with non-SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus strains, such as coronavirus HKU1, NL63, OC43, or 229E."

Apr 27, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

krollchem , Apr 24 2020 19:38 utc | 40

Petri Krohn@12

Please do not trust the serological tests!

Several serological studies for the presence of IgM-IgG antibodies have concluded that the percentage of individuals infected with the COVID-19 virus SARS-CoV-2 is 50-80x higher than the recorded cases, due to recovered asymptomatic cases that were not tested during the infection using the RT-PCR test.

Unfortunately, this serological test yields very high false positives "due to past or present infection with non-SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus strains, such as coronavirus HKU1, NL63, OC43, or 229E." Yes, if a person has had a common cold they would likely test positive!!!
https://www.biomedomics.com/products/infectious-disease/covid-19-rt/

Other limitations mentioned by this manufacturer include:
(1) Lacks FDA review due to the urgency of testing;
(2) "Negative results do not rule out SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly in those who have been in contact with the virus. Follow-up testing with a molecular diagnostic should be considered to rule out infection in these individuals.";
(3) "Results from antibody testing should not be used as the sole basis to diagnose or exclude SARS-CoV-2 infection or to inform infection status." "The COVID-19 IgM/IgG Rapid Test can be used to screen patients suspected of having been affected by the novel coronavirus. However, results of test should not be the only basis for diagnosis.";
(4) Only used on fresh samples and tested immediately;
(5) "Results are valid 10 minutes after sample and buffer are combined in the cassette sample well. ";
(6) This test has a low sensitivity, as it has been determined to detect only 88.66% of those confirmed to be positive by the PCR test;
(7) This test have a low specificity of 90.63%, as 9.37% of those patients tested were not SARS-CoV-2 infected;

Other issues with serological testing in the fore mentioned studies include":
(1) Lack of random sampling for age, sex, ethnic background, socio-economic status etc.
(2) Potential of super-recruiter bias from word of mouth of the drive by test site(s)

See also this video by a doctor of pathology on limitations of serological testing for COVID-19
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R8Pv77R3g1E

Given the measured sensitivity and selectivity from the above test one can calculate the following for a 1% infection rate (10,000) among one million people:
Positive cases found =8,866 (0.8866%)
False positives found= 92,763 (9.2763%)
Ratio of false/real =92,763/92,763+8,866 = 91.28% of positive tests are false

Thus the herd immunity is greatly exaggerated in serological testing. For instance, if a serological study claims that 20% of the population has been exposed to COVID-19, the actual percentage of the population exposed to this virus is actually 1.74%.

All such studies using serological testing should contain a BIG disclaimer on the accuracy of the results.


[Apr 27, 2020] Covid-19 mutations underestimated, Chinese scientists warn, as DEADLIEST strains grip Europe and US

Apr 21, 2020 | www.rt.com
Chinese scientists have found that Europe and America's East Coast have been infected by some of the most aggressive Covid-19 strains, as they discovered dozens of virus mutations. These destroy a host's cells faster than others. The ability of the novel coronavirus to mutate has been previously vastly underestimated, a team from China's Zhejiang University, led by Professor Li Lanjuan, says in a new study. The group found as many as 33 virus mutations in just 11 coronavirus patients they examined in the city of Hangzhou.

The researchers say that 60 percent of the strains they discovered turned out to be entirely new. In a worrying development, they also discovered that the virus's mutations directly affect its deadliness. Their research revealed that the most aggressive type of Covid-19 could create a virus load 270 times greater than the least potent one.

Also on rt.com 'Not possible to determine' exact origins of Covid-19, but available evidence points to animal source – WHO

"Despite only 11 patient-derived isolates being analyzed in this study, we observed abundant mutational diversity, including several founding mutations for different major clusters of viruses now circulating globally," the study said.

The virus load is the measure of its quantity in a certain volume of bodily fluid, usually blood plasma. It particularly shows how quickly a pathogen could propagate through the organism and destroy its cells. Unfortunately for Europeans, one of the most aggressive strains found by the Chinese scientists appears to be similar to the one that has spread across the continent, particularly Italy and Spain, the pre-print of the study published on the website medRxiv.org revealed on Sunday.

The same strain came from Europe to New York, which has since become one of the worst affected US states. America's West Coast, however, appears to be infected by another, less deadly strain that arrived directly from China.

Nonetheless, that doesn't mean those on the West Coast have less cause for concern, as even less powerful strains can cause a serious ailment, the Zhejiang University team warns. They note that two of the observed patients, in their 30s and 50s, who contracted a weaker strain, still suffered severe symptoms.

Also on rt.com Worldwide Covid-19 death toll soars past 170,000 – Johns Hopkins University

Most importantly, though, the scientists say their discoveries could affect the development of the much-needed vaccine, because a one-size-fits-all solution might not work in case of Covid-19.

"Drug and vaccine development, while urgent, needs to take the impact of these accumulating mutations, especially the founding mutations, into account to avoid potential pitfalls," the team says.

Globally, the novel coronavirus has thus far infected more than 2.3 million people and claimed more than 170,000 lives.

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[Apr 27, 2020] An argument for outdoor sports

Apr 27, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Jen , Apr 25 2020 20:59 utc | 31

Dear B,

I have to say that the last few paragraphs of your post, in which you say that the most effective way of limiting the spread of COVID-19 is to isolate the sick in special quarantine conditions in clinics or hotels set aside for just that purpose, can be used to argue against a general shutdown of society across entire nations or regions, or even cities or communities where COVID-19 clusters exist.

The Chinese information suggesting that 99% of infections occur indoors should prompt builders, architects, engineers and aircdonditioning manufacturers to consider ways in which conventional airconditioning systems in enclosed environments might be adjusted or redesigned to mis fresh air with recycled and recycling air, so as to reduce the possibility of spreading COVID-19 and other contagions (like Legionnaire's) through internal systems.

There may be a case for reintroducing some sports events that are normally played outdoors, and even bringing professional indoor sports out into the open again. Basketball, netball and other sports using a ball and hoop could become completely outdoors in their professional formats like many other team sports, and might attract more fans. Gymnastics used to be an outdoor sport as well. No reason why major gymnastics events at regional, national and international levels can't be brought outdoors: special mats for floor exercises and for protection could be made and used for outdoor events.

Passer by , Apr 25 2020 21:19 utc | 36

Posted by: Jen | Apr 25 2020 20:59 utc | 31

Even back then during SARS 1 some infections occured via the ventilation system.

One chinese report recently claimed hydrogen peroxide vapor in the hospital ventilation system helped decrease Covid 19 symptoms among the patients.

HPV is highly effective for sterilisation purposes, including of N95 masks and hospital equipment.

On the outdoor issue it is known that sun and heat kill this and other viruses, so it is better if indoor activity also coincides with warm and sunny weather.

[Apr 27, 2020] On the point of family or shared domicile infections, this is a good article about the working class, immigrant area of Boston called Chelsea. It's a major hot zone of covid infections. The images coming out of Chelsea are heart breaking.

Apr 27, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Prof K , Apr 25 2020 21:21 utc | 37

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/25/us/coronavirus-chelsea-massachusetts.html

On the point of family or shared domicile infections, this is a good article about the working class, immigrant area of Boston called Chelsea. It's a major hot zone of covid infections. The images coming out of Chelsea are heart breaking.

That aside, the article shows that a key source of community spread is working class poverty and the types of cramped housing that result from it. Racism and immigration are obviously also part of the story.

But the article also sites, positively, the Chinese method of extracting people from their homes to protect everyone.

The article indirectly indicts American capitalism and political and civic institutions for being unable to replicate those effective Chinese methods.

The obvious implications of the article are that the covid crisis in the US is a social one, that poverty is death, and that the struggle against the virus is inextricable from the urgent necessity of socialist transformation.

[Apr 27, 2020] A two week quarantine in a hotel or public facility during which one is well provided for...It is hard to understand why some people continue to reject this.

Apr 27, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

oldhippie , Apr 25 2020 21:24 utc | 38

"A two week quarantine in a hotel or public facility during which one is well provided for...It is hard to understand why some people continue to reject this."

Because no one has ever seen government behave this way. Because we live in terror of the police. Because in USA there is no public health infrastructure at all and any such program would be administered by police.


VietnamVet , Apr 25 2020 22:16 utc | 53

The only way to combat COVID-19 is good old fashion public health principles of testing, tracing and isolating the ill. Western governments have failed at their most fundamental job of saving the lives of their citizens. This is not a coincidence. It is the direct result of the end of democracy and the rise of the multi-national plutocracy. This is shown by the corporate media's ignoring of the western national governments' failures to institute public health measures; instead, it harps on Donald Trump's letting the light shine inside the body to kill the virus.

The bankers got 4.5 trillion dollars. If a fraction of this was spent to prevent and stop the spread of the coronavirus, 50,000 Americans would not be dead today. But that would require a functional government and taxing the rich, homeless living inside Hilton hotels, the last thing oligarchs want. So, "it is just like the flu". "Freedom", scapegoating", "racism", and "shaming" are all used to hide the truth.

bevin , Apr 26 2020 0:54 utc | 66
This article is worth reading.
https://fair.org/home/economic-reporting-on-hardships-of-pandemic-should-explore-market-failures/

Whatever it is 'a flu', the 'common cold', an invention by the heroes of the Protocols of Zion or a pandemic of the sort most of us think that we see around us and some of us feel is a pure invention... whatever.

It is a crisis of Capitalism, a major crisis which calls all the conventional wisdom of the past seventy going on three hundred years into question.
How has the market been doing?

What do we think of the invisible hand now?


Commodity prices are crumbling, supply chains are drying up. And all that the capitalist can do is to scream racist insults- hoping that the people will forgive the famine if they can be fed hatred of foreigners instead.

There have probably been more strikes in the US in the past three months than there had been in the last ten years. A Universal Basic Income-the revival of the idea that the people have first call on all resources- the polar opposite to Capitalism's insistence that the only thing that makes people work is the fear of starving, is coming. It has to come, and when it does one of the foundation stones of the entire edifice of exploitation is removed.
Next week we will see what happens when the capitalists order workers to risk their lives by going back to work in workplaces that are unsafe, without proper masks and protective gear.

And we will see here whose side commenters are on and how many are ready to progress from trivialising the pandemic into strike breaking. Strike breaking in the name of anti-authoritarianism; strike breaking packaged as 'right to work' freedoms.

[Apr 27, 2020] Hydroxychloroquine controvercy

Apr 27, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

krollchem , Apr 26 2020 3:50 utc | 80

William Kierath@74

The "cardiologists" in this report are either irresponsible, paid by the pharma/vaccine lobby and/or are not keeping up with the medical literature.

Hydroxychloroquine is only effective in the onset of symptom and only in conjunction with organically bound available zinc. The doctors administered hydroxychloroquine in the ICU at a late stage of the dis-ease progression which is too late. They also used very high doses of hydroxychloroquine (without zinc), resulting in toxicity issues as with any chlorinated organic.

The arrhythmia issue may have been a clinical symptom of zinc deficiency:
https://knowledgeofhealth.com/modern-day-zinc-deficiency-epidemic/

Azithromycin should be incorporated as a precautionary as it prevents secondary lung infections but can enhance heart rhythm disorders .
https://www.drugs.com/azithromycin.html

Yes, COVID-19 is not only a sudden acute respiratory disease (SARS). However, it is not a blood infection either! The SARS-CoV-2 virus following infection, replication and release primarily from cell in the nasal passages, throat and trachea does infect lung cells causing fluid buildup and cellular debris, which provide nutrients for secondary bacterial infections as well as current infections with mycobacteria in TB.

Yes the virus does travel visa the blood and can bind to ACE2 receptors in many other organs besides the nasal passages, throat and lungs. It also binds to CD-127 receptors. The proposed blood infection (red blood cells) mode of action has not been proven.

Yes free radicals are increased in the blood in part to the mechanism you mention but also by reducing the vitamin C level in the bloodstream. The antioxidant properties of vitamin C is why a Seattle doctor was able to recover using IV vitamin C along with an anti-arthritis drug.

The principal cause of death is the cytokine storm that several posters have already described over a month ago. Associated with this inflammation of tissues, particularly the lung, is the deposition of fibrin in the capillary bed resulting in blockages and a lack of gas transfer. These blockages cause the blood pressure to rise and even the heart to "explode" if the blood has no where to go.
https://www.webmd.com/lung/coronavirus-complications#1
MedCram series

krollchem , Apr 26 2020 3:53 utc | 81

Statistician points out gross errors in the much cited Stanford serological study:
https://medium.com/@balajis/peer-review-of-covid-19-antibody-seroprevalence-in-santa-clara-county-california-1f6382258c25

Too bad he failed to notice that the serological test also is positive for other coronovirus infections such as the common cold.

[Apr 27, 2020] Some sanity from Georia Gov Brian Kemp, but differencial treatment on people over 65 is missing; it is also unclear if wearing masks in public places is enforced

Mass sport events still should be closed. The same is true for concert, mass prayers and such. It is generally desirable to move professional sport event outdoor now and enforce social distancing. Mega Churches should be closed until the Second Coming and prayers allowed only on open air with proper social distanceing.
Apr 27, 2020 | www.counterpunch.org

Georgia Gov. Brian Kemp: "We will allow gyms, fitness centers, bowling alleys, body art studios, barbers, cosmetologists, hair designers, nail care artists, aestheticians, their respective schools, and massage therapists to reopen their doors this Friday, April the 24th."

[Apr 27, 2020] This scientist suggested a drug to treat Covid-19. 'Fact checkers' branded him fake news -- RT Op-ed

Apr 27, 2020 | www.rt.com

This scientist suggested a drug to treat Covid-19. 'Fact checkers' branded him fake news Nebojsa Malic Nebojsa Malic is a Serbian-American journalist, blogger and translator, who wrote a regular column for Antiwar.com from 2000 to 2015, and is now senior writer at RT. Follow him on Twitter @NebojsaMalic is a Serbian-American journalist, blogger and translator, who wrote a regular column for Antiwar.com from 2000 to 2015, and is now senior writer at RT. Follow him on Twitter @NebojsaMalic 26 Mar, 2020 06:50 Get short URL This scientist suggested a drug to treat Covid-19. 'Fact checkers' branded him fake news French professor Didier Raoult, director of IHU Mediterranee Infection Institute in Marseille, pictured on February 26, 2020 © AFP / GERARD JULIEN Follow RT on RT Amid a pandemic panic over the coronavirus, evidence for a possibly effective treatment has been denounced as 'fake news' – even when offered by a renowned scientist with decades of experience. Take Didier Raoult, a French microbiologist with undeniable expertise, even if some of his views are about as eccentric as his appearance. Though he may look like he just stepped out of an Alexandre Dumas novel, the director of the Mediterranean University Hospital Institute in Marseille cited not one but three different studies from China showing that the anti-malaria drug called chloroquine has been effective in treating Covid-19 patients.

#chloroquine Pr Didier Raoult : "C'est quand les patients ont des formes modérées, moyennes, ou qui commencent à s'aggraver, qu'il faut les traiter. A ce moment là on contrôle les virus qui se multiplient. Quand ils sont rentrés en réanimation, le problème ce n'est plus le virus" pic.twitter.com/WolGe2o05z

-- Alex (@AlexLeroy90) March 25, 2020

That did not stop Le Monde, France's biggest newspaper, of declaring his February 25 video as "partially false ." Raoult's 'sin' was to argue that the common anti-malaria drug used widely for decades resulted in "dramatic improvements " among those afflicted by the virus.

As a result of Le Monde's fact-check, anyone attempting to share Dr. Raoult's videos on Facebook gets a banner saying the information therein was "partially false" as "determined by independent fact-checkers."

The main argument put forward by those critical of the drug is that more testing is required before it can be officially approved as treatment for the coronavirus. As the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) puts it , "There are no currently available data from Randomized Clinical Trials to inform clinical guidance on the use, dosing, or duration of hydroxychloroquine" treatments for Covid-19.

Which is fair enough, but last time I checked, there was a pandemic going on, with billions of people locked in their homes and all business grinding to a halt across the globe, over apocalyptic predictions of hospitals brimming with corpses due to this coronavirus.

Should any kind of treatment – especially a drug that has been used safely for decades to treat something else, with side effects meticulously documented – be so cavalierly rejected, under the circumstances? Do "experts " really think the world has the luxury of waiting for months or even years for their controlled lab studies?

As for the fact-checkers, shouldn't they have applied the same rigor to the models used to scare everyone into hoarding toilet paper and setting off a depression orders of magnitude worse than anything the world has ever seen?

Also on rt.com Not letting a crisis go to waste: Some seize on Covid-19 to force change on America

To ask these questions is to answer them, yet no one seems to bother. Nor is this sort of selective blindness endemic to France; across the Atlantic, the mainstream media raised their voices in unison against chloroquine after US President Donald Trump brought it up as a possible treatment – apparently referring to Dr. Raoult's work.

They went so far as to widely circulate a deliberately misleading story about an Arizona couple that ate fish tank cleaner – chloroquine phosphate, clearly labeled not for human consumption – as somehow Trump's fault. Some of them quietly amended it to specify the difference, but long after the original story – implying they took the actual medication praised by the president – literally went viral and poisoned the minds of millions.

Worse yet, as a result of this media blitz, the governor of Nevada actually banned using chloroquine to treat Covid-19 patients this week, saying there was "no consensus among experts or Nevada doctors" that the anti-malaria drug can treat coronavirus sufferers. There were no angry editorials denouncing Steve Sisolak, a Democrat, for letting people die or the coronavirus rather than have them treated with a drug endorsed by the Republican president and the media's favorite hate object.

Read more Devil in the details: Media jumps to blame Trump for death of man who self-medicated with FISH TANK CLEANER containing chloroquine Devil in the details: Media jumps to blame Trump for death of man who self-medicated with FISH TANK CLEANER containing chloroquine

One would think the world paralyzed with fear of the invisible death would pounce on every possible solution, no matter how unlikely it seems. That's what we're shown in Hollywood disaster movies, after all. Yet when such a solution presents itself, it is dismissed and denounced as " not proven" !

We're supposed to blindly trust apocalyptic models produced by panic-mongering political hacks, but ignore the man who says the drug brought him back from the brink of death, even though his story can be easily verified and theirs cannot.

"Preferring opinions to facts is a disease ," Dr. Raoult told the French magazine Marianne last week . Just so.

I don't know if hydroxychloroquine works on Covid-19. Dr. Raoult seems to believe so, and he's not alone. In the absence of better solutions – and locking billions of people in their homes indefinitely is not one – don't we owe humanity to at least try? What do we have to lose?

In the three months or so since the coronavirus first appeared in China, there has been a lot of conflicting, confusing and outright false information about it. One thing that has consistently proven true, however, is that the biggest obstacle in effectively battling its spread and treating the afflicted has been the obtuse insistence of the political and medical establishment on blindly following their rules. If the virus is truly threatening to kill millions, as they say, they would not value procedures over saving lives. Nevertheless, they persist. It makes one wonder why.

Think your friends would be interested? Share this story!

The statements, views and opinions expressed in this column are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of RT.

[Apr 27, 2020] Magic bullet for Covid-19 Scientists look to century-old plasma treatment, but there are some big 'BUTS' -- RT World News

Apr 27, 2020 | www.rt.com

As the world seeks a Covid-19 panacea, treating patients with plasma harvested from those who have recovered from the virus is being touted as a possible cure – but big challenges still remain, scientists say. It's been months since the novel coronavirus started to rage across China, spilling over to other countries and infecting more than a million people around the world, but there is still no clinically tested vaccine or medication. However, one possible treatment that has been around for over a century is attracting attention, with some scientists suggesting it could be a game-changer – provided that certain flaws are removed. What is this plasma treatment about?

The approach basically revolves around harvesting convalescent plasma, the yellowish liquid component of human blood, from someone who recovered from a viral infection and transfusing it to a newly infected patient.

In search of a coronavirus killer: Can existing drugs really turn the tide in the Covid-19 pandemic? READ MORE: In search of a coronavirus killer: Can existing drugs really turn the tide in the Covid-19 pandemic?

Plasma is essential here because it is rich in antibodies – proteins that bind to parts of the virus and neutralize it. Remarkably, antibodies are produced against specific types of viruses, effectively becoming an "anti-virus serum," Aleksey Kupryashov, head of blood transfusion at Bakulev Center of Cardiovascular Surgery, explained to RT.

The idea behind the therapy is very straightforward – sharing antibodies taken from patients with a robust immune system could help other, weaker ones to recover.

Conceptualized by German physiologist Emil von Behring – the first recipient of the Nobel Prize in Medicine – the method has actually been around for over a century. Just recently, in mid-March, Arturo Casadevall of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, and Liise-anne Pirofski of the Albert Einstein Medical College championed the treatment, claiming infusions of antibodies could potentially protect people from the virus for several weeks.

Later in the same month, their Chinese colleagues suggested that convalescent plasma had helped Covid-19 patients even on ventilation, but their study was based on only five cases. Is it efficient or at least SAFE?

As health workers used to say in the Hippocratic Oath, doing no harm is key in medicine. Can we be sure that treating Covid-19 patients with antibody-packed plasma will do no harm?

"We transfuse hundreds of thousands [or] millions of blood units in hospitals, and the severe outcomes are really low," Professor Jeff Bailey of the US-based Brown University told RT. The logic behind using plasma against Covid-19 is "very strong" because "a person who has recovered has good antibodies that will block and neutralize the virus," he explained. However, one big issue is that "it's a new disease, we haven't transfused a lot."

Blood donation breakthrough sees scientists convert all types to O using gut bacteria READ MORE: Blood donation breakthrough sees scientists convert all types to O using gut bacteria

Another concern that may arise is that every 200 or 400 milliliters of transfused plasma expands the patient's blood stream. This will present no problem if the patient's kidneys work well, but if they don't, the volume could increase fluid in their lungs, worsening the condition.

But will the therapy work for everyone, given that there are no compelling statistics showing whether the plasma transfusion is efficient against the Covid-19?

"You have to try it, only experimenting can tell us yes or no," argued Sergey Netesov, a leading virologist and member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

At any rate, trying experimental therapy is better than "dying on the spot without any medication."

Physicians on the front line urgently need trials to study the benefits of plasma treatment as new drugs are being developed, Bailey agreed.

What you want to know is if this helps survival [by] 50 percent and something else helps survival [by] 25 percent, you probably want to go with the one that's 50 percent.

Dr Charles Rupprecht of the Department of Biomedical Sciences at Ross University said " there is no magic bullet" in the absence of peer-reviewed, large-scale, long-term, double-blinded studies proving the benefits of plasma in Covid-19 treatment.

The scientist, who leads the rabies section at his institution, referred to that disease as an example. Rabies immune globulin (RIG) – which also contains large amounts of antibodies from donated blood – is "one critical part of prevention after humans have been exposed to a rabid animal," but it's "short-acting" and is usually used in a healthy patient before "illness onset."

Still, no specific coronavirus treatment has been proven to be effective, so doctors and patients need "the tincture of time," as there are always safety issues to consider in the use of human blood products, he cautioned.

//www.youtube.com/embed/3w_WPHvSOpE

Even IF it helps, finding donors will be a problem

However, the hardest part here is finding and vetting donors, the number of which is appallingly small, especially compared to more than one million coronavirus cases globally. Also, plasma intended for Covid-19 patients must be free from other diseases, such as hepatitis or HIV/AIDS.

"As a matter of fact, up to 50 percent of donor blood is being rejected in most countries," Netesov revealed, citing the example of China – a pioneer in plasma treatment – where almost one-in-10 potential donors had hepatitis. Russia, for instance, has only a tiny number of recovered Covid-19 patients, and maybe only half of them could donate blood, limiting the pool to mere dozens, the scientist acknowledged.

"The number of patients is still larger than the number of the recovered. As long as this situation persists, we have nobody to take that plasma from," Kupryashov of the Bakulev Center agreed.

Finding the right dosage of plasma is equally crucial under the circumstances, because doctors have to know what concentration of antibodies is enough to help cope with the virus. In the long run, however, manufacturers will usually process plasma, increasing the amount of antibodies and allowing doctors to use smaller doses, Bailey said.

Also on rt.com The US was named the best equipped country to deal with a pandemic not a year ago -- what happened there? Who sees promise in plasma therapy?

Health authorities around the world have high hopes for plasma treatment, rapidly rolling out trials and authorizing it for compassionate use – allowing unapproved treatments to be prescribed if a dying patient has no other options, and if the potential benefits outweigh the risks.

In the US, where the number of coronavirus cases has now exceeded 312,000, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has spearheaded "a new national effort" to facilitate the use of plasma treatment. "There are some limited data to suggest that convalescent plasma and hyperimmune globulin may have benefit in the Covid-19 illness," the agency states.

This scientist suggested a drug to treat Covid-19. 'Fact checkers' branded him fake news READ MORE: This scientist suggested a drug to treat Covid-19. 'Fact checkers' branded him fake news

The Mayo Clinic will serve as the lead institution for the program, while the American Red Cross will collect plasma and distribute it to hospitals throughout the country.

In the UK, coronavirus patients are about to receive the experimental treatment, with experts calling on the NHS to urgently stockpile antibody-rich plasma for such needs. France is also set to start trials for the promising therapy next Tuesday.

Russia, too, is catching up with the trend. The country's famed Sklifosovsky Institute of Emergency Care will be the first to try infusing plasma in the coming days, local media have reported. Additionally, the Vector Institute – a leading research center of virology and biotechnology – has developed a test for measuring antibodies in those who have survived Covid-19. The institution has already screened blood samples from 11 people who recovered from the virus, Deputy Prime Minister Tatiana Golikova said.

Iran, recently a coronavirus hotspot, will also follow suit, as will Turkey, where the head of the Red Crescent insists that it could become "one of the world's most effective applications" against the contagion.

For the time being, many other treatment options are being considered by the international healthcare community, ranging from anti-malarial drugs to HIV medication. A range of Covid-19 vaccines are also being developed, although they seem to be months – if not years – away from being commissioned.

[Apr 27, 2020] Covid-19 vaccine may be far away, but these alternate treatments are next best thing -- study -- RT USA News

Apr 27, 2020 | www.rt.com

The most effective treatment recommended by the study, besides vaccines, are antivirals like nucleoside analogs, which mirror the virus's genetic material in order to get incorporated into it and stall its progress. Coronaviruses reportedly contain a "proofreading" enzyme that can reject such antivirals, but there are exceptions to the rule.

Other strategies include blood plasma from patients who have recovered from the virus and monoclonal antibodies, which are made through biotechnology to be clones of a parent cell. However, the latter of those also presents the obstacle of being a long process.

[Apr 27, 2020] Nicotine might have some protective effect against the infection by SARS-CoV-2

Apr 27, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

hopehely , Apr 25 2020 19:19 utc | 1

.

A French study has now confirmed this astonishing phenomenon:

In the study that two of us are reporting [ 1 ], the rates of current smoking remain below 5 % even when main confounders for tobacco consumption, i.e. age and sex, in- or outpatient status, were considered.

Compared to the French general population, the Covid-19 population exhibited a significantly weaker current daily smoker rate by 80.3 % for outpatients and by 75.4 % for inpatients.

Thus, current smoking status appears to be a protective factor against the infection by SARS-CoV-2.

Nicotine is known to influence the process that regulates the number of ACE2 receptors on the cell surface. Current smokers do have less ACE2 receptors than non smokers. SARS-CoV-2 bonds to that receptor to enter a cell.

The study was led by Professor Jean-Pierre Changeux who is quite famous for his discovery of that general regulation process and other findings. He now plans to use nicotine patches on Covid-19 patients to see if it can help in current cases.

Well if nicotine is the magic protector against covid, then wearing a nicotine patch or chewing nicorette gum will work too I guess. No need to inhale toxic fumes and tar our lungs.



farm ecologist , Apr 25 2020 20:28 utc | 14

The study was led by Professor Jean-Pierre Changeux who is quite famous for his discovery of that general regulation process and other findings. He now plans to use nicotine patches on Covid-19 patients to see if it can help in current cases.

Changeaux is indeed recognized as a pioneer in the field of receptor biochemistry. The idea to use nicotine patches seems sensible in light of the fact that this drug produces anti-inflammatory effects via alpha7-nicotinic receptors.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29331768

GeorgeV , Apr 25 2020 20:34 utc | 19
I think readers of MoA might be interested to know that the April 22 2020 edition of the NY Post carried a story mirroring what B has n written in his April 25 2020 post on the use of nicotine patches as a possible counter to the COVID-19 virus infection.

There is also an earlier story in the NY Post dated April 15 2020 about 82-year old British artist David Hockney who had written a letter to the UK Daily Mail claiming that smokers like himself, seemed to be less likely to get the COVID-19 infection. Hockney lives in Normandy France.

The Post is also reporting that the French government is also limiting the sales of nicotine gum and patches, to prevent runs on these items. I picked this up from the April 25 2020 Drudge Report. Make of it what you wish.

farm ecologist , Apr 25 2020 20:44 utc | 24
Posted by: Gregory Purcell | Apr 25 2020 20:30 utc | 16

Just great, I quit smoking four weeks ago because of coronavirus, and because it has become ridiculously expensive, now what do I do?

It's too early to know if nicotine will be a useful therapeutic to treat COVID-19 patients, and it seems unlikely that it would have a prophylactic effect against infection . Not a good reason to resume smoking (sorry) but going to nicotine patches or vaping would be relatively harmless.

Pft , Apr 25 2020 20:46 utc | 26
The smoking numbers suffer from an age bias. Those most likely to be in icu and die are elderly over 65 years of age. Over 65's have a lower smoking rate (9%) than average (15%). Part of that is smokers die earlier and another part is probably financial/health related.

https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.aginginplace.org/how-smoking-can-affect-the-elderly/amp/

Cytokine storm is more common in elderly because they have more complement molecules due to chronic inflammation from the aging process. Complement are molecules of the innate immune system which when can activated produce cytokines activating more immune molecules/cells.

Pft , Apr 25 2020 20:46 utc | 26
The smoking numbers suffer from an age bias. Those most likely to be in icu and die are elderly over 65 years of age. Over 65's have a lower smoking rate (9%) than average (15%). Part of that is smokers die earlier and another part is probably financial/health related.

https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.aginginplace.org/how-smoking-can-affect-the-elderly/amp/

Cytokine storm is more common in elderly because they have more complement molecules due to chronic inflammation from the aging process. Complement are molecules of the innate immune system which when can activated produce cytokines activating more immune molecules/cells.

Hoarsewhisperer , Apr 25 2020 21:18 utc | 35
Just great, I quit smoking four weeks ago because of coronavirus, and because it has become ridiculously expensive, now what do I do?
Posted by: Gregory Purcell | Apr 25 2020 20:30 utc | 16

Stay off the smokes and flaunt some smug.

The chart b has reproduced above shows that healthy non-smokers with no pre-existing health conditions handle a C-virus infection with far more aplomb than current and ex-smokers.

Write a How To Become an Ex-smoker booklet and relate your own 'journey' chapter & verse; then flog it on eBay for $x-00 per copy. There'll be a big market from desperate unemployed smokers hoping to ease the pain of quitting...

DomesticExtremist , Apr 25 2020 22:00 utc | 49
Interesting result regarding smokers, though as yet there is no evidence that nicotine is the causative agent in conferring resistance to Covid19.
as an ex-smoker turned vaper, I would be interested to know if vapers are equally protected.
It should be noted that tobacco smoke contains other substances as well as nicotine and for sure vaping is not the same physiologically as smoking and I'm not just talking about the reduced risk of smoking related disease.
IIRC the changes in nerve receptors take several years to occur, both at the beginning of nicotine addiction and also at the end (which is why ex-smokers have such a hard time after stopping), so a simple application of a nicotine patch may not produce any useful effect in a non-smoker.
farm ecologist , Apr 25 2020 22:27 utc | 54
Posted by: DomesticExtremist | Apr 25 2020 22:00 utc | 49

as an ex-smoker turned vaper, I would be interested to know if vapers are equally protected.

I would expect so. The benefit of nicotine presumably comes from its ability to reduce the synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines which cause "cytokine storms" in the lungs of severely infected individuals. Again, there is no reason to expect that nicotine would prevent infections from occurring, rather it would mitigate some of the more deadly symptoms.

Piero Colombo , Apr 25 2020 22:41 utc | 55
Some caution is indicated re the perceived negative correlation with smoking: 1. This is not an actual observational study but extrapolated from adjusted population rates -- the proportion of active smokers in the patient population was not sufficient by itself to draw conclusions with decent power. Then, there seems to be little difference between the ICU needed for former smokers and the patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes or CRF. Finally, the in-vitro work quoted in the paper and shown here as "confirming" is certainly not confirming (or invalidating) any clinical data (which is introduced there as a clinical to the clinical paper.)
On the whole, interesting observation but would need a study with effective observation of sufficient numbers of smokers.
I'd tend to see this as suggesting that there may be something in persons who continue to smoke, not former smokers. And there lies the rub: practically all we know about smoking continues, generally lifelong, after cessation, except this phenomenon if verified. It's true that lung disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer (and cancer therapy), renal failure and the myriad other chronic conditions of the ex-smokers would be very likely to cancel any of the advantage seen in the active smokers. Essentially then, looks like continuing to smoke cancels all such problems in the active smoking patients (if, that is, the observation is credibly confirmed.)
Clueless Joe , Apr 25 2020 23:22 utc | 60
If it's smoking who alters ACE2, then it's definitely not nicotine in the bloodstream that will do the trick, it's smoking dirty nasty shit that fills your lungs that reduces ACE2 receptors. I expect nicotine patches to be fully useless - though I'll be glad to be provent wrong.

As for household contamination, I had read a month ago that the Chinese themselves were reporting that 3/4 of contaminations in Wuhan occurred at home between family members, so this not a big surprise.
On the other hand, a very recent report seems to show that UV are very effective at destroying the virus and indeed outdoor contamination is limited, because the virus won't last long in a sunny place. In a cold grey winterscape, it might be a bit different though.

Now, there are also more reports of non-pulmonary deaths, people having strokes, heart attacks, brain damages and the like because the virus wrecks havoc in blood vessels and clogs them. That's very worrying. The only thing I'm wondering, since these reports are mostly American ones, is what's the real condition of those victims. To put it simply: it's known that obesity is a massive pre-condition with the coronavirus and greatly increases the risk. Are these cardio-vascular deaths also linked to people's obesity, or is any normal or fit person at risk as well?

[Apr 26, 2020] Who is an idiot here: What's not fair is that you go out running, you bloody idiot! shouted a Spanish woman apparently filming the encounter

Highly recommended!
If 99% of cases of infection happen in closed spaces and/or in open spaces with very close and long contact (stadiums, parties, festivals, concenrts, atc) is it really wise to limit activities in which social distancing can be maintained, such as jogging, fishing, biking, etc
Also the policy on mitigation (complete suppression is impossible now) should vary by locality. What is good for NYC is idiotic for rural Pennsylvania.
Apr 26, 2020 | en.as.com

As the jogger struggled with police, screaming for help, she was filmed by residents who had absolutely zero sympathy for her plight. 'What's not fair is that you go out running, you bloody idiot!', shouted the woman apparently filming the encounter."

Coronavirus lockdown: Jogger resists arrest in Spain and is abused by onlookers , AS.com, (21st March 2020)

[Apr 25, 2020] Seventy percent of US citizens on over 65 age group have hypertension which is No.2 risk factor for COVID-19 (just after cardiovascular disease)

Most of those who have hypertension are also overweight.
Mar 12, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Joerg , Mar 11 2020 22:40 utc | 126

This was based on the virus' affinity for the ACE2 receptor in the lungs. It is also thought to have a higher prevalence in heavy smokers. Iran and Italy are countries where people smoke heavily. In Iran smoking related disease accounts for about 20% of fatalities in males.

Risk: Hypertension ( high blood pressure)

The graphs in my comment above (88) are from a German language article ( https://www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/Zahlen-bitte-3-4-Coronavirus-Fallsterblichkeit-False-Number-4679338.html?seite=all ). There I read that 70 % of US citizens have hypertension while in Japan it's only 16 % and in China - of those who were confirmed Covid-19- patients - it's only 12.8 %.

I believe that it is lecithin (soy, fish) that East-Asians [eat] protect from hypertension.

As a heavy smoker I got a "smoker-leg" some years ago. I got successfully rid of it with lecithin, because I read that lecithin dissolves 'bad fats'. These 'bad fats' can't be put into the liver, because unlike 'good fats' they would destroy the liver. And thus our blood puts the 'bad fats' into the walls of our arteries, which then swell like balloons. Lecithin dissolves/cracks these 'bad fats' so that they now can be eliminated by the liver.

As not only smoking produces 'bad fats' (too long molecules?) lecithin in general will make the blood vessels fit again and by this certainly lower blood-pressure.

[Apr 24, 2020] Every major organ system in the body can be affectedby coronavirus

Provably some effects are due to oxygen starvation and some due to virus binding ACE2 receptors
Apr 24, 2020 | www.washingtonpost.com

Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, which operates 14 medical centers in Philadelphia and NYU Langone in New York City, found that 12 of their patients treated for large blood blockages in their brains during a three-week period had the virus. Forty percent were under 50, and had few or no risk factors. Their paper is under review by a medical journal, said Pascal Jabbour, a neurosurgeon at Thomas Jefferson.

Jabbour and his co-author Eytan Raz, an assistant professor of neuroradiology at NYU Langone, said that strokes in covid-19 patients challenge conventionally thinking. "We are used to thinking of 60 as a young patient when it comes to large vessel occlusions," Raz said of the deadliest strokes. "We have never seen so many in their 50s, 40s and late 30s."

Raz wondered whether they are seeing more young patients because they are more resistant than the elderly to the respiratory distress caused by covid-19: "So they survive the lung side, and in time develop other issues."

Jabbour said many of the cases he's treated have unusual characteristics. Brain clots usually appear in the arteries, which carry blood away from the heart, but in covid-19 patients, he's also seeing them in the veins, which carry blood in the opposite direction and are trickier to treat. Some patients are also developing more than one large clot in their heads, which is highly unusual.

"We'll be treating a blood vessel and it will go fine, but then the patient will have a major stroke" due to a clot in another part of the brain, he said.

... ... ...

In a letter to be published in the New England Journal of Medicine next week, the Mount Sinai team details five case studies of young patients who had strokes at home from March 23 to Apr. 7. They make for difficult reading: The victims are age 33, 37, 39, 44, and 49, and were all home when they began to experience sudden symptoms, including slurred speech, confusion, drooping on one side of the face and feeling dead in one arm.

[Apr 24, 2020] The mysterious connection between the coronavirus and the heart

Apr 24, 2020 | www.livescience.com

By Yasemin Saplakoglu - Staff Writer 16 days ago

Doctors say some patients with COVID-19 can have heart damage.

(Image: © Shutterstock)

The novel coronavirus mainly attacks the lungs. But doctors have been increasingly reporting cases of another battlefield raging within the body: the heart.

More than 1 in 5 patients develop heart damage as a result of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, one small study published March 27 in the journal JAMA Cardiology suggested. While some of these patients have a history of heart conditions, others do not. So what's going on?

Cardiologists say several scenarios could be unfolding: The heart may struggle to pump blood in the absence of enough oxygen; the virus may directly invade heart cells; or the body, in its attempt to eradicate the virus, may mobilize a storm of immune cells that attack the heart.

Related: Coronavirus Live Updates

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"We know that this is not the only virus that affects the heart," said Dr. Mohammad Madjid, an assistant professor at McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth). The risk of developing heart attacks, for example, is thought to increase about sixfold when a person is infected with the flu virus, according to a study published in 2018 in the New England Journal of Medicine .

What's more, during most influenza epidemics, more patients die from heart complications than from pneumonia , according to a review published March 27 in the journal JAMA Cardiology . Viral infections can disrupt blood flow to the heart, cause irregular heartbeats and heart failure, according to the review.

So while it doesn't "come as a surprise," that novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 can lead to heart damage, it may be occurring more frequently in these patients than it does in people infected with other viruses, Madjid, the lead author of the review, told Live Science.

The double-edged sword

me title=

The virus might be directly attacking the heart.

"We're seeing cases of people who don't have an underlying heart disease ," who are getting heart damage, said Dr. Erin Michos, the associate director of preventive cardiology at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Heart damage isn't typical in mild cases of COVID-19, and tends to occur more often in patients who have severe symptoms and are hospitalized, she said.

Though the virus predominantly affects the lungs, it is circulating in the bloodstream; that means the virus could directly invade and attack other organs, including the heart, Michos told Live Science.

Related: 13 coronavirus myths busted by science

Both heart cells and lung cells are covered with surface proteins known as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) -- these molecules serve as "doorways" for the virus to enter cells. But this enzyme is a "double-edged sword," she said. On one hand, the ACE2 molecule acts as a gateway for the virus to enter the cell and replicate, but on the other hand, it normally serves a "protective" function, Michos said.

When tissues in the body are damaged -- either by an invading virus such as SARS-CoV-2 or by other means, the body's natural healing response involves releasing inflammatory molecules, such as small proteins called cytokines, into the bloodstream. But paradoxically, too much inflammation can actually make things worse. The ACE2 enzyme acts as an anti-inflammatory, keeping immune cells from inflicting more damage on the body's own cells.

But when the virus latches onto ACE2 proteins, these proteins get knocked out of commission, possibly reducing the anti-inflammatory protection that they give. So the virus may be acting as a double-whammy by damaging cells directly and preventing the body from protecting tissues from inflammatory damage.

"If the heart muscle is inflamed and damaged by the virus, the heart can't function," she said.

The novel coronavirus might also indirectly damage the heart. In this scenario, the patient's immune system winds up "going haywire," Michos said. This scenario has played out in some really sick patients who have highly elevated inflammatory markers -- or proteins that signal high levels of inflammation in the body.

This is called a "cytokine storm," Michos said. Cytokine storms damage organs throughout the body, including the heart and liver, she added. It's not clear why some people have such an elevated response compared with others, but some people could be genetically prone to it, she added.

And then you have patients who have underlying heart disease who are at higher risk of developing severe symptoms of COVID-19 -- and higher risk of mortality. "You can imagine, if their heart already has difficulty working they don't have the capacity to meet this challenge" of not having enough oxygen because their lungs aren't working as well.

So COVID-19 can "exacerbate" underlying heart disease, Michos said. A new study, published April 3 in the journal Circulation , described four cases of heart damage among COVID-19 patients in New York, some with underlying conditions. (Michos is on the editorial board for the journal Circulation.)

Treatments and complications

Cardiologists identify heart damage using a blood test for a protein called troponin. When heart cells are injured, they leak troponin into the bloodstream. But "it's sometimes not that easy," to figure out what kind of heart damage a patient is having, Michos said.

"We are really seeing different cardiac involvement," Michos said. So it matters "what's causing the heart damage because you would treat it differently."

For example, if the virus is directly invading the heart, the patient may need antiviral medications. If instead the immune system is causing heart damage, the patient might need immunosuppressants. Right now, no direct treatments target COVID-19, and most of the treatment being used currently involves supportive care such as providing more oxygen.

What's more, people who have high blood pressure or other underlying heart conditions commonly take ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) -- medications that widen blood vessels, therefore increasing the amount of blood the heart pumps and lowering blood pressure.

Cardiologists are hotly debating whether people should stop or start taking those medications if they're at high risk for COVID-19. (One paper suggested the drugs could be harmful, while some clinical trials are assessing the use of ARBs to reduce the severity of COVID-19, Live Science previously reported .)

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It's really hard to tease out whether having more ACE2 is helpful or harmful, as these proteins are how the virus enters the cells, but also known to protect the cells against injury, Michos said.

The current consensus is that if patients are already taking these medications, they should stay on them, she said. "Patients taking ACE-[inhibitors] and ARBs who contract COVID-19 should continue treatment, unless otherwise advised by their physician," according to a statement from the American Heart Association, the Heart Failure Society of America and the American College of Cardiology.

Experts from Australia and New Zealand similarly said they strongly recommend patients with hypertension, heart failure and cardiovascular disease who are already on these medications keep using them, according to a study preprint published on April 3 in The Medical Journal of Australia .

Complicating matters, certain drugs that are currently under investigation for treating COVID-19, including hydroxychloroquine -- the drug that President Trump has said is a game-changer -- could cause heart damage, those experts said. Now, the goal is to figure out if there's a genetic or biochemical reason some people are more prone to heart damage from COVID-19 -- and to figure out what drugs work best "to protect the heart from injury," Michos said.

Originally published on Live Science .

[Apr 24, 2020] "What do you have to lose" - TTG - Sic Semper Tyrannis

Notable quotes:
"... A malaria drug widely touted by President Donald Trump for treating the new coronavirus showed no benefit in a large analysis of its use in U.S. veterans hospitals. There were more deaths among those given hydroxychloroquine versus standard care, researchers reported. ..."
"... The nationwide study was not a rigorous experiment. But with 368 patients, it's the largest look so far of hydroxychloroquine with or without the antibiotic azithromycin for COVID-19, which has killed more than 171,000 people as of Tuesday. The study was posted on an online site for researchers and has been submitted to the New England Journal of Medicine, but has not been reviewed by other scientists. Grants from the National Institutes of Health and the University of Virginia paid for the work. ..."
"... Researchers analyzed medical records of 368 male veterans hospitalized with confirmed coronavirus infection at Veterans Health Administration medical centers who died or were discharged by April 11. About 28% who were given hydroxychloroquine plus usual care died, versus 11% of those getting routine care alone. About 22% of those getting the drug plus azithromycin died too, but the difference between that group and usual care was not considered large enough to rule out other factors that could have affected survival. Hydroxychloroquine made no difference in the need for a breathing machine, either. ..."
"... Researchers did not track side effects, but noted hints that hydroxychloroquine might have damaged other organs. The drug has long been known to have potentially serious side effects, including altering the heartbeat in a way that could lead to sudden death. ..."
"... Earlier this month, scientists in Brazil stopped part of a hydroxychloroquine study after heart rhythm problems developed in one-quarter of people given the higher of two doses being tested. ..."
"... The interesting news is that ventilators are not required in all cases and indeed my do more harm for some. BoJo was only on a cpap. The harm mechanism may be impaired hemoglobin ..."
Apr 24, 2020 | turcopolier.typepad.com

"What do you have to lose?" - TTG

A malaria drug widely touted by President Donald Trump for treating the new coronavirus showed no benefit in a large analysis of its use in U.S. veterans hospitals. There were more deaths among those given hydroxychloroquine versus standard care, researchers reported.

The nationwide study was not a rigorous experiment. But with 368 patients, it's the largest look so far of hydroxychloroquine with or without the antibiotic azithromycin for COVID-19, which has killed more than 171,000 people as of Tuesday. The study was posted on an online site for researchers and has been submitted to the New England Journal of Medicine, but has not been reviewed by other scientists. Grants from the National Institutes of Health and the University of Virginia paid for the work.

Researchers analyzed medical records of 368 male veterans hospitalized with confirmed coronavirus infection at Veterans Health Administration medical centers who died or were discharged by April 11. About 28% who were given hydroxychloroquine plus usual care died, versus 11% of those getting routine care alone. About 22% of those getting the drug plus azithromycin died too, but the difference between that group and usual care was not considered large enough to rule out other factors that could have affected survival. Hydroxychloroquine made no difference in the need for a breathing machine, either.

Researchers did not track side effects, but noted hints that hydroxychloroquine might have damaged other organs. The drug has long been known to have potentially serious side effects, including altering the heartbeat in a way that could lead to sudden death.

Earlier this month, scientists in Brazil stopped part of a hydroxychloroquine study after heart rhythm problems developed in one-quarter of people given the higher of two doses being tested. (AP News)

-- -- -- --

This was not a rigorously designed experiment and from what I've seen, VA patients almost inevitably have multiple heath problems before they walk into the clinic or VA hospital. We're a pretty banged up, broken down lot. However, the VA is skilled at doing this kind of evaluation of their vast patient population. Through their Million Veteran Program, they are conducting myriad studies involving genetic samples and health records. The results of this VA study is sobering and seems to help answer Trump's question of what do you have to lose.

In response to this study and several prematurely ended studies, Fauci's "National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recommends against doctors using a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 patients because of potential toxicities.

Maybe those with lupus and rheumatoid arthritis will have an easier time getting their medication. We have to do something with our stockpiled 29 million pills. Still, more studies need to be done. Perhaps an effective treatment involving hydroxychloroquine will be developed when we understand Covid-19 better. We're still learning of the full range of damage this virus is capable of inflicting. Maybe it will be an effective prophylactic, not a magic shield or miracle potion, but a helpful prophylactic. There's no reason to give up on this or any other proposed treatment or cure.

TTG

https://apnews.com/a5077c7227b8eb8b0dc23423c0bbe2b2

https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.16.20065920v1.full.pdf

https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2020/04/21/840341224/nih-panel-recommends-against-drug-combination-trump-has-promoted-for-covid-19


Laura Wilson , 22 April 2020 at 02:56 PM

More studies, for sure. I always find it interesting other your take on VA matters...thank you for sharing your perspective to those of us without experience with the VA.
steve , 22 April 2020 at 04:12 PM
To be clear, the Institue guidance recommends agains the combination of HCQ and AZ. It makes to recommendation for or against HCQ by itself. These recommendations are only fo hospitalized pts. There are no recommendations for or against drugs for prophylaxis.

In our own internal studies we found higher rates of arrhythmias on HCQ and AZ, and found more problems related to AZ. We have stopped that. HCQ is no longer part of our standard protocol but docs may order it if they choose.

Steve

will.2718 , 22 April 2020 at 04:29 PM
The brazil study was of the Chloroquine diphosphate which has greater side effects than of the hydroxy form. The big trial is the one in NY state. Those results are not yet in.

The interesting news is that ventilators are not required in all cases and indeed my do more harm for some. BoJo was only on a cpap. The harm mechanism may be impaired hemoglobin . These medcram youtubes linked below are topnotch!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qc6VV7ue4cE

walrus , 22 April 2020 at 05:23 PM
Thank you for your thoughtful post TTG. It may still be that the drug has a useful effect. I know Fauci is infuriating a lot of people, but he is right: a double blind placebo controlled trial is the only way to really know.

Off topic, but when my wife had breast cancer she took part in such a trial of a new drug. That involved extra free visits to hospital for testing. We guessed she was given the drug afterwards because her oncologist and surgeon surprisingly found that her lymph nodes had been scoured clean of the cancer. It's now about four years of remission. The new drug is apparently going to be the new standard for treatment of that type of cancer.

Lars Moeller-Rasmussen , 22 April 2020 at 06:05 PM
I am surprised that "cloroquine phosphate", the name under which I know the drug, is now suddenly supposed to have serious side effects. When I was stationed in Egypt for one year with my family back in 1978, we all took cloroquine, as I remember it, once a week.
In my country, Denmark, drug regulation is pretty strict, so we assumed cloroquine was safe. Still, I went to ask my doctor when I had another one-year stationing to the Middle East coming up five years later. After looking at the guidelines, my doctor told me that cloroquine had been used for years without any side effects, and that the only side effects found after long trials on rabbits were some sort of residue settling in their eyes, though with no adverse effect on their eyesight.
Lars Moeller-Rasmussen
JMH , 22 April 2020 at 06:14 PM
This is not a controlled study. It is an analysis of medical records. It stands to reason that there were more fatalities amongst those who were given the drug, because it was desperation hour, so they therefore got the drug. The French guy says you have to use the drug early, not as a Hail Mary pass when the virus has done its work and left and all that remains in the pneumonia.

Oh the end-zone celebration on Morning Joe about this study! I guess you don't need a double blind six month controlled trial to have absolute metaphysical certainty after all. People who were given hydroxycloriquine died, said Mika when she spiked the football.

Deap , 22 April 2020 at 06:48 PM
From the CDC website right now: CDC information for travelers who want to avoid malaria:

CLOROQUINE
Drug Reasons that might make you consider using this drug Reasons that might make you avoid using this drug

Chloroquine
Adults: 300 mg base (500 mg salt), once/week.

Children: 5 mg/kg base (8.3 mg/kg salt) (maximum is adult dose), once/week. Begin 1-2 weeks before travel, once/week during travel, and for 4 weeks after leaving.

Some people would rather take medicine weekly
Good choice for long trips because it is taken only weekly

Some people are already taking hydroxychloroquine chronically for rheumatologic conditions. In those instances, they may not have to take an additional medicine

Can be used in all trimesters of pregnancy

Cannot be used in areas with chloroquine or mefloquine resistance
May exacerbate psoriasis

Some people would rather not take a weekly medication
For trips of short duration, some people would rather not take medication for 4 weeks after travel

Not a good choice for last-minute travelers because drug needs to be started 1-2 weeks prior to travel

Barbara Ann , 22 April 2020 at 07:12 PM
The quote cirsium provided above from Didier Raoult is worth repeating with emphasis IMO: "The HCQ-AZ combination, when started immediately after diagnosis , is a safe and efficient treatment for COVID-19..". The price of treatment only beginning when sufferers are bad enough to be hospitalized seems to be a one to two orders of magnitude increase in mortality rate.

Test, trace contacts & quarantine like the South Koreans and prescribe Didier's magic elixir to all positives right away. If this isn't accepted medical practice, then change the accepted medical practice.

English Outsider , 22 April 2020 at 07:21 PM
TTG - on treatment of the disease this protocol from the Eastern Virginia Medical School is interesting -

https://www.evms.edu/media/evms_public/departments/internal_medicine/EVMS_Critical_Care_COVID-19_Protocol.pdf

They haven't found that much use for ventilators, seems.

On the wider question of how the pandemic should be tackled an article in the Jerusalem Post led me to wonder how they were tackling it in Israel-

On contact tracing via Smartphone monitoring -

https://techcrunch.com/2020...

"Details of exactly how the tracking will work have not been released -- but, per the BBC, the location data of people's mobile devices will be collected from telcos by Israel's domestic security agency and shared with health officials."

Leads me to wonder whether the enthusiasm for smartphone tracking in the UK - HMG seems to be betting the farm on it - derives from the fact that GCHQ is geared up for that anyway.

Also group testing for speed -

https://www.tabletmag.com/s...

Plus what seems to be an extensive programme of testing both for antibodies and for detection of currently infected cases -

https://www.jpost.com/israe...

This seems to be a version of the American approach to containing local outbreaks after lockdown has been lifted -

"When we have more tests, we can open the economy in an aggressive way without any danger and without being surprised – and the moment there is an outbreak in a residential building or a school, you can go there [and close it] and not the whole city," Bennett said.

Also containing a reference to the progress made in ensuring the various tests are more accurate -

"There have been more than 20 rapid serological tests that have been developed worldwide – mainly in China – many of which have been found to provide inaccurate results.

"However, Roche and a handful of companies, such as US-based Abbott Laboratories and Becton Dickinson and Co., have created more sophisticated serological tests, which are expected to be validated.

"Ofer said that, "If we run these tests in conjunction with the molecular test, then we will get a full picture" – and as Bennett explained, "the closures will end."

Those are the roughly the references I put together to submit to an English site. On another English site I read a reference to how one Canadian area (unnamed) geared up for the pandemic -

We live in an Ontario health district, about the size of Connecticut (with 200,000 population), in a small city with a medical school. Our public health officer in January alerted nursing homes and hospitals to prepare, e.g. get supplies and train staff for higher hygiene standards. Example, auditing handwashing practices in nursing homes. As a result, we have 50 total positive cases, almost all cases traceable to travel. No nursing home outbreaks. No deaths. No ICU care. Two people currently in hospital."

So they got going on this back in January. If only ...

LJ , 22 April 2020 at 09:46 PM
Another discussion of chloroquine: only does any good if used early in the disease progress and with zinc.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dLSYRqcg0wo

[Apr 24, 2020] Various pre-existent types of pneumonia and now all put under COVID-19 tent

Apr 24, 2020 | www.unz.com

Hempus , says: Show Comment April 23, 2020 at 12:09 pm GMT

Before the Covid-19 "outbreak" there was a pneumonia known as the HAP "hospital-acquired pneumonia" and also the CAP "community-acquired pneumonia" in nursing homes.

Even the "ventilator-associated pneumonia" VAP, somehow disappeared in the phrase book because now some "experts" and Vaccination Pope Bill gates love to declare martial law to fight the "covid-19 associated pneumonia" COP.

If you have a little bit time to research where the "NEW" Pneumonia breaked out you find mainly:

Even Donald Trump was forced to demand carmakers to produce respiratory Ventilators ..to help in the war against Covid-19.
You would think after three and half years of "witch hunt" Donald Trump should be an expert but still he has the poisonous dwarf Dr. Fauci as an adviser this is like fighting the devil with satan.

Meena , says: Show Comment April 23, 2020 at 12:49 pm GMT
@Hempus HAP, VAP, and your CAP do not and can not prevent emergence of another Pneumonia of newer causative agents that can spread like fire
When did HAP VAP CAP overwhelm
911, and ICU and kill nurses doctor bus drivers police and fire officers and nursing home elderly in the nursing homes?

When did CAP VAP HAP and regular flu shit ever
cause this exponential rise in infectivity across the globe from 0 to 800,000 in 45 days in USA?

When did the illness cause from those agents liver failure , gi bleeding , kidney failure and resistant hypoxemia? When did any of those patients stay on ventilator for 3 weeks?
When did those illness show such diverse symptoms as by Corona at the beginning phase of the illness ? When did those illness cause such morbidity in the afflicted young ?

When did those surviving the ICU admission report ongoing morbidities of this extent?
Trump is a moron , a thug , a liar . He is full of crap who has taken the ' deplorable 'for a ride by throwing some fiery rhetorics .

meena , says: Show Comment April 23, 2020 at 5:00 pm GMT
@Hempus Your statement is illogical!
Why should a pneumonia previously called HAP, CAP and VAP and causes hundred thousands death each year prevent "Covid-19?"

Because this one is not one of them . . This virus is different genetically , morphologically and clinically . Theoretically they can coexist in same patients .

It is not the mortality but the morbidity and the sped of unravelling that are acute and overwhelming .

I don't agree with lockdown but I dont agree with this who wants to observe it What is irksome is the lying thug 's Trumps denial and then lying about the denial .
I also believe given the checkered history of US it is US who possibly released it in China either directly or indirectly .

When 2 patients aged 80 with same clinical and metabolic profiles in a nursing home are observed and are found out one of them has died from an acute infection in less than 30 days after symptoms appeared and other has continued to stay stable with no worsening and no infection – you blame the virus for the death .

antibeast , says: Show Comment April 23, 2020 at 5:32 pm GMT
@Been_there_done_that

Have you bothered to check how many countries you are referring to altogether, which purportedly had been forewarned about a possibly emerging epidemic, ahead of even the local Chinese government?

Take a look: NATO + Israel = 31

NATO is not a country but a military subsidiary of the USA.

So according to the unsourced report, which so many wishfully presume as a fact, with so many countries allegedly in on the "secret" briefing, not a single country's representative followed up to monitor developments or even corroborated the briefing, but most importantly, not a single country took any defensive preparations whatsoever in advance.

The USA informed NATO and Israel not those thirty European colonies.

This shows the level of credulity that people will descend down to when an obvious news fabrication happens to support their desired narrative. China worshippers here have become severely blinded in light of the epidemic. So many commentators are thus eagerly making themselves irrelevant, including Escobar, which I think is a good thing.

Dude, Esper thought that the report was such an "obvious news fabrication" that he didn't deny it but merely said: " Oh, I can't recall, George ," ( ) " But, we have many people who watch this closely ." So Esper didn't recall seeing the report but decided to " have many people who watch this closely " because it was such an "obvious news fabrication".

Peculiarly, one of the European countries that has handled the pandemic the best, according to the statistics, Austria, is not a NATO member and would not have been in on the "secret".

The USA didn't want to do anything about it but " have many people who watch this closely " as Esper puts it because it was just a " live exercise " as Pompeo puts it.

Yeah, I get it: you're one of those die-hard chinadidit people.

Michael888 , says: Show Comment April 23, 2020 at 5:33 pm GMT
We have had a constant continual stream of 'disinformation' about covid-19:

"Preliminary investigations conducted by the Chinese authorities have found no clear evidence of human-to-human transmission of the novel #coronavirus (2019-nCoV) identified in #Wuhan, #China," the World Health Organization, January 14, 2020.

On February 29 on NBC's Today, for instance, Anthony Fauci said: "At this moment, there is no need to change anything you're doing on a day-by-day basis, right now the risk is still low, but this could change. When you start to see community spread, this could change, and force you to become much more attentive to doing things that would protect you from spread."

The National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (Fauci is the Head) gave a $3.7 million grant to the Wuhan Virology lab to study bat coronaviruses between 2010 and 2015. Was this just science, or to develop trust for cover to introduce COVID-19 into the Wuhan area and destroy the Chinese economy? ( https://jamesfetzer.org/2020/04/gordon-duff-documentary-proof-university-of-north-carolina-generated-covid-19/ )
Such conspiracy theories! If so, it boomeranged in a way only the CIA could produce.

[Apr 23, 2020] How the Horrific 1918 Flu Spread Across America - History - Smithsonian Magazine

Apr 23, 2020 | www.smithsonianmag.com

Several Haskell men who had been exposed to influenza went to Camp Funston, in central Kansas. Days later, on March 4, the first soldier known to have influenza reported ill. The huge Army base was training men for combat in World War I, and within two weeks 1,100 soldiers were admitted to the hospital, with thousands more sick in barracks. Thirty-eight died. Then, infected soldiers likely carried influenza from Funston to other Army camps in the States -- 24 of 36 large camps had outbreaks -- sickening tens of thousands, before carrying the disease overseas. Meanwhile, the disease spread into U.S. civilian communities.

The influenza virus mutates rapidly, changing enough that the human immune system has difficulty recognizing and attacking it even from one season to the next. A pandemic occurs when an entirely new and virulent influenza virus, which the immune system has not previously seen, enters the population and spreads worldwide. Ordinary seasonal influenza viruses normally bind only to cells in the upper respiratory tract -- the nose and throat -- which is why they transmit easily. The 1918 pandemic virus infected cells in the upper respiratory tract, transmitting easily, but also deep in the lungs, damaging tissue and often leading to viral as well as bacterial pneumonias.

Although some researchers argue that the 1918 pandemic began elsewhere, in France in 1916 or China and Vietnam in 1917, many other studies indicate a U.S. origin. The Australian immunologist and Nobel laureate Macfarlane Burnet, who spent most of his career studying influenza, concluded the evidence was "strongly suggestive" that the disease started in the United States and spread to France with "the arrival of American troops." Camp Funston had long been considered as the site where the pandemic started until my historical research, published in 2004, pointed to an earlier outbreak in Haskell County.

Wherever it began, the pandemic lasted just 15 months but was the deadliest disease outbreak in human history, killing between 50 million and 100 million people worldwide, according to the most widely cited analysis. An exact global number is unlikely ever to be determined, given the lack of suitable records in much of the world at that time. But it's clear the pandemic killed more people in a year than AIDS has killed in 40 years, more than the bubonic plague killed in a century.


The impact of the pandemic on the United States is sobering to contemplate: Some 670,000 Americans died.

In 1918, medicine had barely become modern; some scientists still believed "miasma" accounted for influenza's spread. With medicine's advances since then, laypeople have become rather complacent about influenza. Today we worry about Ebola or Zika or MERS or other exotic pathogens, not a disease often confused with the common cold. This is a mistake.

We are arguably as vulnerable -- or more vulnerable -- to another pandemic as we were in 1918. Today top public health experts routinely rank influenza as potentially the most dangerous "emerging" health threat we face. Earlier this year, upon leaving his post as head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Tom Frieden was asked what scared him the most, what kept him up at night. "The biggest concern is always for an influenza pandemic...[It] really is the worst-case scenario." So the tragic events of 100 years ago have a surprising urgency -- especially since the most crucial lessons to be learned from the disaster have yet to be absorbed.

[Apr 23, 2020] The researchers found that, among all patients, 57 percent had high blood pressure, 41 percent were obese and just over a third had diabetes."

Apr 23, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

JohnH , Apr 23 2020 16:55 utc | 18

... from NBC: "People with obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure are at greater risk for complications from the coronavirus, according to a large study of patients hospitalized with the illness it causes...

The study included data on 5,700 people hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area.

Underlying conditions were common. The researchers found that, among all patients, 57 percent had high blood pressure, 41 percent were obese and just over a third had diabetes."

Ummm...about 70% of Americans over age 65 have high blood pressure. And they are by far the most severely afflicted group...

[Apr 23, 2020] Maybe Italy and New York and London have a different strain of virus, but from here, the calamitous effects of quarantine (effectively house arrest) upon the lives of the people is 10,000 times worse than the disease.

Apr 23, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Ric G , Apr 22 2020 18:56 utc | 28


I think 'B' is barking mad on this one. Australia and New Zealand are locked down but have almost negligible deaths. Maybe Italy and New York and London have a different strain of virus, but from here, the calamitous effects upon the lives of the people is 10,000 times worse than the disease.

We could just keep the border lock downs, no physical contact with strangers, etc, and I am sure all will be ok.

'B' also claims that only a small percentage of people have had contact with the virus, when it may already be 40%.

Russia detected 5,236 new coronavirus carriers yesterday. That is substantially less than yesterday. But this is not the story. It really should not matter that much how many new cases the Russians are able to dig up, because the big story is that according to Russia's own statistics upwards of 60% of those infected don't get sick and are asymptomatic:

https://www.anti-empire.com/russias-own-testing-data-shows-moscows-draconian-lockdown-is-not-warranted/

Why do they not present daily deaths and infections from normal influenza/flu/pneumonia, as well as Covid 19, or are they all lumped into one box now called Covid19.

I will run with the Guardian reaction, this smells like a giant '9-11' psych-ops, a seize for power, and a chance for the usual banking suspects to buy the world for cents in the dollar.


[Apr 23, 2020] Why Copper Is Good at Killing Viruses by Jim Morrison

Apr 14, 2020 | www.smithsonianmag.com

The SARS-CoV-2 virus endures for days on plastic or metal but disintegrates soon after landing on copper surfaces. Here's why

When researchers reported last month that the novel coronavirus causing the COVID-19 pandemic survives for days on glass and stainless steel but dies within hours after landing on copper, the only thing that surprised Bill Keevil was that the pathogen lasted so long on copper.

Keevil, a microbiology researcher at the University of Southampton (U.K.), has studied the antimicrobial effects of copper for more than two decades. He has watched in his laboratory as the simple metal slew one bad bug after another. He began with the bacteria that causes Legionnaire's Disease and then turned to drug-resistant killer infections like Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). He tested viruses that caused worldwide health scares such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and the Swine Flu (H1N1) pandemic of 2009. In each case, copper contact killed the pathogen within minutes. "It just blew it apart," he says.

In 2015, Keevil turned his attention to Coronavirus 229E , a relative of the COVID-19 virus that causes the common cold and pneumonia. Once again, copper zapped the virus within minutes while it remained infectious for five days on surfaces such as stainless steel or glass.

"One of the ironies is, people [install] stainless steel because it seems clean and in a way, it is," he says, noting the material's ubiquity in public places. "But then the argument is how often do you clean? We don't clean often enough." Copper, by contrast, disinfects merely by being there.

Ancient Knowledge

Keevil's work is a modern confirmation of an ancient remedy. For thousands of years, long before they knew about germs or viruses, people have known of copper's disinfectant powers. "Copper is truly a gift from Mother Nature in that the human race has been using it for over eight millennia," says Michael G. Schmidt, a professor of microbiology and immunology at the Medical University of South Carolina who researches copper in healthcare settings.

The first recorded use of copper as an infection-killing agent comes from Smith's Papyrus, the oldest-known medical document in history. The information therein has been ascribed to an Egyptian doctor circa 1700 B.C. but is based on information that dates back as far as 3200 B.C. Egyptians designated the ankh symbol, representing eternal life, to denote copper in hieroglyphs.

As far back as 1,600 B.C., the Chinese used copper coins as medication to treat heart and stomach pain as well as bladder diseases. The sea-faring Phoenicians inserted shavings from their bronze swords into battle wounds to prevent infection. For thousands of years, women have known that their children didn't get diarrhea as frequently when they drank from copper vessels and passed on this knowledge to subsequent generations. "You don't need a medical degree to diagnose diarrhea," Schmidt says.

And copper's power lasts. Keevil's team checked the old railings at New York City's Grand Central Terminal a few years ago. "The copper is still working just like it did the day it was put in over 100 years ago," he says. "This stuff is durable and the anti-microbial effect doesn't go away."

The East Tower of the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The contrast between the refurbished copper installed in 2010 and the green color of the original 1894 copper is clearly seen. (Wiki Commons)

Long-Lasting Power

What the ancients knew, modern scientists and organizations such as the Environmental Protection Agency have confirmed. The EPA has registered about 400 copper surfaces as antimicrobial. But how exactly does it work?

Heavy metals including gold and silver are antibacterial, but copper's specific atomic makeup gives it extra killing power, Keevil says. Copper has a free electron in its outer orbital shell of electrons that easily takes part in oxidation-reduction reactions (which also makes the metal a good conductor). As a result, Schmidt says, it becomes a "molecular oxygen grenade." Silver and gold don't have the free electron, so they are less reactive.

Copper kills in other ways as well, according to Keevil, who has published papers on the effect. When a microbe lands on copper, ions blast the pathogen like an onslaught of missiles, preventing cell respiration and punching holes in the cell membrane or viral coating and creating free radicals that accelerate the kill, especially on dry surfaces. Most importantly, the ions seek and destroy the DNA and RNA inside a bacteria or virus, preventing the mutations that create drug-resistant superbugs. "The properties never wear off, even if it tarnishes," Schmidt says.

Schmidt has focused his research on the question of whether using copper alloys in often-touched surfaces reduces hospital infections. On any given day, about one in 31 hospital patients has at least one healthcare-associated infection, according to the Centers for Disease Control, costing as much as $50,000 per patient . Schmidt's landmark study , funded by the Department of Defense, looked at copper alloys on surfaces including bedside rails, tray tables, intravenous poles, and chair armrests at three hospitals around the country. That 43-month investigation revealed a 58 percent infection reduction compared to routine infection protocols.

Further research stalled when the DOD focused on the Zika epidemic, so Schmidt turned his attention to working with a manufacturer that created a copper hospital bed . A two-year study published earlier this year compared beds in an intensive care unit with plastic surfaces and those with copper. Bed rails on the plastic surfaces exceeded the accepted risk standards in nearly 90 percent of the samples, while the rails on the copper bed exceeded those standards on only 9 percent. "We again demonstrated in spades that copper can keep the built environment clean from microorganisms," he says.

Schmidt is also a co-author of an 18-month study led by Shannon Hinsa-Leasure, an environmental microbiologist at Grinnell College, that compared the bacterial abundance in occupied and unoccupied rooms at Grinnell Regional Medical Center's 49-bed rural hospital. Again, copper reduced bacterial numbers. "If you're using a copper alloy that's always working," Hinsa-Leasure says, "you still need to clean the environment, but you have something in place that's working all the time (to disinfect) as well."

Harnessing Copper

Keevil and Schmidt have found that installing copper on just 10 percent of surfaces would prevent infections and save $1,176 a day (comparing the reduced cost of treating infections to the cost of installing copper). Yet hospitals have been slow to respond. "I've been surprised how slow it has been to be taken up by hospitals," Hinsa-Leasure adds. "A lot of it has to do with our healthcare system and funding to hospitals, which is very tight. When our hospital redid our emergency room, we installed copper alloys in key places. So it makes a lot of sense when you're doing a renovation or building something that's new. It's more expensive if you're just changing something that you already have."

The Sentara Hospital system in North Carolina and Virginia made copper-impregnated surfaces the standard across 13 hospitals in 2017 for overbed tables and bed rails after a 2016 clinical tria l at a Virginia Beach hospital reported a 78 percent reduction in drug-resistant organisms. Using technology pioneered in Israel , the hospital has also moved to copper-infused bedding . Keevil says France and Poland are beginning to put copper alloys in hospitals. In Peru and Chile, which produce copper, it's being used in hospitals and the public transit systems. "So it's going around the world, but it still hasn't taken off," he says.

If copper kills COVID-19, should you periodically roll a few pennies and nickels around in your hands? Stick with water, soap, and sanitizer. "You never know how many viruses are affiliated with the hand, so it may not completely get them all," Schmidt says. "It will only be a guess if copper will completely protect."

[Apr 21, 2020] Open-source firmware turns CPAP machines into coronavirus ventilators

Apr 21, 2020 | www.zdnet.com
Thanks to the coronavirus pandemic , we are woefully short of ventilators that can give the most gravely ill a chance for life. There are many efforts afoot to build more ventilators . Now, instead of building ventilators, a group of open-source developers has a new idea: Create a firmware update, Airbreak , which can transform common Constant Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) machines into non-invasive ventilators. ebook

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Their first effort -- a proof of concept -- converts the Airsense 10 CPAP machine , which is a common, inexpensive sleep apnea treatment device, into a ventilator. It does so by simply replacing its existing firmware with updated firmware .

With this upgrade, the Airsense could be used as an emergency ventilator until a better, purpose-built ventilator is available. It has the following ventilator features:

Adds a Pressure Control Ventilator (PCV) mode that oscillates between high and low pressure at a configurable breathing rate (stock firmware supports only a single pressure, with no breath rate control). Allows maximum pressure to be increased to 30 cm H2O, as required by clinical protocols (stock firmware is limited to 20cm H2O). Allows smooth rapid pressure change rates for respiration rates up to 30 breaths per minute (stock firmware changes pressure at less than 1cm/sec). Unlocks all the vendor modes and tunable configuration parameters, including ST and iVAPS modes present in the firmware. Provides access to all of the sensors (flow, pressure, temperature, tidal volume, minute ventilation, etc). Displays real-time graphs on the screen to show an immediate history of sensor data.

What the firmware is doing is changing a CPAP device into a Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BIPAP) . These aren't ventilators either, but hospitals -- like New York's Mount Sinai -- have been able to deploy these as ventilators . The reason why this is worth doing is CPAP machines are cheaper and more common than BIPAP devices. The FDA has already approved the use of modified BiPAP devices as ventilators .

Now, CPAP devices with this firmware patch are not drop-in-replacements for ventilators. Far from it. Additional equipment like viral filters and monitoring alarms are also required. As its creators state:

We want to be very clear here: This modified firmware should not be flashed on CPAP machines and used to treat COVID patients immediately. The firmware that we've developed is an effective demonstration of the capability, and while it has been reviewed and validated by expert researchers, biomedical engineers, and clinical pulmonologists , it has not yet been put through FDA [Food and Drug Administration] approval. Additionally, the Mt Sinai's protocols for off-label non-invasive ventilation require additional modifications such as viral filter and remote control before the machines would be ready for clinical use.

The programmers could send its firmware through the FDA approval process themselves, but its developers think "the best route for rolling out these upgrades is to work with the manufacturers to use their resources to validate and distribute these upgrades safely and at scale."

The code has great potential. It would also be easy to deploy. The five million CPAP devices shipped over the last three years have an always-on cellular connection. Thanks to that, these devices can easily be upgraded over-the-air by device manufacturers. With this, hundreds of thousands of CPAP machines could be upgraded overnight. This could easily bring millions of unused or underutilized CPAP machines into hospitals just when we need them.

Further coding, testing, and evaluation need to be done with FDA approval received before these patched CPAP machines can be deployed. But, the need is urgent, and it's a heck of a lot easier to wirelessly update firmware than it is to build and deploy millions of new hardware ventilators. This project isn't just a good idea -- it's one that deserves close attention from CPAP manufacturers and medical professionals as soon as possible.

[Apr 21, 2020] Obesity and COVID-19 mortality

Apr 21, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Alaric , Apr 20 2020 3:12 utc | 180

Sweden has roughly twice the obesity (21%] compared to 9.5% in Denmark and 44% of Swedes are overweight. Studies of deceased in US determined obesity to be the largest factor (outside of age) in covid mortality.

[Apr 21, 2020] Two important results in Switzerland and Germany show that it is the elimination of large gatherings together with mask wearing and social distancing that have had the main impact on reducing the infectivity of covid-19, not the lockdowns

Apr 21, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

BM , Apr 20 2020 11:09 utc | 263

Two important results in Switzerland and Germany show that it is the elimination of large gatherings together with mask wearing and social distancing that have had the main impact on reducing the infectivity of covid-19, not the lockdowns (which appear to have had relatively minor effects so far, according to these two results). Any measures have a built-in delay of 8 to 10 days before their effects, due to the incubation periods of successive infections.

(in German)

[Apr 20, 2020] Taiwan experience

Apr 20, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Pacifica Advocate , Apr 20 2020 3:46 utc | 189

I live in Taiwan and I know for a fact that this entire post is a flat-out lie.

Tens, perhaps hundreds of thousands of people were forcibly quarantined for the last three weeks after traveling, as well as entire sections of cities, based solely on whether they had traveled to districts in areas of Taiwan's largest cities or if there were confirmed cases in their neighborhood.

The quarantines were enforced with cel-phone apps that used GPS to confirm if the person in question was at home, doubled up with 4 phone calls a day to confirm of the person was near their phone or not.

Pft clearly either doesn't live on Taiwan or cannot access the local news (I.e.: doesn'tspeak or read Chinese), because this is pretty much all anyone has been talking about for the last month.

In addition, social distancing is being enforced in all markets (and yes, we have the "wet" ones here, too, except we call them "traditional," while the "dry" ones are called either "grain" or "North-South Goods", so all you fools slandering "wet markets" should also do us all a favor by cutting out your tongues), convenience stores, etc. All citizens were asked by the government to stay at home, the last 2 weekends. Masks are mandatory on all public transportation and anywhere food is purchased. Etc.

Pft is just wrong--completely and totally wrong.

[Apr 20, 2020] The virus can transmit between cats via respiratory droplets.

Apr 20, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Peter AU1 , Apr 20 2020 4:20 utc | 201

By this research, spread may be a lot faster and harder to control in populations or cultures with many domestic cats.

"SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originated in bats; however, the intermediate animal sources of the virus are completely unknown. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of ferrets and animals in close contact with humans to SARS-CoV-2. We found that SARS-CoV-2 replicates poorly in dogs, pigs, chickens, and ducks, but efficiently in ferrets and cats. We found that the virus transmits in cats via respiratory droplets.'
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.30.015347v1.full

[Apr 20, 2020] Self-made masks

Apr 20, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Passer by , Apr 19 2020 19:59 utc | 82

Posted by: mark | Apr 19 2020 19:53 utc | 77

https://smartairfilters.com/en/blog/best-materials-make-diy-face-mask-virus/

https://smartairfilters.com/en/blog/coronavirus-pollution-masks-n95-surgical-mask/

[Apr 19, 2020] "Over 100 Hospitals Cut Staff as Pandemic Spreads"

Apr 19, 2020 | labornotes.org

[ Labor Notes ]. "More than 100 hospitals in the U.S. have laid off workers since the pandemic began. Tens of thousands of medical workers are furloughed at the exact moment hospitals should be staffing up and training everyone in intensive care. Expecting a tidal wave of very sick patients, many of whom could be unemployed and uninsured, many hospitals have ended all elective procedures, one of their most lucrative sources of revenue. Since insurance in the United States is primarily tied to having a job, hospitals anticipate being left with egregious costs they have no hope of ever being able to recoup."

[Apr 19, 2020] the doctor in the video above suggests, the medical profession needs to examine the *possibility* that COVID-19 is a *new* disease and that previous protocols may not apply.

Apr 19, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Richard Steven Hack , Apr 18 2020 3:54 utc | 167

This interview by WebMD with a doctor at Maimonides in New York is important and should be viewed by everyone. What he is saying is that this virus causes a *new* disease that is *not* conventional ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) and (probably) should not be treated by the same protocols developed for treating ARDS.

Do COVID-19 Vent Protocols Need a Second Look?
https://tinyurl.com/yd3dxygf

The bottom line is that the doctors currently treating you for this virus (probably) *do not know* how to treat this virus! They are feeling their way through this thing. As the doctor in the video above suggests, the medical profession needs to examine the *possibility* that COVID-19 is a *new* disease and that previous protocols may not apply.

For patients on ventilators, the bottom line is that upwards of 50 percent - to seventy percent, according to this doctor - will not come out alive, based on current protocols.

This Webinar - which I believed was referenced here in an earlier thread by someone - is along the same lines (Warning: More technical than the above because it is a Webinar for doctors - but still valuable to watch):

Webinar on Avoiding Intubation and Initial Ventilation in COVID19
https://tinyurl.com/rch6qu8

chuteh , Apr 18 2020 5:30 utc | 172

This video explains much about the inter-action of SARS-Covid2 virus and... spike/ACEnzyme2 binding to AT2 lung cells, furin, membrane porosity via viroporons E and ORf3a, macrophages, cell-free heme, porphyrins, sabotage of ferrous/hemoglobin oxygen transport, ferritin hypoxia, ascorbate/DHA recycling, Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Bursts, etc.

I cannot judge its degree of truth and errors and omissions, but I could follow its detailed view of how the disease can be understood and handled. For that it was very helpful.

You might scan thru the introduction of the presenter and get right into her 1-hour , very tight review .

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bV53h7MCu9I

[Apr 19, 2020] I was recently struck by how very much it reminded me of H.L. Mencken's description of growing up in late 19th century Baltimore, and how terrified the poor were at the prospect of "recieving treatment" in hospitals, from which few ever returned.

Apr 19, 2020 | www.nakedcapitalism.com

richard , April 16, 2020 at 3:33 pm

Looking at that uche blackstock tweet about patients not wanting to come in, and then seeing how much it was echoed (despite blackstock's dismay at people waiting) in the responses, I was struck by how very much it reminded me of H.L. Mencken's description of growing up in late 19th century Baltimore, and how terrified the poor were at the prospect of "recieving treatment" in hospitals, from which few ever returned.
Take a second and let that sink in. Then think of how south korea is treating sick people, where it actually appears to be 2020. Think about that too.
Then say your names like the 2nd daughter of Ned Stark, and knit yourself something.

chuck roast , April 16, 2020 at 5:32 pm

Yep, this is America our motto you're on your own and we all know it. And here is this PMC doctor shocked, shocked that the locals have figured out the American Public Health Care scam.

So, Il Douche will declare this annoying emergency over in a week or two, and we can all climb back on the monthly payment dreadmill. As a geezer, I will find that extremely comforting inasmuch as there will no longer be any uncertainty about my near term health I will be well and truly doomed. And will I be visiting Dr. Uche and his cohorts when I am drowning? Nah, that's not the plan! Besides, when the post-pandemic CV tidal wave hits what's left of the health care apparatus, who would want to be bothering the wretched, surviving nurses, PAs and docs?

BTW Ralph Reed, barring a last trip on the on the LSD, 100 µg, intramuscular I.V., do you have any of those purple dots left?

richard , April 16, 2020 at 6:23 pm

Reading through that thread, the doctor seems to me more aware and responsible to me than the french guy in casablanca :)

[Apr 19, 2020] Ron Paul: People 'Should Be Leery About' a Coronavirus Vaccine by Adam Dick

Apr 14, 2020 | ronpaulinstitute.org


Ron Paul, in a Monday interview with host Dan Dicks at Press for Truth, warns that people "should be leery about" coronavirus vaccines that may come out. Further, says Paul, a doctor and former United States House of Representatives member, "right now I wouldn't think there is any indication for anybody to take them," noting that "scare tactics" are being used to pressure people into thinking they should take such potential vaccines to protect against coronavirus.

Paul supports this conclusion by stressing in the interview the potential danger of a vaccine as well as the overstated threat from coronavirus.

Regarding the potential danger from a coronavirus vaccine, Paul discusses at the beginning of the interview how, in 1976 in his first week as a House member, Paul was one of only two members, both doctors, who voted against legislation that helped rush through a vaccine in response to swine flu. Paul describes the results of the push for people to take the swine flu vaccine as follows:

They rushed the vaccine through. The vaccine was not properly made. It had nothing to do with the virus that was out there, so it saved nobody's life from it. It caused a lot of harm. More people ended up dying from the inoculation than died from the flu that year. And that sort of was a lesson, like that's a little bit too extreme. But, that's about what happens when governments get involved and you do things for political reasons.

There was also, because a lot of people ended up getting the vaccine, I think there were like 50 people or more who got Guillain-Barré syndrome, which is temporary total paralysis and you can die from it but most of them did get better. But, it was a very, very serious complication of a viral injection, you know, a vaccine.

Paul also discusses in the interview the overstated danger from coronavirus that is being used to scare people to take actions including to potentially take a coronavirus vaccine.

Paul notes that many of the people whose deaths have been blamed on coronavirus are elderly people, including people living in nursing homes, who have multiple other diseases. Further, explains Paul, doctors have "been instructed by [the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] and other politicians that, when the doctors sign the death certificate, if [patients] have four different things but they happen to have a positive test for the virus that is to be put down as the major cause of death." "The numbers mean nothing," concludes Paul regarding the daily tabulation of coronavirus deaths.

In addition, Paul explains that many more people than officially recorded have contracted coronavirus. Some of these individuals never became sick. Others got better without any treatment, says Paul, pointing to his son Sen. Rand Paul (R-KY) as an example. While Rand Paul was given a test that confirmed he had coronavirus, most people who have had coronavirus and suffered no to minor medical problems have not been tested. With "probably millions of people" having contracted coronavirus, Paul concludes that the percentage of people who have contracted coronavirus and have died as a result "is probably very, very small."

While Paul says he would choose not to take a vaccine for the coronavirus should one appear next week even if people claim it is 99 percent effective, he says that the decision to take or not take a vaccine is one that should be made by each individual, who can discuss the vaccine alternative with a doctor. Absolutely, Paul concludes, that decision should not be made by government.

Watch here Paul's complete interview, in which he also discusses how government actions taken in the name of fighting coronavirus are harming the economy and his support for people speaking out for ending coronavirus-justified encroachments on freedom:

https://www.youtube.com/embed/TblqxaQbtac


Copyright © 2020 by RonPaul Institute. Permission to reprint in whole or in part is gladly granted, provided full credit and a live link are given.
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[Apr 19, 2020] I can take it off if you'd like

Apr 19, 2020 | twitter.com

Emily Annette ‏ 1:50 PM - 9 Apr 2020

At the grocery. Wearing my mask. Lady behind me, snarky & loud enough to make sure I heard, "don't guess she realizes that stupid mask won't do any good." Me: "Honey, I'm an off duty nurse, I'm wearing it to protect YOU. But, I can take it off if you'd like." She practically ran.

[Apr 19, 2020] Greatest health care system in the world:

Apr 19, 2020 | twitter.com

The reality of the #COVID19 pandemic is that my patients have lost all faith in our healthcare system so even when they are very short of breath or have low oxygen levels they refuse to go to the ER bc they're afraid they will die in a corner and they would rather die at home.

-- uché blackstock (@uche_blackstock) April 15, 2020

[Apr 18, 2020] Stanford Study Suggests Actual Number of COVID-19 Cases May Be Up to 85 Times Higher Than Official Data - Sputnik International

Apr 18, 2020 | sputniknews.com

The researchers think there could be a difference between the actual and official numbers due to a percentage of citizens who have been infected with the virus but do not show any symptoms. At the same time, they can potentially transmit it to other people, and the overall tally continues to grow. A group of scientists from California estimates that the actual number of COVID-19 cases in one county may be up to 85 times higher than the official data.

The Stanford University-led researchers took data from Santa Clara County as the basis for their study, where 3,330 adults and minors have been tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. According to their findings, the COVID-19 prevalence in the area ranged from 2.49 percent to 4.16 percent, representing 50-85 times more cases than the number confirmed by the authorities.

"Our data imply that, by 1 April (three days prior to the end of our survey) between 48,000 and 81,000 people had been infected in Santa Clara County. The reported number of confirmed positive cases in the county on 1 April was 956, 50-85-fold lower than the number of infections predicted by this study", the study says.

Apart from detecting asymptomatic carriers, recording previously unreported cases will also help provide better estimates on the prevalence of COVID-19, the study suggests.

According to the researchers, their findings will help make more accurate projections on the epidemic's spread and mortality rate in the future.

"While our study was limited to Santa Clara County, it demonstrates the feasibility of seroprevalence surveys of population samples now, and in the future, to inform our understanding of this pandemic's progression, project estimates of community vulnerability, and monitor infection fatality

[Apr 18, 2020] How Long Are You Contagious With Coronavirus For by Tambri Housen Amy Elizabeth Parry Meru Sheel ,

Notable quotes:
"... Read more: Coronavirus: how long does it take to get sick? How infectious is it? Will you always have a fever? COVID-19 basics explained ..."
"... Read more: How can I treat myself if I've got – or think I've got – coronavirus? ..."
"... Read more: Who can get tested for coronavirus? ..."
Apr 14, 2020 | nationalinterest.org

For COVID-19, the incubation period ranges from 1 to 14 days. But most people who develop COVID-19 symptoms do so 4 to 6 days after exposure.

Read more: Coronavirus: how long does it take to get sick? How infectious is it? Will you always have a fever? COVID-19 basics explained

How long are you infectious?

The " infectious period " means the time you're able to spread the virus to someone else.

For COVID-19, there is emerging evidence to suggest the infectious period may start 1 to 3 days before you develop symptoms .

The most infectious period is thought to be 1 to 3 days before symptoms start, and in the first 7 days after symptoms begin. But some people may remain infectious for longer.

Commonly reported symptoms for COVID-19 – such as fever, cough and fatigue – usually last around 9 to 10 days but this can be longer.

Why are some people infectious for longer?

Typically with viruses, the higher the viral load (the more virus circulating in the body), the higher the risk of transmission through known transmission pathways.

A study conducted in Hong Kong looking at viral load in 23 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 found higher viral loads in the first week of illness .

Another study from China looking at 76 hospitalised patients found that by 10 days after symptom onset, mild cases had cleared the virus. That is, no virus was detectable through testing.

However, severe cases have much higher viral loads and many continue to test positive beyond the 10 days after symptoms start.

So the more severe the illness and the higher the viral load, the longer you continue to shed the virus and are infectious.

Read more: How can I treat myself if I've got – or think I've got – coronavirus?

When are you no longer infectious?

If someone has been symptom-free for 3 days and they developed their first symptoms more than 10 days prior, they are no longer considered to be infectious.

But we're not sure whether people are infectious when they have recovered but the virus can still be detected in their bodies.

One study from Hong Kong found the virus could be detected for 20 days or longer after the initial onset of symptoms in one-third of patients tested.

Another study from China found found the virus in a patients' faecal samples five weeks after the first onset of symptoms.

But the detection of the virus doesn't necessarily mean the person is infectious. We need more studies with larger sample sizes to get to the bottom of this question.

Should you get tested again before going back into the community?

Due to a global shortage of coronavirus tests, the Commonwealth and state governments have strict criteria about who should be tested for COVID-19 and when.

Read more: Who can get tested for coronavirus?

People who have been self-quarantining , because they had contact with a confirmed case of COVID-19 and have completed their 14-day quarantine period without developing symptoms, can return to the community . There is no requirement to be tested prior to returning to the community. It is, however, recommended they continue to practise social distancing and good hygiene as a precaution.

The requirements are different for people who have been diagnosed with COVID-19.

At present, re-testing people who have experienced mild illness, and have recovered from COVID-19 is not recommended. A person is considered safe to return to the community and discontinue self-isolation if they are no longer infectious. This means they developed their first symptoms more than 10 days prior and have not experienced any symptoms for at least 3 days (72 hours).

[Apr 18, 2020] As one caustic virologist observed, getting out into the open air is a good defense against respiratory transmitted infections: avoiding infection is a walk in the park

Apr 18, 2020 | www.unz.com

A German team under Prof Streeck argues that workplaces don't spread the coronavirus as much as play spaces: singing in a choir produces an aerosol and spray cloud, dancing together in a room or bar, or nightclub apres-ski, also creates infective clouds, as would any confined space where lots of people are in close contact breathing heavily. Although public health guidance has been coy on this matter, orgies are probably best avoided.

On that theme, there are settings in which you are likely to get a big dose, a large viral load, and others where the globules will be few and far between. As one caustic virologist observed, getting out into the open air is a good defense against respiratory transmitted infections: avoiding infection is a walk in the park.

[Apr 17, 2020] Clinical observations from ICU doctors report multi-organ (kidney heart GI testes) involvements

Apr 17, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

gm , Apr 16 2020 11:42 utc | 136

Hang onto your hats for this latest scary but data-driven 48 min long Chris Martenson YT:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4vtX0s-nHKo

Covers all kinds of snowballing repercussions of the pandemic in US/world including:

-plummeting US economic activity indicators /bank reserves data

-food production/processing supply chain problems

-clinical observations from icu doctors world wide of new multi-organ (kidney heart GI testes) involvements, olfactory/neurological/pinkeye, etc phenomena (from Washington Post of all places).

[Apr 17, 2020] Nations with Mandatory TB Vaccines Show Fewer Coronavirus Deaths (bloomberg)

Apr 17, 2020 | www.bloomberg.com

Posted by: Virgile | Apr 16 2020 21:42 utc | 59

[Apr 17, 2020] Soviet-era tuberculosis vaccinations (BCG vaccine) may have had an protective effect for COVID-19

Apr 17, 2020 | turcopolier.typepad.com

COVID AND RUSSIA. Overall totals to today are 28K infected, 232 dead . This raises the question of why the death rate in Russia appears to be lower. One theory is that the widespread Soviet-era tuberculosis vaccinations ( BCG vaccine ) may have had an effect – just how or why is unclear, but there seems to be a statistical relationship .

A test of its effectiveness is beginning in Australia .

Over half the cases are in Moscow but every region except one reports cases: most of Sunday's infections in Shanghai came from a flight from Russia the day before . A pass system was introduced in Moscow yesterday but not very successfully (and many standing in line waiting to be checked). The new hospital in Moscow Region is up and running .

A vaccine prototype is undergoing human testing (including by the developer) . The Victory Parade is postponed .

Meanwhile Russian military specialists are working away in Italy. ( This, by the way, is why NBCW units were sent – not to spy , or for " gaining access to Italy's health and military system, which is part of a larger NATO structure ", or to create " A hybrid lie. Or a hybrid truth " or be useless or whatever else NATO flacks imagine).

[Apr 17, 2020] Scientists Discover Alarming Coronavirus Mutation That Could Render Vaccine Useless

Apr 17, 2020 | www.zerohedge.com

The problem is that vaccines often aren't as effective against viruses that mutate, like the flu does every season (that's why you need to keep getting that flu shot year after year). And now, a new scientific paper that - like most of the coronavirus research being cited in the press - has yet to be peer reviewed claims to have identified a mutation in a sample of the virus collected in India that could create serious problems for researchers working on a vaccine.

Monitoring the mutation dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for the development of effective approaches to contain the 21 pathogen. By analyzing 106 SARS-CoV-2 and 39 SARS genome sequences, we provided direct genetic evidence that 22 SARS-CoV-2 has a much lower mutation rate than SARS. Minimum Evolution phylogeny analysis revealed the putative original status of SARS-CoV-2 and the early-stage spread history. The discrepant phylogenies for the spike protein and it receptor binding domain proved a previously reported structural rearrangement prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. Despite that, we found the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 is particularly more conserved, we identified a mutation that leads to weaker receptor binding capability, which concerns a SARS-CoV-2 sample collected on 27th January 2020 from India. This represents the first report of a significant SARS-CoV-2 mutant, and raises the alarm that the ongoing vaccine Development may become futile in future epidemic if more mutations were identified.

[Apr 16, 2020] Debunking Some Ideas About The Virus

Notable quotes:
"... These observations support the importance of hand hygiene after touching the outer surface of masks. ..."
Apr 16, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

mk , Apr 15 2020 6:20 utc | 125

New South Korean study on the effectivity of masks

https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2764367/effectiveness-surgical-cotton-masks-blocking-sars-cov-2-controlled-comparison

Background: During respiratory viral infection, face masks are thought to prevent transmission (1). Whether face masks worn by patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevent contamination of the environment is uncertain (2, 3). A previous study reported that surgical masks and N95 masks were equally effective in preventing the dissemination of influenza virus (4), so surgical masks might help prevent transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus 2 (SARS–CoV-2). However, the SARS–CoV-2 pandemic has contributed to shortages of both N95 and surgical masks, and cotton masks have gained interest as a substitute.
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and cotton masks in filtering SARS–CoV-2.

...


Discussion: Neither surgical nor cotton masks effectively filtered SARS–CoV-2 during coughs by infected patients. Prior evidence that surgical masks effectively filtered influenza virus (1) informed recommendations that patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 should wear face masks to prevent transmission (2). However, the size and concentrations of SARS–CoV-2 in aerosols generated during coughing are unknown.

Oberg and Brousseau (3) demonstrated that surgical masks did not exhibit adequate filter performance against aerosols measuring 0.9, 2.0, and 3.1 μm in diameter.

Lee and colleagues (4) showed that particles 0.04 to 0.2 μm can penetrate surgical masks. The size of the SARS–CoV particle from the 2002–2004 outbreak was estimated as 0.08 to 0.14 μm (5); assuming that SARS-CoV-2 has a similar size, surgical masks are unlikely to effectively filter this virus.

Of note, we found greater contamination on the outer than the inner mask surfaces. Although it is possible that virus particles may cross from the inner to the outer surface because of the physical pressure of swabbing, we swabbed the outer surface before the inner surface. The consistent finding of virus on the outer mask surface is unlikely to have been caused by experimental error or artifact. The mask's aerodynamic features may explain this finding. A turbulent jet due to air leakage around the mask edge could contaminate the outer surface. Alternatively, the small aerosols of SARS–CoV-2 generated during a high-velocity cough might penetrate the masks. However, this hypothesis may only be valid if the coughing patients did not exhale any large-sized particles, which would be expected to be deposited on the inner surface despite high velocity. These observations support the importance of hand hygiene after touching the outer surface of masks.

This experiment did not include N95 masks and does not reflect the actual transmission of infection from patients with COVID-19 wearing different types of masks. We do not know whether masks shorten the travel distance of droplets during coughing. Further study is needed to recommend whether face masks decrease transmission of virus from asymptomatic individuals or those with suspected COVID-19 who are not coughing.

In conclusion, both surgical and cotton masks seem to be ineffective in preventing the dissemination of SARS–CoV-2 from the coughs of patients with COVID-19 to the environment and external mask surface.

[Apr 15, 2020] Coronavirus scam- 39 million masks exposed as fake

Apr 15, 2020 | www.latimes.com

A powerful California union that claimed to have discovered 39 million masks for healthcare workers fighting the novel coronavirus was duped in an elaborate scam uncovered by FBI investigators, the U.S. attorney's office said Friday.

U.S. Atty. Scott Brady of the Western District of Pennsylvania said FBI agents and prosecutors stumbled onto the arrangement while looking into whether they could intercept the masks for the Federal Emergency Management Agency under the Defense Production Act.

The federal government has been quietly seizing supplies across the country, taking the orders placed by hospitals and clinics and not publicly reporting where the products are being routed.

But in this case, there was no warehouse, and there were no masks to seize.

[Apr 15, 2020] Three subtypes of SARC-CoV-2 are spreading in different geographical regions

Is immunity to one type provide immunity to all three ?
Apr 15, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org
Peter AU1 , Apr 15 2020 10:05 utc | 152

And this

"When cuttlefish is in danger, it spits its ink to blacken the water and took the opportunity to take flight. It is a well known tactic of some political elites and western cultural. "They wanted to simply be attributed to China the responsibility for their own inability to cope with the epidemic and the multiple tragedies that followed, and so," to whiten completely. "

By the time I finished my text, I discovered a report on the Net. On 8 April, the academic journal world-renowned, PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) has published an article co-written by academics in British and German entitled network Analysis the phylogenetic genomes of SARS-CoV-2.

The first author of the article is Dr. Peter Forster of the University of Cambridge. According to the study, the researchers classified the new coronavirus in three types (A, B, and C) according to their development.

The type A is the closest of the virus extracts of the bat and pangolin. It is the one most frequently identified among hiv-infected patients in the United States and Australia. That is, what researchers call " the root of the epidemic ".

The strains of type B are variants of the type A and are mainly present in China. Those that are spreading on a large scale in Europe are those of the type C. Unfortunately, it appears that the results of the research of Dr Peter Forster are not interested in the western mainstream media.

[Apr 15, 2020] Note on virus panic porn

Notable quotes:
"... As soon as you see the real data released by the ONS you will immediately see that the cited twitter is blatant fake news! ..."
Apr 15, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

BM , Apr 15 2020 11:08 utc | 163

The graphs show the normal mortality rates in the England and Wales and in New York City and the current deviations from it. The flu does not create such graphs. Nor do the lock-downs.

I've got a nice bridge for sale, B, 2000 miles long and entirely made of NYT articles and twitter tweets.

The Twitter chart leaves the impression that the number of deaths suddenly soared up almost vertically by around 5500 just in the last few days ...

Good panic porn stuff that. Also take note of what sort of people appear in that thread - it is not a list of nobodies!

But wait - look more closely! That upturn is for week 14 - the week ending 3rd April, already 12 days ago. You can see the release of the data by the Office for National Statistics here (there is no more recent data released by ONS)

As soon as you see the real data released by the ONS you will immediately see that the cited twitter is blatant fake news!

That chart is specifically constructed to deceive. No actual cited figures, no actual dates, no links to the real data - just pure panic porn. Why not cite the specific dates covered? Because that would raise immediate suspicion with that sudden spurt, because it does not correspond to previously available figures. Why not cite the specific figures in the tweet? Because then it would be immediately obvious that this is fake news. Why not explain the cause of the strange shape of the graph? Because that would give the whole game away.

So what do you see when you look at the real data released by ONS, instead of the fake news in that twitter?

1) Total deaths registered in week 14 16387
2) Increase over week 13 5246
3) Increase over 5-year average for week 14 6082
*** BUT ***
4) Note that these figures are not the deaths which occurred in week 14, they are the deaths which were registered in week 14, irrespective of when the deaths actually occurred (registration is often delayed)
5) Note the warning given on that page: "Please note, where Easter falls in previous years will have an impact on the five-year average used for comparison"
6) 3475 deaths in week 14 " mentioned novel coronavirus (COVID-19)" on the death certificate - NOTE - this is not the cause of death specified on the death certificate!!!
7) 539 deaths in week 13 " mentioned novel coronavirus (COVID-19)" on the death certificate
8) But wait - 3475 is only about half the alleged excess deaths, and these are not even the deaths caused by covid-19 (see below) these are only the deaths where covid-19 "happens" to have been tested positive (car accident, for example!)

Look further!

9) Look at the row "Deaths where the underlying cause was respiratory disease (ICD-10 J00-J99)" under official WHO standards, that is the broad category under which the covid-19 deaths are to be listed, if it is considered by the doctor to be the cause of death. The row gives figures for each week of 2020 as follows (from weeks 1 to 14 in sequence):
2141 2477 2188 1893 1746 1572 1602 1619 1546 1581 1492 1515 1534 2106

VOILA!

This category - which is the actual recorded cause of death - includes covid-19 deaths, but it is a broad category of respiratory-related deaths which also includes many deaths which have nothing whatsoever to do with covid-19. Those 2141, 2477 and 2188 deaths registered in each of the first 3 weeks of 2020 were before there was even a single death from covid-19 in the UK! The average of the first 13 weeks is 1762, and the value for week 14 (2106) is only 344 more than that!

Also note that the deaths which "mention" covid-19 are 1369 greater (including car accidents, unrelated illness, etc) than the number of deaths caused by respiratory illnesses (including Covid-19), which already includes another 1500 to 1700 deaths not caused by covid-19!

This spurt of extra deaths registered in week 14 most certainly does not represent a sudden spurt of genuine covid-19 deaths - that is conclusively proven by the row of figures giving the underlying cause of death for each week's registrations.

If anything, the data may show a sudden spurt of deaths from other causes such as stress caused by the lockdown, food shortages, money shortages, unexpected homelessness, non-covid-19 illnesses not treated because the hospitals cancelled appointments and operations, stress, fear etc.

Such causes probably underlie at least a few of the unaccounted for excess deaths (conceaveably even most, perhaps), but it is also possible it is simply a statistical aberration and/or related to delays in registering deaths, including the unspecified effect of the Easter holidays on death registration. The aberration may also have been deliberate, to cover up government mishandling of the crisis, or it may result from staff shortages, or perhaps completely irrelevant reasons - we cannot know without detailed investigation of how the data were prepared and the patterns of death registration.

What is absolutely certain is that that twitter chart is unmitigated fake news deliberately designed to deceive .

The NYT is no better - completely non-sensical presentation of the data with no explanation of the meaning of the non-sensical presentation, deliberately designed to misrepresent.

Comments, B? Time to reconsider what you are doing?

I've been urging people to look more closely at what is happening, because the magicians have been very successful with their acts, recently. Things are not as they seem on the surface - you need to look more carefully at the small print.

That includes the details of lockdowns. Lockdowns kill, when they are done in the irresponsible and brutal and dishonest way they have been done in the UK and the USA.

China did NOT rely on lockdowns - they relied on an integrated combination of social distancing (including, where necessary, lockdowns, but mostly not , except in Hubei Province), tracing, and isolation of those infected or at risk.

Lockdowns as imposed by the UK and the USA are just suicide pacts, as described by Professor Sucharit Bhakdi, and are ineffective in dealing with covid-19.

[Apr 15, 2020] Wearing masks indoors in close quarters is prudent, while wearning them outside or inside a personal car when you drive alone is stupid and is a sign of the pandemic of panic

Notable quotes:
"... But it's especially outdoor behavior which gives psychological insight on the pandemic of panic. Yesterday I saw people walking alone on the sidewalk, for example a woman alone walking her dog, wearing masks. Evidently such people have regressed from the germ theory of infection to the miasma theory. They think the very air itself is the source of the bug. ..."
Apr 15, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Russ , Apr 15 2020 9:12 utc | 141

Wearing masks indoors in close quarters seems prudent, even though there's so much conflicting evidence and it's just as likely they're a stifling version of a rabbit's foot as that they confer any real protection.

But it's especially outdoor behavior which gives psychological insight on the pandemic of panic. Yesterday I saw people walking alone on the sidewalk, for example a woman alone walking her dog, wearing masks. Evidently such people have regressed from the germ theory of infection to the miasma theory. They think the very air itself is the source of the bug.

But the guy who instantly became my favorite representative of the whole hysteria (I wish I had a picture of him) was the idiot I saw perform an act of extremely dangerous jaywalking, dashing across a busy road with fast oncoming traffic both ways - wearing a mask.

[Apr 15, 2020] "Le microbe c'est rien, le milieu c'est tout" = the microbe is nothing, the environment is everything.

Apr 15, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Matthias , Apr 15 2020 9:16 utc | 142

Everyone seems fixated on the virus and how to protect against it. I remind you all of the famous proverb

"Le microbe c'est rien, le milieu c'est tout" = the microbe is nothing, the environment is everything.

Environment means the local conditions in the affected body, a combination of immune system and pre-existing illness.

We are facing a microbe that appears very dangerous in some places with case mortality 10..20% (heavily featured in the media and also in this blog), while in other places it does no more than a seasonal flu with overall mortality < 0.5%. This leads to two equally distorted biases: some people see the whole world as disaster area, some say there is no problem at all. One could question whether it is really the exact same virus, but I'm not going there.

Actually, with the proverb in mind we should be asking: what are the local conditions in the hotspots, what has weakened people's immune system in these places, and what kind of precondition exists there but does not exist in general. In simple words: why here and not there?
Not asking this question and focusing only on an alleged "killer virus" means you see a distorted picture and you would tend to roll out the same drastic protection lockdown measures everywhere, which suffocates the economy and culture unnecessarily and creates massive collateral. I'm in favor of a proportional response focusing on the hotspots, and otherwise teach people how to strengthen their immune system and protect themselves (voluntarily) if they see the need - of course they must have the means made available.

Known factors weakening the immune system and/or lungs:

1) Poor diet – the junk food (fast food, canned food, microwaved food) so typical of US and GB city dwellers. Without the necessary high-quality nutrition the immune system can only be weak. Natural vitamins and essential nutrients go very far in terms of virus protection.

2) Air pollution – Lombardia (Bergamo in particular) and NYC for example both suffer from high air pollution, and particularly in Manhattan the 9/11 event released a huge cloud of finest asbestos dust which caused a wave of lung cancer in the region and a lung precondition for everyone who was exposed at the time.

3) Negative emotions – intense anger and fear can reduce immune activity by 50% for several hours, as measured by IgA in the saliva. Likewise, positive emotions strengten it. Media have been feeding us shock and awe and disaster 24/7 for weeks now, you think that has no effect, think again. Check the amazing research done by HeartMath institute . Also, forced isolation and contact deprevation is wreaking havoc with people who love company or have psychic preconditions.

4) Radiation – there are hundreds of scientific papers on the non-thermal effect of low-energy microwave radiation on our physiology at cellular level, usually this medical research is ignored. An extensive linked collection is available by diagnose:funk (a German self-help society involving many M.D.s). Immune suppression is one of the effects. Where the COVID19 death toll is very high you have a dense WiFi and 4G coverage and yes, typically 5G pilot installations also exist. Most young people who died from COVID19 were working in IT companies and thus had very high exposure.

5) Vaccination – a vaccine protects from one specific virus but is known to weaken the immune system otherwise. North Italy is among the regions with the highest vaccination rate on this globe.

[Apr 15, 2020] COFFEE-FILTER FACE MASK

Apr 15, 2020 | caucus99percent.com

COFFEE-FILTER FACE MASK

What you need:

Two coffee filters
Two to three feet of craft ribbon or string
Tape

Keep the coffee filters nested. Place them with the cup side down.

Fold the bottom edges of the mask up about an inch (approximately 2-3 cm). Fold the top edge about a half inch (or about 1 cm).

Then fold the top over another half inch. This will make the top part of the mask slightly stiffer so it will hold the bend over your nose better.

Place the ribbon in the top and bottom troughs formed by the folded edges of the coffee filters. Tape the folded edges of the filters down to hold the ribbon in place.

Loop the ribbon over one ear and tie the free ends of the ribbon over the other ear to hold the mask in place over your face. Use a vertical piece of tape on the mask over each cheek to fit the mask to your face once you have put it on.

This mask will not stop lone viruses from getting through because the coffee filter is too porous. It will tend to block large droplets from coughing or sneezing. Droplets can contain huge numbers of viruses and be very infectious.

This mask is not nearly as good as a surgical mask, but better than nothing. It is much easier to wear a mask like this than to walk around holding a tissue in front of your face.

I found that I am sensitive to the odor of cheap masking tape but the cellophane tape was OK for me. Masks should be tested at home for comfort and allergens before trying to use them.

The coffee filters should be thrown away after the mask in used. Washing hands with soap and warm water will destroy the virus, so it is important to wash your hands after handling used masks. The roll of ribbon was 47 cents so this is not too expensive, but I plan on removing the ribbons and washing them in hot, soapy water to use again.

These coffee filter masks are easy to make, fit fairly comfortably and do not require sewing skills. Paper towels could probably be used to make masks but I do not use paper towels and am not about to brave the stores to wrestle other customers for the last roll. This virus can be destroyed by soap and water, acid and/or heat. It generally only survives a day or two on paper. If you cannot get enough coffee filters, leaving the mask in a hot car for a day should kill this virus. The hot-car treatment would not necessarily kill other germs that might be on the mask though.

[Apr 15, 2020] Covid-19 Research Updates- Chinese Study Reveals That Hypokalemia Present In Almost All Covid-19 Patients - Thailand Medical News

Apr 15, 2020 | www.thailandmedical.news

Covid-19 Research Updates: Chinese Study Reveals That Hypokalemia Present In Almost All Covid-19 Patients Source: Covid-19 Research Mar 09, 2020 1 month ago Covid-19 Research : A new research study by researchers from Wenzhou Medical University in Zhejiang province lead by Dr Don Chen revealed that almost all Covid-19 patients exhibited hypokalemia and that supplementation with potassium ions was one of the many factors that assisted in their recovery.

Hypokalemia is best described as low level of potassium (K+) ions in the blood serum. Mild low potassium does not typically cause symptoms. Symptoms may include feeling tired, leg cramps, weakness, and constipation. Low potassium also increases the risk of an abnormal heart rhythm, which is often too slow and can cause cardiac arrest.

It was found that as the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus attacks human cells via the ACE2 (Angiotensin- converting enzyme-2) receptors, it also attacks the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), causing low electrolyte levels in particularly potassium ions.

The study involving 175 patients in collaboration with Wenzhou Hospital found that almost all patients exhibited hypokalemia and for those who already had hypokalemia, the situation even drastically worsened as the disease progressed.

However, it was found from the study that patients responded well to potassium ion supplements and had a better chance of recovery.

The researchers noted that the end of urine K+ loss indicates a good prognosis and may be a reliable as a sensitive biomarker directly reflecting the end of adverse effect on RAS system.

The study has yet to be peer reviewed and has been published in the open platform medRvix : ( https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.27.20028530v1.full.pdf+html )

However, doctors at various hospitals in Wuhan, Shanghai and Guangdong have witnessed similar occurrences and also found that potassium ion supplementation helped patients towards recovery.

For the latest on Covid-19 research developments, keep checking at: Thailand Medical News

[Apr 15, 2020] Pretty ingeniou shopital trick: DIY Isopod with Negative Pressure and Air Scrubber

80% of infections happen in families when one member of the family became sick. Can be used in families with infected people. See also COVID-19 virus self isolation quarantine room at home using HEPA air filtration
Apr 15, 2020 | www.youtube.com

There are redymade isolation pods as well What does a Coronavirus isolation pod look like- - YouTube


0:24 / 7:28

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ht="100%" version="1.1" viewBox="0 0 36 36" width="100%">

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ht="100%" version="1.1" viewBox="0 0 36 36" width="100%"> DIY Isopod with Negative Pressure and Air Scrubber 4,917 views • Mar 25, 2020 93 0 SHARE SAVE HNMC Media 803 subscribers SUBSCRIBE How to make rooms negative pressure by using construction scrubbers with HEPA filters, and a DIY isopod using materials available in a local hardware store. If you would like to see a sample of these isopods - We will have one on display at Holy Name Medical Center in Teaneck, NJ 07666. Please email Steve Mosser to review Mosser@holyname.org

[Apr 13, 2020] Thoughts on the Gautret et al. paper about Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin treatment of COVID-19 infections

See also ISAC shares concerns about the Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin paper
Apr 13, 2020 | scienceintegritydigest.com
  1. Maisonneuve says: March 25, 2020 at 1:30 am Hello,
    This analysis is well done, as it's a very poor paper with plenty of conflicts of interests. The French context goes beyond the article. Too many non-scientists, mainly politicians, give opinions on radios and televisions. A well-known politician from Nice (Estrosi) took chloroquine for his coronavirus. He was cured in a few days without hospitalization.

    He gave interviews to explain that chloroquine was effective he is not the only politician with a media opinion on this treatment. Politicians and pseudo-science journalists comment on D Raoult's excellence, based only on the number of publications.

    In March 2020, D Raoult co-signed 5 papers in the International Journal of Antimicrobiol Agents ..

    There are too many fights in France about this publication, and the message that it is bad is not heard by the media.
    I suggest to read the 2012 D Raoult portrait in Science entitled 'Sound and fury in the microbiology lab'

    https://science.sciencemag.org/content/335/6072/1033.long

    Bonne journée
    Hervé Maisonneuve, MD, Paris

[Apr 13, 2020] China Cancels Gilead Study

Apr 13, 2020 | www.zerohedge.com

Beijing had shut down a branch of its closely watched global remdesivir that was studying patients in 'severe' condition in Wuhan. After showing early promise, the study was allegedly shuttered by the government because there weren't enough patients who qualified.

[Apr 13, 2020] Doctors Fear Coronavirus Survivors May Have Lasting Damage To Multiple Organs

Apr 13, 2020 | www.zerohedge.com

For the sickest patients, infection with the new coronavirus is proving to be a full-body assault, causing damage well beyond the lungs. And even after patients who become severely ill have recovered and cleared the virus, physicians have begun seeing evidence of the infection's lingering effects .

In a study posted this week, scientists in China examined the blood test results of 34 COVID-19 patients over the course of their hospitalization. In those who survived mild and severe disease alike, the researchers found that many of the biological measures had "failed to return to normal." - Los Angeles Times

One alarming observation have been test results indicating that recovered patients continue to have impaired liver function after patients had been cleared for discharge.

Another concern from cardiologists are the immediate effects of COVID-19 on the heart , raising questions over how long the damage may last. As the Times notes, "In an early study of COVID-19 patients in China, heart failure was seen in nearly 12% of those who survived, including in some who had shown no signs of respiratory distress. "

Heart damage can easily occur when the lungs cannot deliver sufficient oxygen to the body, however when this happens without respiratory distress, "doctors have to wonder whether they have underestimated COVID-19's ability to wreak lasting havoc," according to the report.

"COVID-19 is not just a respiratory disorder," according to Yale cardiologist Dr. Harlan Krumholtz, who added "It can affect the heart, the liver, the kidneys, the brain, the endocrine system and the blood system."

Of course, there are no long-term survivors of the disease - which was unknown to mainstream science less than five months ago. Even its first victims in China are just over three months removed from their ordeal, while physicians swamped with the ongoing pandemic have been too busy treating critical patients to closely monitor the some 370,000 patients classified as 'recovered.'

Still, doctors are worried that in its wake, some organs whose function has been knocked off kilter will not recover quickly, or completely . That could leave patients more vulnerable for months or years to come.

" I think there will be long-term sequelae ," said Yale cardiologist Dr. Joseph Brennan , using the medical term for a disease's downstream effects.

"I don't know that for real," he cautioned. "But this disease is so overwhelming" that some of the recovered are likely to face ongoing health concerns , he said. - Los Angeles Times

Meanwhile, questions have emerged over whether COVID-19 actually leaves the body - possibly lying dormant for years only to re-emerge later in a different form.

Several viruses already do this such as chicken pox - which can come back as shingles, and hepatitis B, which can cause liver cancer years after the primary infection clears up. Ebola is another example - hiding in the vitreous fluid of victims' eyeballs in some cases, causing blindness or impaired vision in 40% of survivors.

Of course, then there's the lungs - which the novel coronavirus tends to target first. In another closely related coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), around 1/3 of recovered patients had impaired lung function after three years - though they largely resolved over the next 15 years. And, 1/3 of those who survived Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) had permanent scarring of the lungs known as fibrosis.

According to a mid-March publication which tracked a dozen COVID-19 patients discharged from a Hong Kong hospital, two or three reported having difficulties with activities they had no problem performing in the past.

Dr. Owen Tsang Tak-yin, director of infectious diseases at Princess Margaret Hospital in Hong Kong, told reporters that some patients "might have around a drop of 20 to 30% in lung function" after their recovery.

Citing the history of lasting lung damage in SARS and MERS patients, a team led by UCLA radiologist Melina Hosseiny is recommending that patients who have recovered from COVID-19 get follow-up lung scans "to evaluate long-term or permanent lung damage including fibrosis."

As doctors try to assess organ damage after COVID-19 recovery, there's a key complication: Patients with disorders that affect the heart, liver, blood and lungs face a higher risk of becoming very sick with COVID-19 in the first place . That makes it difficult to distinguish COVID-19 after-effects from the problems that made patients vulnerable to begin with -- especially so early in the game. - Los Angeles Times

And while doctors and researchers are still discovering COVID-19's secrets, what they do know is that when patients show signs of infection, several organ systems are affected - and that when one begins to fail, others often follow. This is all wrapped in an inflammatory response, which can pry "plaques and clots from the walls of blood vessels and causing strokes, heart attacks and venous embolisms," according to the report.

Dr. Krumholtz, the cardiologist, says the infection can cause damage to the heart and the sac which encases it, causing heart failure and arrhythmias in some patients during the acute phase. This means that former COVID-19 patients can become lifelong cardiology patients after they 'recover' from the primary illness.

What's worse, blood abnormalities that can make clots more likely can persist as well.

In a case report published this week in the New England Journal of Medicine, Chinese doctors described a patient with severe COVID-19, clots evident in several parts of his body, and immune proteins called antiphospholipid antibodies .

A hallmark of an autoimmune disease called antiphospholipid syndrome , these antibodies sometimes occur as a passing response to an infection. But sometimes they linger, causing dangerous blood clots in the legs, kidneys, lungs and brain. In pregnant women, antiphospholipid syndrome also can result in miscarriage and stillbirth. - Los Angeles Times

Yale's Dr. Brennan says that at the end of the day, we just don't have enough data to make a long term prognosis for coronavirus patients.

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[Apr 13, 2020] How to Make (and Use) a Disinfectant Against Coronavirus

Apr 13, 2020 | www.nytimes.com

Complete disinfecting protocol includes four steps: Pre-cleaning, disinfecting (dwell time), wiping clean and rinsing with water. "But we're lucky if we get two," meaning dwell time and wipe-up, said Mark Warner, education manager at the Cleaning Management Institute, a provider of training and certification for professional cleaning services. Pre-cleaning is most important on heavily soiled surfaces, because dirt can shield pathogens underneath; it's fine to use soap and water or a household cleaner. Disinfecting for the proper dwell time, of course, is nonnegotiable. Wiping afterward is essential because disinfectants can leave a sticky residue where pathogens can quickly resettle. And rinsing finishes the process.

.... ... ...

Multiple sources give different bleach-to-water ratios for use with regular bleach. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that "unexpired bleach will be effective against coronaviruses" in a 1:48 solution (⅓ cup of bleach per gallon of water, or 4 teaspoons per quart). Clorox recommends a slightly stronger 1:32 ratio (½ cup per gallon or 2 tablespoons per quart). Mark Warner recommends a much stronger 1:10 ratio (about 1½ cups per gallon of water, or about ⅓ cup per quart). Some medical disinfectants are basically the same solution.

Whichever ratio you use, let it sit on the surface for 10 minutes: Warner told us that this is the Environmental Protection Agency's guideline for any new or unknown pathogen, and it is also the dwell time listed for the regular household bleaches on the E.P.A.'s List N, which means it is approved to eliminate the coronavirus when properly used.

Don't mix up more than you will use within a day or two. Bleach degrades fairly rapidly once taken from its original storage container, becoming less effective each day

[Apr 13, 2020] The danger of vaccines and Bill Gates activites

Apr 13, 2020 | caucus99percent.com

22 users have voted.

wendy davis on Sun, 04/12/2020 - 12:27pm

wooot!

via Gates Expert jacob levitch's twit account: April 09, 2020 , Gates' Globalist Vaccine Agenda: A Win-Win for Pharma and Mandatory Vaccination , RFK, Jr, Chairman, Children's Health Defense

[hope you won't mind if i paste it all in, CB.]

'Vaccines, for Bill Gates, are a strategic philanthropy that feed his many vaccine-related businesses (including Microsoft's ambition to control a global vaccination ID enterprise) and give him dictatorial control of global health policy.
Gates' obsession with vaccines seems to be fueled by a conviction to save the world with technology.

Promising his share of $450 million of $1.2 billion to eradicate Polio, Gates took control of India's National Technical Advisory Group on Immunization (NTAGI) which mandated up to 50 doses (Table 1) of polio vaccines through overlapping immunization programs to children before the age of five. Indian doctors blame the Gates campaign for a devastating non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (NPAFP) epidemic that paralyzed 490,000 children beyond expected rates between 2000 and 2017. In 2017, the Indian government dialed back Gates' vaccine regimen and asked Gates and his vaccine policies to leave India. NPAFP rates dropped precipitously.

In 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) reluctantly admitted that the global explosion in polio is predominantly vaccine strain. [?] The most frightening epidemics in Congo, Afghanistan, and the Philippines, are all linked to vaccines. In fact, by 2018, 70% of global polio cases were vaccine strain.

In 2014, the Gates Foundation funded tests of experimental HPV vaccines, developed by Glaxo Smith Kline (GSK) and Merck, on 23,000 young girls in remote Indian provinces. Approximately 1,200 suffered severe side effects, including autoimmune and fertility disorders. Seven died. Indian government investigations charged that Gates-funded researchers committed pervasive ethical violations: pressuring vulnerable village girls into the trial, bullying parents, forging consent forms, and refusing medical care to the injured girls. The case is now in the country's Supreme Court.

In 2010, the Gates Foundation funded a phase 3 trial of GSK's experimental malaria vaccine, killing 151 African infants and causing serious adverse effects including paralysis, seizure, and febrile convulsions to 1,048 of the 5,949 children.
During Gates' 2002 MenAfriVac campaign in Sub-Saharan Africa, Gates' operatives forcibly vaccinated thousands of African children against meningitis. Approximately 50 of the 500 children vaccinated developed paralysis. South African newspapers complained, "We are guinea pigs for the drug makers." Nelson Mandela's former Senior Economist, Professor Patrick Bond, describes Gates' philanthropic practices as "ruthless and immoral."

... ... ...

In addition to using his philanthropy to control WHO, UNICEF, GAVI, and PATH, Gates funds a private pharmaceutical company that manufactures vaccines, and additionally is donating $50 million to 12 pharmaceutical companies to speed up development of a coronavirus vaccine. In his recent media appearances, Gates appears confident that the Covid-19 crisis will now give him the opportunity to force his dictatorial vaccine programs on American children.'

[Apr 12, 2020] Tolstoy advice that is useful in regina of self-isolation

Apr 12, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Bruce , Apr 12 2020 13:39 utc | 10

"If, then, I were asked for the most important advice I could give, that which I considered to be the most useful to the men of our century, I should simply say: in the name of God, stop a moment, cease your work, look around you." Leo Tolstoy

[Apr 12, 2020] It is possible that the virus attack hemoglobin and ventilators are more harmful then useful

The guy claims that this is oxygen insufficiency and ventilator can cause ARDS.
Notable quotes:
"... COVID actually attacks hemoglobin causing hypoxia in the lungs ..."
Apr 12, 2020 | www.youtube.com

M , 6 hours ago

Question: Why the hell do all of you in the comments assume this guy is right, and literally every SINGLE other doctor and physician is wrong? Just because he's contradicting the consensus? He hasn't presented a shred of evidence apart from his "theories". How likely is it that literally nobody else agrees with him? Essentially zero. Why are you all jumping on this? Cause of some insane conspiracy that every physician in the world is part of some conspiracy to lie to you?

CaptTurbo , 2 days ago

The virus is attaching to the hemoglobin, breaking the iron free so the red blood cells can't carry oxygen. This guy is on the right track!

Richard Duarte , 1 day ago (edited) div tabindex="0" role

="article"> RT here. I'd consider using an esophageal balloon catheter and adjusting vent settings according to transpulmonary pressures. A lot of places are using ARDSnet protocol and this is a great start, but transpulmonary pressure monitoring is really the next step up to achieving optimal and safe ventilator settings. I have a high suspicion that if you place a balloon in a patient on ARDSnet setting, their PEEP would be suboptimal and their transpulmonary pressure will be negative, suggesting alveolar collapse with every breath, leading to atelectrauma and lung injury. I've had patients in APRV, placed a balloon and switched back to conventional ventilation with balloon guided settings, and have drastic improvements in both oxygenation and ventilation. Increasing PEEP to achieve PtpExp 0-5 to avoid alveolar collapse and adjusting tidal volumes/inspiratory pressures to maintain PtpInsp(Driving Pressure) <15 to avoid overdistention.

Will Kelly , 1 day ago

div>I tentatively suggest it may be worth researching Viagra as a possible treatment - Viagra causes the blood to flow more freely and more oxygen flow in the body - Viagra is commonly used by high altitude climbers to help them combat the severe lack of oxygen at high altitude - see my previous comments. Maybe Viagra could help get desperately needed oxygen in to the blood of Covid 19 patients and help save lives. It's definitely worth considering - as it is an existing approved drug that could easily be re-appropriated without lengthy clinical trials. At this point we have nothing to loose - if Viagra could possibly help, then it is tentatively worth looking in to. (Possibly Coca leaves too - as they are also used to help the body uptake oxygen at high altitude where there is very little oxygen - but I suppose Coca leaves would never get official approval) I would be very interested to hear peoples thoughts. Please read my previous comment for more info. Thank you for taking the time to read this.

Elizabeth Mitchell , 1 day ago (edited)

iv>Looks like the Covid19 has at least 3 stages of progression: Stage 1: fever, cough, diarrhea, headache, within 7-10 days of infection Stage 2: as disease gets deeper into the lungs, shortness of breath, low levels of oxygen by approximately day 11-15 days. At this point the Respirators helps patients Stage 3: at about 3 weeks. The patients are very sick, acute respiratory distress, shock, cardiac failure and death. Most probable, they are experiencing the effects of the 'Cytokine storm' due to the viral overload, and a massive release of cytokines, causing serious damage to the lungs, loss of lung function and fatal outcome.

GT380man , 2 days ago div class="comment-

renderer-text-content expanded">Thank you, doctor. I'm a recently retired PhD veteran of respiratory research out of pharma & biotech. I'm so relieved someone with credibility has finally called it correctly. I have friends in Italy I've known for decades through the medical/ research community. They've told me EXACTLY what you've found. Further, in some Italian case series, 97% died on ventilators. A similar case series given high oxygen CPAP often survived. Now imagine hundreds of elderly people, ill & having a positive covid19 PCR test, being put on transport ventilators attended by physicians inexperienced in ITU. I would not expect many to survive, but this is our "surge capacity" we've set up in UK.

Tracey Continelli , 6 days ago div class="c

omment-renderer-text-content expanded">This is exactly what I have been suspecting. This was recently published in Nature. "The results showed the ORF8 and surface glycoprotein could bind to the porphyrin, respectively. At the same time, orf1ab, ORF10, and ORF3a proteins could coordinate attack the heme on the 1-beta chain of hemoglobin to dissociate the iron to form the porphyrin. The attack will cause less and less hemoglobin that can carry oxygen and carbon dioxide. The lung cells have extremely intense poisoning and inflammatory due to the inability to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen frequently, which eventually results in ground-glass-like lung images." 1. The virus attaches to the hemoglobin via ORF8 (a protein) and glycoprotein. Hemoglobin is an iron rich protein that that allows red blood cells to carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. 2. This allows it to cut off the iron 3. This reduces the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide available to the lung cells. (it is well known that anemia causes shortness of breathe, for example, because your body does not get enough oxygen rich blood). 4. This results in intense poisoning and inflammation, which results in lung damage, the ground glass like lung images, and sometimes death. Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutation in the hemoglobin-Beta gene found on chromosome 11. Hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. Red blood cells with normal hemoglobin (hemoglobin-A) are smooth and round and glide through blood vessels. This may be why an anti-malaria drug like Plaquenil might be effective against this virus. Sickle cell anemia mutates the hemoglobin-Beta gene, which then provides protection from malaria. COVID-19 attacks the beta-hemoglobin. Doctor, I came to the same conclusion myself. Please pass this along to your colleagues. https://chemrxiv.org/articles/COVID-19_Disease_ORF8_and_Surface_Glycoprotein_Inhibit_Heme_Metabolism_by_Binding_to_Porphyrin/11938173/5?fbclid=IwAR1K50u0wRWhOCv0_rxS2_bYk7p3mT-OWX08GXaa0Tm13bzT8Wl8MYfTAI8

tobi foong , 1 day ago (edited)

There seems to be some evidence that hemoglobin is being disrupted and Iron ions are being released and the Free iron ions are poisoning the lung cell. this needs to be researched. Mitigated by providing O2 may be needed.

Paul Furber , 4 days ago

You are correct sir. COVID actually attacks hemoglobin causing hypoxia in the lungs : https://chemrxiv.org/articles/COVID-19_Disease_ORF8_and_Surface_Glycoprotein_Inhibit_Heme_Metabolism_by_Binding_to_Porphyrin/11938173

Emanuele Frati , 5 days ago

In Italy some (few) hospitals started using ozone therapy and the very first experiences are rather promising. I really hope that they can find an effective treatment of Covid-19.

Adriane C , 1 week ago

iv> TY-I posted this on my FB and am sharing with all the pulmonologists I know. You are spot on. Many of us nurses have had similar questions. Why is Vent to death rate nearly 2x faster with this than pneumonia? This is what I posted on my FB w your video. Please please keep talking - everyone please keep talking and being public. Doctors and nurses are the ones who will raise public awareness and create change and save lives. Nobody else. Seriously we are on our own. Our union nurses have been making the news daily. We need to continue to take over Social media and the news and use the public trust to advance care of our patients and protection for us (need PPE) and our families. "This is NOT pneumonia. I 100% agree with him. There's no other answer to the poor response and rapid decline with "traditional" treatment regimens. Please get this video out to all providers-especially ICU-Critical Care Providers-Pulmonologists- Infection Disease doctors. There has to be a different paradigm. Steroid use must be questioned. Suppression of febrile state must be questioned? Why not allow the immune response to run its course up to 40C? Pay attention to ACE2 receptor and microbiology of it's actions and role. Check out Med Cram or John Campbell on Youtube as well. They speak to the same questions. We are all learning and this is something totally new."

vitola1111 , 4 days ago

Malaria is also linked to hypoxia because the malaria parasite uses hemoglobin as a nutrient source. HCQ is effective in protecting the hemoglobin in the blood which is why it is showing success against COVID-19 as well.

eugene smetannikov , 3 days ago (edited) div tabindex="0" class="comment-renderer-text

" role="article"> There are four types of hypoxia: hypoxic, stagnant, anaemic and cytotoxic - as I am sure you know. If your theory is correct this would equate to anaemic hypoxia, but instead of lack of haemoglobin it would be dysfunctional. Similar, in a way, to CO poisoning: HB doesn't unload oxygen, so there is a tissue hypoxia without cyanosis. What you would see is normal or high pa02 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood) and discordantly low arterial haemoglobin saturation. On the other hand, if pa02 is low it indicates that the primary problem is pulmonary, that is oxygen does not diffuse across the alveolar membrane. If haemoglobin is the primary problem then blood transfusion would indeed improve the outcome. What is the typical blood gas like in these patients? I am in Australia, and we don't have many severe cases, luckily. From what get to the Internet I gather these patients are also hypercarbic. Which is the opposite of the altitude sickness, where a patients hyperventilates, causing hypocarbia and respiratory alkalosis, with consequent symptoms. Hence acetazolamide treatment. So, what's the typical arterial blood gas like in COVID patients? High pa02 and low Sa02? Both low? What's paCO2 like?

Roger Moore , 1 day ago

According to Chinese research, it's because the red blood cells are unable pick up oxygen, like malaria. Obviously, the cure would be to enable red blood cells to carry oxygen again - something a ventilator does not do. https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/must-read-research-reveals-that-covid-19-attacks-hemoglobin-in-red-blood-cells,-rendering-it-incapable-of-transporting-oxygen--current-medical-protoco

Richard W , 2 days ago

Your video was linked in this article which points to an interesting take on Covid-19 attacking red blood cell's ability to carry iron and thus oxygen. https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/must-read-research-reveals-that-covid-19-attacks-hemoglobin-in-red-blood-cells,-rendering-it-incapable-of-transporting-oxygen--current-medical-protoco

Global Agenda , 4 days ago

Thank you for covering this doctor. I am sharing. I noticed that they have not rushed to put Boris Johnson on a ventilator and Dr. Oz brought up the ventilator issues on a recent broadcast. There are not enough qualified personnel running these machines throughout the States and that is a cause for concern because as you have noted they need to be monitored and adjusted accordingly. Stay safe. We have your back.

maarit gneleah , 3 hours ago (edited) div tabindex="0" role

="article"> Video: Ari Whitten speaks with Scott Antoine, MD -- a board-certified emergency physician and a functional and integrative medicine doctor about the latest findings on COVID-19: A potential breakthrough on COVID-19 treatment." Show Notes: The difference between ARDS and COVID-19 ( 0:59 ) The danger of the cytokine storm ( 8:28 ) How COVID-19 may not be a respiratory condition ( 16:20 ) The pros and cons of ventilators ( 25:13 ) Why Methylene blue shows promise for treating COVID-19 ( 31:00 ) Other potential factors that could help COVID-19 treatment ( 47:33 ) How Vitamin C works in COVID-19 treatment ( 55:09 ) https://www.theenergyblueprint.com/blue/?inf_contact_key=7c7cb8a0e1a3404449b49e79b5046d61d18a532c4142cb79caf2b269de1401fa

Phred Ziphell , 1 day ago (edited) div tabindex="0" role="a

rticle"> Fantastic analysis, backed by a prospective explanation. I'm a physician in upstate NY and confirm Dr. Kyle-Sidell's observations. HFNC (high-flow nasal cannula) appears to be a good intermediary between typical face-mask O2 and traditional ventilators .. but these machines are not in widespread use. Optiflow by Fisher & Paykal https://www.fphcare.com/us/hospital/adult-respiratory/optiflow/ and Hi-VNI Precision Flow by Vapotherm https://vapotherm.com/hi-vni-technology/ are two companies that make these units. I have no financial interests in either of these companies.

PAiL Awareness Campaign , 3 days ago div tabindex="0" role=

"article"> The symptoms of individuals presenting with suspected "CoVid 19" are similar to individuals with radiation sickness. What is your experience with treating radiation sickness? Have you attempted to utilize radiation sickness treatment protocol to address the symptoms you are witnessing in individuals presenting with suspected "CoVid 19"? You feedback is appreciated, thank you in advance. https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/radiation-sickness

Nurse C , 1 day ago div c

lass="comment-renderer-text-content expanded"> You are right. My hospital has a 0% success rate using ventilators on covid patients. These patients can be sitting comfortably talking to you on a non-rebreather with no use of accessory muscles and have a pulse ox of 75%. They appear to have no issue moving air into and out of the lungs like you would see if it were ARDS. They all have horribly high ferritin levels and go into kidney failure long before their respiratory system crashes.

This virus destroys the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood through the iron binding sites of the red blood cells. So what then is the solution?

Mijagi1976 , 1 hour ago

iv> This is from CDC web site (description of malaria): Severe malaria occurs when infections are complicated by serious organ failures or abnormalities in the patient's blood or metabolism. The manifestations of severe malaria include the following: Cerebral malaria, with abnormal behavior, impairment of consciousness, seizures, coma, or other neurologic abnormalities Severe anemia due to hemolysis (destruction of the red blood cells) Hemoglobinuria (hemoglobin in the urine) due to hemolysis Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), an inflammatory reaction in the lungs that inhibits oxygen exchange, which may occur even after the parasite counts have decreased in response to treatment Abnormalities in blood coagulation Low blood pressure caused by cardiovascular collapse Acute kidney injury Hyperparasitemia, where more than 5% of the red blood cells are infected by malaria parasites Metabolic acidosis (excessive acidity in the blood and tissue fluids), often in association with hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose). Hypoglycemia may also occur in pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria, or after treatment with quinine. Severe malaria is a medical emergency and should be treated urgently and aggressively. Now, what we have at hand is viral malaria type disease. Same symptoms. Now, BIll Gates was working on the cure for malaria, right? Maybe he found something else. Malaria and COVID 19 both respond well to HCQ. You guys make your own conclusions.

Jim Chin , 3 days ago (edited) div tabindex="0" role="artic

le"> With regards to Hypoxia and Covid-19 ask hemotology Has erythrocytapheresis been tried with super saturated 2,3,BPG erythrocytes as temporary solution or test before ventilation ?. Has hematological study been done on the extracted old erythrocytes ? 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate effects oxygen affinity significantly https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1977.tb10002.x https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/327846 So anywhere along the way or lowering adenosine and/or inosine concentrate reduces 2,3 Bisphoglycerate . Virus replication maybe sucking up or modifying adenosine https://www.cell.com/cell-host-microbe/pdf/S1931-3128(17)30201-9.pdf https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub28618265med/ in the erythrocyte or be affecting the A2A receptor https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_A2A_receptor https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6168195/ . This accounts for the effect seen. In the affected erythrocytes, O2 is not binding and not delivering O2 to the tissues and organ. It will be important to look at the 2,3 Bisphoglycerate concentration or A2A receptors. It maybe cause of the hypoxia and tissue damage. Not breathing or neurological symptoms may really be CNS or respiratory nerve of Bell (,root C5, C6, C7) infections by Sars-coV2 https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.22.20026500v1.full.pdf , https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32104915 https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/breaking-news-coronavirus-can-also-attack-the-nervous-system,-causing-neurological-conditions-and-even-viral-encephalitis Hopefully , they can find the answer for you and help change protocol

Larry Hawes , 3 days ago

Did you ever wonder if the disease itself gets a foothold because of the oxygen saturation level of the patients involved? Could it be that the most severely compromised already have lowered oxygen levels? Certainly exacerbated by COVID-19 but perhaps initiated by initial lowered oxygen levels?

SapereAude , 4 days ago

Dr Bill Deagle of Nutrimedical Report recently said in his broadcast that COVID-19 is like a high altitude sickness - just as you've concluded Dr Kyle-Sidell. Dr. Bill Deagle (a bit rough around the edges yet brilliant) claims to have treatment solutions that are effective. Perhaps you should contact him immediately and have a conversation. It may steer the course to brighter outcomes for us all. God speed! 🇺🇸

david77james , 1 day ago

Good, but so few doctors have the nuts to speak out as this physician did. Treating Lungs, when the lungs ARE WORKING FINE and only get damaged by the ventilator. It's blood disease, where hemoglobin is destroyed and cannot deliver oxygen to the organs. We need Hydroxychloroquine widely distributed as a preventative AND CURE, and open up our society again!! FIRE FAUCI!

Kathy C , 3 hours ago

Red blood cell destruction - oxygen transport problem ... similar to Malaria rendering Red cells non functional - QUININE

SMG Scorpion , 1 day ago div tabindex="0" role="articl

e"> You must clear out the phlegm in both lungs first. This virus consumes & breaks down lung cells to replicate itself. As more cells are consumed more pinkish phlegm will continue to form inside both lungs and blocking the air. Eventually the lungs will be liquefied. Put down that American pride and start working with the Chinese experts to SAVE LIVES. Enough time has been wasted on playing the blame game https://covid-19.alibabacloud.com/

Nurse Judy , 3 days ago div tabindex="0" role="artic

le"> ARDS, oxidative stress, PAP.( Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis), " It has been proposed that lower iron saturation of Tf decreases iron-mediated oxidative stress and rescues respiratory failure [89,90]. Secondary PAP can accompany infection, particle exposure and malignancies [38], most of which are associated with altered iron homeostasis. Together, a remarkable relationship between PAP and iron metabolism exists" " it has been proposed that the presence of pro-oxidant iron in lung epithelial fluid may contribute to susceptibility to oxidative damage [28]. Lavage fluid of ARDS patients has elevated levels of total and nonheme iron as well as cellular content of Tf, ferritin and Lf [86]. This indicates impaired pulmonary homeostasis of iron in ARDS, although it is unclear whether this is due to general increase in membrane permeability or altered iron metabolism." ARDSAcute Respiratory Distress SyndromeBALBronchoalveolar LavageDcytbDuodenal cytochrome bDMT1Divalent Metal Transporter 1FPNFerroportinLfLactoferrinLfRLactoferrin ReceptorNramp1Natural Resistance-associated Macrophage Protein 1PAPPulmonary Alveolar ProteinosisRBCRed Blood CellsTfTransferrinTfRTransferrin Receptor I copied and pasted exerpts from the study. Interesting Read between correlation of Iron Homeostasis / Regulation and ARDS, Lung Inflammation etc https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5718378/

Wolf Moon , 6 days ago div tabindex="0" role="article"

> Cameron - I'm a retired scientist and former climber who got this disease back in January (classic symptoms, including shortness of breath - now permanent), and what you are describing is EXACTLY what I thought. I have been telling people that "I'm permanently stuck at 7000 feet in the Colorado Rockies". I sleep worse just like when I was in the mountains. Very lucky I'm not at 11,000 feet - that would not have been long-term survivable for me. I can likely live 10-20 more years with this, if it doesn't progress, but I have a feeling that it DOES PROGRESS. I don't think the virus is gone. It seems like it's still there. Quinine and zinc helped me AFTER recovery, but the side effects of quinine are nasty, so I'm taking a break. I had to get MacGyver and self-treat because I'm supposedly cured and can't get HCQ/AZM/Zn and my doc is not a specialist, etc. Nobody knows how to deal with this, so my fellow online researchers are working constantly on understanding (wqth.wordpress.com). We think a lot of us got it - two of us had intermediate cases like mine (no hospitals). Would love to get into a study.

Jan Beute , 2 days ago

You are the first colleague that also seems to have discovered that COVID-19 is not an ordinary viral pneumonia. I think I may know how to prevent respiatoy failure in an early phase and therefore no need for mechanical ventilation.

WillsDuffy , 1 week ago (edited) div tabindex="0" role=

"article"> Hi Doctor. My experience of COVID-19 over the last 4 weeks precisely as you are describing. I instinctively felt when I got it that it was not what the experts described. I could feel through my knowledge with my body that the problem with my system as it started to breakdown was in the drop in the oxygen levels being the main source of my distress. The way I got COVID-19 the symptoms of fever, dry cough, aches and pains were such that they did not distract from the main problem itself which was my system not taking in oxygen, I have been trying to puzzle this out during my recovery and I definitely think that as your explain it here it is the case with how the COVID-19 virus takes down the individual. You must forge ahead with this. Let me offer an example in my own treatment of this ... I deliberately removed certain remedies I was using like Vit C for a period of time to see what the effect would be then I returned to a regime of taking it and the oxygen in-take into my system returned and my system improved with the simple increase of Vit C I felt my oxygen intake improve and I felt immediately less stressed. Also, a constriction in the back of my throat alongside my swallowing action indicated to me when my system was struggling with oxygen intake levels moving up and down. I definitely do agree with your findings here from my experience of being a victim of this Virus in a significant way.

Paincakes , 1 day ago

I've been sick for 22 days, this makes sense to me. I have no cough, no fever, and feel like I'm running out of air.

JerryHFreeman , 6 days ago div tabindex="0" role="arti

cle"> Email from another doctor in New York City to a colleague: "We have zero success story for patients who were intubated. Our thinking is changing to postpone intubation to as long as possible, to prevent mechanical injury from the vent. "Those patients tolerate arterial hypoxia surprisingly well. Natural course seems to be the best. Yesterday did not intubate patient with 86% [blood oxygen saturation percentage] on non re breather ( gave the best sat, desated on CPAP). Today he is sating 96%. If he would have been intubated, he will be dead in three days."

hock wah hoo , 2 days ago

High frequency low volume ventilation to reduce baro trauma

Karen Robenstine , 5 days ago div tabindex="0" role="artic

le"> Doctor Ming Lin an emergency room doctor with 17 years of experience was fired for going public about poor hospital room safety and shortage of medical supplies and PPE. He was employed by a physician staffing firm at Joseph Medical Center in Bellingham,Washington. A third of hospital emergency rooms are staffed by 2 physician staffing companies TeamHealth and Envision Healthcare, owned by Wall Street investment firms. Patients and insurance companies then can be overcharged for needed emergency care. Blackstone's owner of Teamhealth CEO, Stephan Schwarzman a part of the president's circle would not want an employee to express information contrary to the political rhetoric of the current administration. The navy relieved Captain Brett Cozier for also sounding the alarm about lack of medical supplies and supplies. Do not be naive enough to believe money and power trumps the wellbeing of the citizens of this country.

Steve Stark , 3 days ago

Could it not be an IHA reaction, also associated with the vulnerabilities to Covid? Suppress that response and allow more time to overcome viral replication.

jaggafeen , 4 days ago

Tracey Continelli1 day ago This is exactly what I have been suspecting. This was recently published in Nature. "The results showed the ORF8 and surface glycoprotein could bind to the porphyrin, respectively. At the same time, orf1ab, ORF10, and ORF3a proteins could coordinate attack the heme on the 1-beta chain of hemoglobin to dissociate the iron to form the porphyrin. The attack will cause less and less hemoglobin that can carry oxygen and carbon dioxide. The lung cells have extremely intense poisoning and inflammatory due to the inability to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen frequently, which eventually results in ground-glass-like lung images." 1. The virus attaches to the hemoglobin via ORF8 (a protein) and glycoprotein. Hemoglobin is an iron rich protein that that allows red blood cells to carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. 2. This allows it to cut off the iron 3. This reduces the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide available to the lung cells. (it is well known that anemia causes shortness of breathe, for example, because your body does not get enough oxygen rich blood). 4. This results in intense poisoning and inflammation, which results in lung damage, the ground glass like lung images, and sometimes death. Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutation in the hemoglobin-Beta gene found on chromosome 11. Hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. Red blood cells with normal hemoglobin (hemoglobin-A) are smooth and round and glide through blood vessels. This may be why an anti-malaria drug like Plaquenil might be effective against this virus. Sickle cell anemia mutates the hemoglobin-Beta gene, which then provides protection from malaria. COVID-19 attacks the beta-hemoglobin. Doctor, I came to the same conclusion myself. Please pass this along to your colleagues. https://chemrxiv.org/articles/COVID-19_Disease_ORF8_and_Surface_Glycoprotein_Inhibit_Heme_Metabolism_by_Binding_to_Porphyrin/11938173/5?fbclid=IwAR1K50u0wRWhOCv0_rxS2_bYk7p3mT-OWX08GXaa0Tm13bzT8Wl8MYfTAI8 Bob Sapp20 hours ago Tracey Continelli I'm trying to understand why the anti-malaria drug would work. Are you saying the drug will mutate our hemoglobin and then the virus wouldn't be able to attach itself to our red blood cell? Tracey Continelli11 hours ago (edited) @Bob Sapp YES. Before the Nature article came out, multiple studies have been done showing that the anti-malaria drug Plaquenil alters the intracellular structure. One article I found stated that it had the ability to alter the protein structure. If this is true - and based on the article in Nature, the virus attaches itself to the PROTEIN on the outside of the red blood cells - then it is effectively PREVENTING the virus from attaching itself to the proteins and glycoproteins on the red blood cells, where it then "kicks out" the iron ion, which then prevents the lung cells from getting the necessary oxygen, which then causes the respiratory distress and damaged lungs that clinicians are seeing. Tracey Continelli10 hours ago (edited) I'm a health researcher and college professor. Hydroxychloroquine is hypothesized to be exerting a multi-pronged effect on this virus. One, by altering the cellular structure, it can make it difficult to replicate and reproduce itself. Two, it can make it difficult to attach to the red blood cell wall and kicking out the iron ion, causing the deprivation of oxygen to the lungs and patients becoming hypoxemic. Three, as someone noted, because it dampens down the immune system (it is given to patients with lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, both of whom have hyperactive immune system) it should lower the risk of a cytokine storm. Sermo just conducted a study of over 6000 physicians around the world, asking them what treatments for COVID-19 they had used, and which they considered to be the most promising. Sermo regularly surveys physicians around the world, it is an established organization. As a professor/researcher I was able to access the data myself and ran the numbers. Excluding already approved treatments, such as Tylenol, antibiotics, etc, I isolated ONLY the four experimental treatments and computed the percentages. Here they are: Hydroxychloroquine - 49% Anti-HIV retrivirals - 30% Plasma - 8% Remdesivir - 13% Sermo computed the percentages differently by including other drug treatments, but still found that hydroxychloroquine was rated as most effective. https://www.sermo.com/press-releases/largest-statistically-significant-study-by-6200-multi-country-physicians-on-covid-19-uncovers-treatment-patterns-and-puts-pandemic-in-context/?fbclid=IwAR36GA79oiUF5cuCjuweV2pqys0Eneu6AAbqoOfikK1PgYepVvLP1tKC5cc

James Grove , 2 hours ago div tabindex="0" role="articl

e"> Thoughts on COVID-19 Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Intervention Posted on Quora on 5/10 in response to the video. Quora: Does Covid-19 really cause ARDS? Dr. Cameron Kyle-Sidell questions treating COVID-19 with the present medical paradigm of ARDS. ........ "We should consider that part of the pathophysiological mechanism of COVID-19 is resulting from an acquired hemoglobinopathy or dyshemoglobinemia" .

Mark Hartman , 4 days ago

Dr. Kyle-Sidell, if you haven't read this article - even though it is anonymous - you may want to. It has a rational, NON-RESPIRATORY explanation for the hypoxic symptoms in your patients, and a simple test of its conclusions would be to give a patient a single unit of packed cells. http://web.archive.org/web/20200405061401/https://medium.com/@agaiziunas/covid-19-had-us-all-fooled-but-now-we-might-have-finally-found-its-secret-91182386efcb

Dan Ecklund , 4 days ago

I think this may answer some of your questions about oxygenation vs ventilation. https://archive.is/ONUmi#selection-183.0-183.75 Says that CV causes the iron to dissociate from the heme groups, causing dysfunctional hemoglobin. And the Fe+++ causes massive oxidative damage. That is why intravenous Vitamin C has been so effective at avoiding the cytokine storm. Even explains chloroquine effect. Highly recommended.

[Apr 11, 2020] Ventilators their use and misuse

Apr 11, 2020 | www.healthline.com

Ventilator-associated lung injury - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ventilator-associated_lung_injury Ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) is an acute lung injury that develops during mechanical ventilation and is termed ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) if it can be proven that the mechanical ventilation caused the acute lung injury. In contrast, ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) exists if the cause cannot be proven.

When & How Medical Ventilators Are Needed https://www.healthline.com /health/ventilator A ventilator can cause lung damage. This can happen for several reasons: too much pressure in the lungs ; pneumothorax (air leaks into space between the lungs and chest wall)

Here's What Happens to the Body After Contracting the ... https://www.healthline.com /health-news/heres-what-happens-to-the-body-after-contracting-the-coronavirus These cause damage to the lungs , which leads to fluid leaking from small blood vessels in the lungs . The fluid collects in the lungs' air sacs, or alveoli. This makes it difficult for the lungs ...

Coronavirus in the Lungs : What Does COVID-19 Really Do to ... https://www.webmd.com /lung/what-does-covid-do-to-your-lungs COVID-19 is a serious respiratory disease, but how does it really affect your lungs if you get infected? Here's what coronavirus can do to your lungs in mild- to -moderate, severe, and critical cases.

Here's the Damage Coronavirus (COVID-19) Can Do to Your Lungs https://health.clevelandclinic.org /heres-the-damage-coronavirus-covid-19-can-do-to-your-lungs/ Here's the Damage Coronavirus (COVID-19) Can Do to Your Lungs . New evidence shows how coronavirus (COVID-19) can damage your lungs , leading to severe respiratory issues.

Ventilator/Ventilator Support | National Heart, Lung , and ... https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov /health-topics/ventilatorventilator-support Using a ventilator also can put you at risk for other problems, such as: Pneumothorax (noo-mo-THOR-aks). This is a condition in which air leaks out of the lungs and into the space between the lungs and the chest wall. This can cause pain and shortness of breath, and it may cause one or both lungs to collapse. Lung damage.

Side Effects of Being Intubated | Healthfully https://healthfully.com /side-effects-of-being-intubated-3715884.html Collapsed Lung . Damage or perforation of internal organs within the chest during intubation can lead to lung collapse in certain people. A collapsed lung , also called pneumothorax, can result in additional side effects such as cough, severe, stabbing chest pain, or shoulder or back pain.

Coronavirus and the lungs : Does COVID-19 cause more severe ... https://www.cleveland.com /coronavirus/2020/03/coronavirus-and-the-lungs-does-covid-19-cause-more-severe-pneumonia-or-ards-than-other-viruses.html Coronavirus and the lungs : Does COVID-19 cause more severe pneumonia or ARDS than other viruses? ... but it's clear the most serious cases involve severe respiratory symptoms that can damage a ...

Coronavirus: What is acute respiratory distress syndrome ... https://www.usatoday.com /story/news/health/2020/03/19/coronavirus-what-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-ards/5066412002/ ‎Mar‎ ‎19‎, ‎2020 The reaction can cause small blood vessels in the lung to leak fluid and fill up the alveoli, which are tiny air sacs in the lung that process oxygen, according to the American Lung Association ...

COVID-19 tough on lungs , can cause difficult- to -treat ... https://www.upi.com /Health_News/2020/03/26/COVID-19-tough-on-lungs-can-cause-difficult-to-treat-pneumonia/5651585241656/ ‎Mar‎ ‎26‎, ‎2020 March 26 (UPI) -- The COVID-19 pandemic started in Wuhan, China, as a cluster of unusually severe pneumonia cases of unknown cause. Now that the disease has spread globally, the lungs continue to ...

[Apr 11, 2020] DOES COVID-19 REALLY CAUSE ARDS?

Ventilator settings wrong
Apr 11, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org
dltravers , Apr 11 2020 1:18 utc | 100
Another doctor comes forward...
FROM NYC ICU: DOES COVID-19 REALLY CAUSE ARDS??!!

I thought it might be some guy making a fake video but I guess not...
Ventilator settings wrong

[Apr 11, 2020] The difference between lockdown and contact tracing

Apr 11, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

c1ue , Apr 10 2020 17:12 utc | 20

Not lockdown - contact tracing and testing ( Atlantic source )
In Italy, two similar regions, Lombardy and Veneto, took different approaches to the community spread of the epidemic. Both mandated social distancing, but only Veneto undertook massive contact tracing and testing early on. Despite starting from very similar points, Lombardy is now tragically overrun with the disease, having experienced roughly 7,000 deaths and counting, while Veneto has managed to mostly contain the epidemic to a few hundred fatalities.

[Apr 11, 2020] Wet market is partially "fresh food" market

Hygienic standards are difficult to enforce in both.
Apr 11, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org
Antoinetta III , Apr 10 2020 17:49 utc | 34
At Gruff, #3

"Wet markets really are just farmers' markets that also happen to sell fresh fish (thus the "wet" part of their label) and poultry and sometimes beef and pork."

"Readers can display how susceptible they are to mass media driven hysteria and jingoism and perhaps also reveal unacknowledged racism by insisting that there is something fundamentally different about Asian farmers markets from the local ones they themselves shop at for the freshest foods. "

I would respond that the fact that our local farmers markets don't generally sell the "wet" stuff is in and of itself a "fundamental difference." If there are disease-vector issues with wetmarkets, the issue will likely have originated in the "wet" part of the market.

Antoinetta III

Miss Lacy , Apr 10 2020 17:54 utc | 37

PS re the wet market bs. Let's all grow up. Nearly every coastal town I've ever visited on four continents has a "wet market" i.e. tanks full of shell fish or crayfish or lobsters. There are plenty of places you can buy a live chicken and have it cut up. In souther murka they do love their trotters - i.e. pig's feet (gross in my opinion.) sea urchins any one? How about sea slugs? There's a tasty meal. I know, let's just call it a "fresh food" market. Hmmm?

With the deepest respect for your inner beauty. Cheers.

[Apr 10, 2020] All Americans asked to wear cloth masks while in public

Apr 10, 2020 | www.washingtontimes.com

The U.S. surgeon general on Sunday trumpeted the administration's new recommendation that all Americans wear cloth masks in public, a reversal of its previous advice as the country braces for a dramatic surge in COVID-19 cases and potential fatalities this week.

"The next week is going to be our Pearl Harbor moment. It's going to be our 9/11 moment. It's going to be the hardest moment for many Americans in their entire lives," Vice Admiral Jerome Adams warned on NBC's "Meet the Press," as he made rounds of political talk shows.

The push to wear masks follows updated guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It is not mandatory but masks offer added protection against spreading the coronavirus, especially when people cannot practice 6-foot social distancing.

[Apr 10, 2020] Effective home-made mask insert/liner material: Two brands of cheap widely available blue shop towels are found to work great

Apr 10, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

gm , Apr 10 2020 15:54 utc | 2

Re: Effective home-made mask insert/liner material: Two brands of cheap widely available blue shop towels are found to work great: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNDE12HymYc (starts at minute 31:20).

Re: bubonic plague in Mongolia. Sporadic human Yersinia pestis infections have been endemic in American Southwest for many years.

[Apr 10, 2020] Tucker: In crisis, nothing is more important than staying connected to reality

Highly recommended!
Tucker comments on Fauci above face with estimating the number of deaths: first around 3 million, not less then 60K.
Hospitals are staying half empty. So much for Fauci flattening the curve efforts
Apr 10, 2020 | www.youtube.com

Mike Jordan , 14 hours ago

Being "connected" is a huge part of the cause of this mess, before internet propaganda was limited to newspapers and magazines, it was much slower and manageable.

Don Nix , 9 hours ago

I do find it funny how wealthy folks spread the "don't worry WE will all be fine" garbage. WE....no, tell that to someone who has lost their business and has dependents.

Karel Moulík , 10 hours ago

When everything can be solved by propaganda it's time for revolution.

Massive-Headwound Harry , 12 hours ago

I hate the "We're going to be ok. We're all in this together" ads. All of them celebrities, pro athletes, and actors. Not one has to worry about whether they'll be able to buy food next week. Elites telling the little people everything's ok.

Joe Shaloom , 14 hours ago

It's really sad when Tucker Carlson is the only person who ever admitted he was wrong on Fox News. Hannity still claims he never called the virus a hoax even though he did it on TV.

[Apr 10, 2020] Hydroxchloroquinine is toxic if combined with metformin. Diabetics who take it beware.

Apr 10, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

c1ue , Apr 9 2020 17:27 utc | 110

Hydroxchloroquinine is toxic if combined with metformin. Diabetics who take it beware.
source
Note the link above also lists all of the known drug interactions of HCH with other drugs - there are 332 total of which 59 are considered "major".

[Apr 10, 2020] Fauci had previously supported the use of Hydroquinone for similar virus. What changed?

Apr 10, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

jared , Apr 8 2020 13:41 utc | 26

On the subject of who does our government serve:
https://www.zerohedge.com/health/why-did-fauci-cheer-use-untested-drug-coronavirus-2013-now-hes-skeptical

Fauci had previously supported the use of Hydroquinone for similar virus. What changed? However, to the matter of Israel and the virus:
I thought they were having strangely little impact from virus.

Anyway, this is all very revealing.

You know how people always question:
Why did that woman remain in that abusive relationship?


c1ue , Apr 8 2020 14:44 utc | 36

@jared #26
I don't consider anything coming out of ZH to be credible until verified.
Fauci has been very consistent: he is cautious about whether hydroxychloroquinine is a efficacious treatment for nCOV/COVID-19.
Note there are multiple levels of potential use:
1) The drug doesn't hurt/kill you. At normal levels, HCH passes this test but the levels it has been used at to treat nCOV - they're much higher than existing anti-malaria/malaria preventative/rheumatoid arthritis use.
At these higher levels, it isn't clear how safe HCH is - particularly for really old people who are the primary nCOV at risk group.
2) Does the drug decrease negative outcomes? i.e. maybe it doesn't cure (which it shouldn't) but it makes it less likely that nCOV infected get pneumonia or worse. This would be fantastic but it is 100% unproven.
3) Does the drug cure? By itself or with other things like the antibiotic azithromycin? There have been studies saying yes - but I look at a couple - and they're frankly poor studies. To me, it is very unclear.

Hydroxychloroquinine/chloroquinine phosphate shows promise as a way to treat nCOV in its early stages, but this is so far completely unverified. Nor do we know what the optimal dosage might be to balance between known risks and side effects induced by HCH use vs. optimal nCOV impact.

I've gotten a prescription sufficient for a couple of courses, but am not taking it as a preventative (nor is there any proof it actually works this way).

Lots of people taking HCH as a preventative when it doesn't work or as treatment when dosages/outcomes aren't known *will* increase the likelihood that nCOV will evolve resistance against it, so it isn't like side effects are the only bad outcome to uninformed use.

gottlieb , Apr 8 2020 15:04 utc | 38
The Trump regime's goal is only ever to enrich themselves through the Presidency. Reportedly, Kushner's National Stockpile has been, uh, stockpiling Hydroxychloroquine as the President has been snake-oiling it. As the USA is become completely privatized it is not hard to arrange government contracts to middle-man the stockpile to its needy 'customers.'

And I can't believe all the raging antisemites here. Surely the Israelis have procured all those masks to help out those poor Palestinians for whom they care so deeply.

Finally; can we see the endgame? Whip up a worse-case scenario of fear mongering that our leaders miraculously save us from, yet institute a 'new normal' ripped from the pages of Orwell to protect us from the 'next time' which they promise is a matter of when not if.

Don Wills , Apr 8 2020 15:37 utc | 41
@38 - Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine are not sufficient by themselves for treating COVID-19. CQ and HCQ create a pathway for zinc ions to get inside the cells to disrupt the coronavirus replication. It's the zinc that actually is the medicine. See this study for details - https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21079686/

[Apr 10, 2020] The more I read about ventilators, the more sure I am that I do not want one if I get sick from the evil virus.

Apr 10, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

Trailer Trash , Apr 8 2020 22:20 utc | 73

With all the endless hand-wringing regarding ventilators, this article deserves much more attention:

With ventilators running out, doctors say the machines are overused for Covid-19


Even as hospitals and governors raise the alarm about a shortage of ventilators, some critical care physicians are questioning the widespread use of the breathing machines for Covid-19 patients, saying that large numbers of patients could instead be treated with less intensive respiratory support.

If the iconoclasts are right, putting coronavirus patients on ventilators could be of little benefit to many and even harmful to some.

What's driving this reassessment is a baffling observation about Covid-19: Many patients have blood oxygen levels so low they should be dead. But they're not gasping for air, their hearts aren't racing, and their brains show no signs of blinking off from lack of oxygen.


The more I read about ventilators, the more sure I am that I do not want one if I get sick from the evil virus.

susan , Apr 9 2020 5:35 utc | 92

Trailer Trash @ 73

My understanding is that currently the UK has a 50% mortality rate of Covid sufferers who've been put on ventilators. They started using CPAP masks several weeks ago according to Dr. John D. Campbell UK. Much less invasive.

Interesting link you share -- it mentions acute symptoms are more like altitude sickness, with low 02 but CO2 still being cleared

[Apr 09, 2020] And b has posted previously directions for making masks. The advantage is you can throw them in the washing machine to clean, or even hand wash as they are small items

Highly recommended!
Apr 09, 2020 | www.moonofalabama.org

juliania , Apr 8 2020 15:04 utc | 37

My daughter who is a hospital worker showed me her mask, made by her sister. And b has posted previously directions for making masks.

While homemade or even professional surgical mask do not protect the wearer from all particles they do protect one much better from them than when one wears no mask at all.

A person rarely gets infected by just one virus particle. They come in millions attached to tiny droplets. We do not know yet how the dose of the novel coronavirus that infects a person affects the intensity of the disease. But we do know from other viruses that the dose matters. People who catch a higher dose of viruses will usually have a more intense disease. A mask can lower the virus load the wearer may receive.

One can improvise a mask from simple household objects. One can sew a mask like a surgeon does in this video . This is my preferred model which is officially recommended by German fire departments. (The pdf is in German but the pictures tell the story). This is the mask I made by following those instructions.


bigger

It is made of a folded sheet cut from a triangular arm-sling out of an old first-aid kit. A HEPA microfilter (as used in a vacuum cleaners) is in between the folded sheet. A piece cut from a clean bag for vacuum cleaners will do as well. Do not use a sheet or insert that is too tight to breathe through. If one does that the air will come in from the sides of the mask and the total protection effect will be less. It can be arduous to breathe through such a mask. If you have breathing problems leave the insert out. The sheets alone are already good protection. There is a piece of wire from a big paper clip fixed inside the middle of the upper seam to fit the mask tightly around the upper nose. The lower part goes under the chin. I shaved my beard to make it a tighter fit. As I had no sewing equipment I used a stapler to fix the seams and the ribbons.

The HEPA filter catches particles down to 0.3 micrometer. Viruses are some 125 nanometer in diameter so they are smaller and could slip through. But the viruses are attached to some droplet that are bigger. HEPA filter are essentially labyrinths of small fiber and the viruses would have to bounce multiple times to get through. Finally the dose also matters.

To clean the mask of potential viruses I put it into the oven for 30 minutes at 70C (158F).

The science says that masks work. Everyone should use one. #MaskUp!

The advantage is you can throw them in the washing machine to clean, or even hand wash as they are small items.

The masks in question here, surgical ones, being only meant to protect the patient from the practitioner, seem somewhat flawed in any case.

Better to make better ones; let the Israelis have those not so good ones. A great gift from a family member to their hardworking sibling.

There ought to be an industrial production plant producing the cloth masks with disposable inserts - how about taking over a diaper factory - a lot of folk still use the cloth ones - have such been totally outsourced? (I'd make 'em deluxe, organic cotton only! But for us home bodies, an old sheet well washed, suitably patterned is better than nothing at all.)

[Apr 09, 2020] What temperature should you wash your clothes to kill viruses and bacteria Express.co.uk

Soap disintegrates viral lipid coating in less then a minute and the virus collapses. So even warm water might be OK
Apr 09, 2020 | express.co.uk

Dr Beckmann spokeswoman Susan Fermor revealed a wash at 60C is enough.

She said: "There's a common misconception that people should wash clothes on the hottest possible setting to kill bacteria, but it's unnecessary.

"Tests have proven that washing your clothes at 60C, with a good detergent, is perfectly adequate to kill bacteria.

"Just make sure that you check all garments are suitable to be washed at this temperature before putting them in the washing machine and take care not to ruin your clothes by boil washing."

... ... ...

The NHS said people should keep these items separately from those bearing the virus.

They released the following advice:


[Apr 09, 2020] Covid-19 Can 'boosting' your immune system protect you

Notable quotes:
"... You might also like: ..."
"... Read more about what evidence exists for the idea that spices can affect your health , and how hot drinks will not protect you from Covid-19 ). ..."
"... Unfortunately, the idea that pills, trendy superfoods or wellness habits can provide a shortcut to a healthy immune system is a myth. In fact, the concept of "boosting" your immune system doesn't hold any scientific meaning whatsoever. ..."
"... In this case, the mucus helps to flush out the pathogen, the fever helps to make your body an uncomfortably hot environment in which it's harder for it to replicate, and the aches and general malaise are by-products of the inflammatory chemicals that course through your veins, telling immune cells what to do and where to go. (These symptoms also help signal to your brain that it's time to slow down and let your body recover). ..."
"... There is no evidence that vitamin supplements will protect you from infections, unless you are deficient (Credit: Reuters) Making the other aspect of immunity – the adaptive immune system – generally more active could also be extremely unpleasant. For example, allergies occur when overzealous immune cells learn to treat innocuous foreign bodies, such as pollen, as though they are harmful. Each time they find the offending substance, they switch on the innate immune response too – cue lots of sneezing, itchy eyes and general fatigue. Again, this is probably not what the people championing these remedies have in mind. ..."
"... If you're healthy, forget supplements – except vitamin D ..."
"... Many multivitamins claim to provide "immune support" or to help "maintain healthy immune function". But as BBC Future reported in 2016, vitamin supplements generally don't work in already healthy people – and some may even be harmful. ..."
"... there is little evidence to support vitamin C's mighty reputation for helping us to fight off colds and other respiratory infections. A 2013 review by Cochrane – an organisation renowned for its unbiased research – found that in adults "trials of high doses of vitamin C administered therapeutically, starting after the onset of symptoms, showed no consistent effect on the duration or severity of common cold symptoms". ..."
"... high doses of this vitamin can lead to kidney stones . ..."
"... Brightly coloured fruits and vegetables tend to contain the most antioxidants, because the compounds are often pigmented (Credit: Getty Images) In the developed world, most people get enough vitamins from their diets (unless they are restricted – vegans, for example, are more likely to have certain deficiencies ). However, there is one exception – vitamin D. Iwasaki explains that taking this supplement wouldn't be a bad idea. ..."
"... In fact, many immune cells can actively recognise vitamin D, and it's thought to play an important role in both the innate and acquired immune response – though exactly how remains a mystery. ..."
"... (Read more about who needs to take vitamin D and why ). ..."
"... And we get some of our reserves of these compounds from our diets. Brightly coloured fruits, vegetables and spices tend to contain the most, because antioxidants are often pigmented: they give carrots, blueberries, aubergines, red kale, turmeric, and strawberries their hues. ..."
"... Wellness products aside, there are some approaches you can ..."
Apr 09, 2020 | www.bbc.com

Forget kombucha and trendy vitamin supplements – they are nothing more than magic potions for the modern age. "Spanish Influenza – what it is and how it should be treated," read the reassuringly factual headline to an advert for Vick's VapoRub back in 1918 . The text beneath included nuggets of wisdom such as "stay quiet" and "take a laxative". Oh, and to apply their ointment liberally, of course.

The 1918 flu pandemic was the most lethal in recorded history , infecting up to 500 million people (a quarter of the world's population at the time) and killing tens of millions worldwide.

But with crisis comes opportunity, and the – sometimes literal – snake oil salesmen were out in force. Vick's VapoRub had stiff competition from a panoply of crackpot remedies, including Miller's Antiseptic Snake Oil , Dr Bell's Pine Tar Honey, Schenck's Mandrake Pills, Dr Jones's Liniment, Hill's Cascara Quinine Bromide , and A. Wulfing & Co's famous mint lozenges. Their adverts made regular appearances in the newspapers, where they starred alongside increasingly alarming headlines.

Fast-forward to 2020, and not much has changed. Though the Covid-19 pandemic is separated from the Spanish flu by over a century of scientific discoveries, there are still plenty of questionable medicinal concoctions and folk remedies floating around. This time, the theme is "boosting" the immune system.

Of the rumours currently circulating on social media, one of the more bizarre is the idea that you can raise your white blood cell count by masturbating more. And as always, nutritional advice abounds. This time, we're being encouraged to seek out foods rich in antioxidants and vitamin C (back in 1918, the public were told to eat more onions), while pseudoscientists are peddling trendy products such as kombucha and probiotics .

You might also like:

According to one source, cayenne pepper and green tea can provide better protection against Covid-19 than face masks – a bold and highly dubious claim, considering that some face masks reduce your risk of contracting respiratory viruses by a factor of five. ( Read more about what evidence exists for the idea that spices can affect your health , and how hot drinks will not protect you from Covid-19 ).

There's no such thing as boosted immunity

Unfortunately, the idea that pills, trendy superfoods or wellness habits can provide a shortcut to a healthy immune system is a myth. In fact, the concept of "boosting" your immune system doesn't hold any scientific meaning whatsoever.

"There are three different components to immunity," says Akiko Iwasaki, an immunologist at Yale University. "There's things like skin, the airways and the mucus membranes that are there to begin with, and they provide a barrier to infection. But once the virus gets past these defences, then you have to induce the 'innate' immune response." This consists of chemicals and cells which can rapidly raise the alert and begin fighting off any intruder. An Italian advert for a remedy during the 1918 flu pandemic (Credit: Getty Images)

The 1918 flu pandemic was an opportunity for snake oil salesmen to market their useless - and sometimes harmful - products (Credit: Getty Images)

"When that is not enough, then we kick in the adaptive immune system," she says. This involves cells and proteins – antibodies – which take a few days or weeks to emerge. Importantly, the adaptive immune system can only target particular pathogens. "So, for example, a T-cell specific to Covid-19 will not respond to influenza or bacterial pathogens."

Most infections will trigger adaptive immunity eventually. But there's another way to get it going, and that's vaccination: exposing the body to live or dead microbes, or parts of them, can help the body to identify the real deal when it comes along.

The concept of "boosting" a person's immune system would, presumably, involve making these responses more active, or stronger.

In actuality, you wouldn't want to do this.

Take the symptoms of a cold – body aches, a fever, brain fog, copious amounts of snot and phlegm. Most of these problems aren't actually caused by the virus itself. Instead, they're triggered by your own body, on purpose: they're part of the innate immune response.

Many "immunity-boosting" products claim to reduce inflammation
In this case, the mucus helps to flush out the pathogen, the fever helps to make your body an uncomfortably hot environment in which it's harder for it to replicate, and the aches and general malaise are by-products of the inflammatory chemicals that course through your veins, telling immune cells what to do and where to go. (These symptoms also help signal to your brain that it's time to slow down and let your body recover).

The mucus and chemical signals are part of inflammation, which is the bedrock of a healthy immune response . But the process is exhausting, so you wouldn't want to have it turned up to 11 all the time. And most viruses, including Covid-19, will trigger it anyway. If kombucha, green tea or any of the various "immune-boosting" concoctions on the market really had any impact, they wouldn't give you a healthful glow: they'd give you a runny nose.

Ironically, many "immunity-boosting" products claim to reduce inflammation. Empty vitamin shelves in a supermarket (Credit: Reuters)

There is no evidence that vitamin supplements will protect you from infections, unless you are deficient (Credit: Reuters) Making the other aspect of immunity – the adaptive immune system – generally more active could also be extremely unpleasant. For example, allergies occur when overzealous immune cells learn to treat innocuous foreign bodies, such as pollen, as though they are harmful. Each time they find the offending substance, they switch on the innate immune response too – cue lots of sneezing, itchy eyes and general fatigue. Again, this is probably not what the people championing these remedies have in mind.

But let's give those saying you can "boost" your immune system the benefit of the doubt and assume they mean that certain products can improve the immune response in a useful way – rather than literally "boost" it.

"The problem is that many of these claims have no grounding in evidence," Iwasaki says. So what are they based on – and is there anything that can help?

If you're healthy, forget supplements – except vitamin D

Many multivitamins claim to provide "immune support" or to help "maintain healthy immune function". But as BBC Future reported in 2016,